Health Care > EXAM > NEW RPSGT EXAM- 2022 Study Guide and Practice Test with complete solutions (All)

NEW RPSGT EXAM- 2022 Study Guide and Practice Test with complete solutions

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The purpose of an intentional mask leak is to... - ANSWER Wash out CO2 and prevent rebreathing Recommended guidelines state that HSV can be considered when.... - ANSWER Cheyne Stokes and central Ap... neas have not been eliminated. What is aerophagia? - ANSWER The swallowing of air What is maxillomandibular advancement? - ANSWER Treatment that involves cutting and advancing the upper and lower jaw bones; enlarging and stabilizing the posterior airway. What is the PRIMARY function of the EPAP setting? - ANSWER To eliminate desaturations and arousals. According to guidelines, how many Hypopneas need to occur in peds pts prior to increasing pressure? - ANSWER 1 What are the AASM guidelines for supplemental O2 during PAP studies? - ANSWER 1lmp during PAP titration when SPO2 is less than or equal to 88% for 5 or more minutes and in the absence of obstructive events. If a pts Apneas are fixed at 10cm, but Hypopneas and snoring still occur at 16cm, what levels of BiLevel should be used? - ANSWER IPAP: 14 EPAP: 10 Which of the following can reduce the effectiveness of CPAP and why: Nasal spray, Alcohol, Anti depressants. - ANSWER Alcohol: impairs arousal response which can lead to longer than normal events and severe desats. Inhibits upper airway activity What syndrome would a pt with COPD and OSA have? - ANSWER Overlap syndrome What are hypoxemia and hypercapnia? - ANSWER Hypoxemia: very low 02 in the blood Hypercapnia: very high CO2 in the blood. What would a patient with both hypoxemia and hypercapnia most likely be diagnosed with? - ANSWER Hypoventilation What is an MWT's MOST important use? - ANSWER Measure patients ability to resist the urge to fall asleep Tricyclic antidepressants, large amounts of caffeine and large amounts of chocolate have been known to trigger what? - ANSWER REM sleep behavior disorder Recommended impedance for eeg and eog - ANSWER 5k ohms The amount of space needed to archive digitized data is MOST impacted by? - ANSWER Sampling rate Cortical activity is best described as - ANSWER Spontaneous arousal Calculate the AHI based on the following data 25 obstructive apneas 5 central apneas 23 mixed apneas 15 hypopneas 48 RERAS 65 arousals 360 min of sleep - ANSWER 11 According to RECOMMENDED guidelines, the minimum duration of a significant leg movement is - ANSWER .5 According to RECOMMENDED guidelines, an optional parameter to include in the report for an adult polysomnogram is - ANSWER Occurrence of hypoventilation during the diagnostic study in adult The respiratory event that requires oxygen desaturation and/ or an arousal as part of the scoring criteria is - ANSWER Obstructive hypopnea An ECG arrhythmia commonly seen when recording PSG's, particularly in patients that have obstructive sleep apnea and cardiac disease. It can be identified by the morphology of an irregularly irregular ventricular rhythm associated with replacement of consistent P waves by rapid oscillations that vary in size, shape, and timing - ANSWER Atrial fibrillation The stage that is the greatest portion of the epoch - ANSWER The stage that is the greatest portion of the epoch What is the best response when a patient asks the technologist if they have sleep apnea and will need to wear a CPAP mask? - ANSWER Provide the patient with educational material about sleep apnea Which of the following is the MOST LIKELY cause of a 35 minute REM latency - ANSWER Untreated depression A breathing pattern characterized by at least three cycles of crescendo breathing with duration of at least 10 minutes is - ANSWER Cheyne Stokes respiration An important responsibility of the scoring tech is to - ANSWER Confirm accuracy of report components Which type of calibration is based on a series of patient instructions intended to verify the signal response and quality - ANSWER Physiological The most important reason for performing a MWT is to - ANSWER Measure the patient's ability to resist the urge to fall asleep The importance of selecting sampling rates according to RECOMMENDED guidelines is to - ANSWER Minimize aliasing effect The syndrome characterized by prolonged episodes of severe hypoxemia and associated PaCO2 elevation that worsens during sleep is - ANSWER Obesity hypoventilation The patient's medical history indicates the patient has been taking tricyclic antidepressants for the past 5 years. The technologist should anticipate that the patient may have an increased likelihood of - ANSWER REM Sleep Behavior Disorder According to RECOMMENDED guidelines, the sampling rate to provide the optimal resolution for recording EEG in a patient with suspected nocturnal seizure is - ANSWER 500Hz The electrode located 30% above the left pre-a crease is - ANSWER C3 According to RECOMMENDED guidelines, four nap opportunities on a MSLT would be acceptable when the patient - ANSWER Had REM on at least two nap opportunities A patient's history indicates a diagnosis of overlap syndrome. The tech can anticipate that the patient has - ANSWER COPD AND OSA ACCORDING TO RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES, WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING SHOULD BE INCLUDED WHEN RECORDING PEDIATRIC PATIENTS - ANSWER END-TIDAL CO2 THE ABILITY TO REMONTAGE WHILE RECORDING ON DIGITAL EQUIPMENT IS THE RESULT OF - ANSWER SYSTEM REFERENCING WHEN REVIEWING A PATIENT'S HISTORY IN PREPARATION FOR A POLYSOMNOGRAM, PHYSIOLOGIC FINDINGS SUGGESTIVE OF HYPOVENTILATION INCLUDE - ANSWER HYPOXEMIA AND HYPERCAPNIA WHEN THE AMPLITUDE OF A SIGNAL EXCEEDS THE PHYSICAL LIMITATIONS OF A CHANNEL THE MOST IMPORTANT ADJUSTMENT THE TECH CAN MAKE TO OPTIMIZE WAVEFORM DISPLAY IS TO - ANSWER DECREASE SENSITIVITY WHEN INTERMITTENT 60 HZ ACTIVITY OCCURS IN THE F4-M1 ELECTRODES DURING REM SLEEP THE BEST IMMEDIATE ACTION WOULD BE TO - ANSWER RELY ON F3-M2 A PATIENT WITH MILD DEMENTIA BECOMES MORE CONFUSED AND/OR AGITATED IN THE EARLY EVENING. THE PATIENT IS MOST LIKELY EXPERIENCING - ANSWER SUNDOWNING THE MOST COMMON METHOD TO MONITOR BLOOD OXYGEN SATURATION DURING POLYSOMNOGRAPHY IS - ANSWER PULSE OXIMETRY THE MOST APPROPRIATE ACTION A TECHNOLOGIST WOULD TAKE WHEN THERE IS CONFIRMED VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA GREATER THAN 30 SECONDS IS - ANSWER INITIATE EMERGENCY RESPONSE SYSTEM A PATIENT'S CHART INDICATES THAT THEY USE 30 L/MIN OF OXYGEN AT HOME. THE TECH NOTES THAT THE PHYSICIAN'S ORDERS FOR THE PSG SPECIFIES THE STUDY WITHOUT SUPPLEMENTAL OXYGEN AND TO ADD 1.0 L/MIN OXYGEN IF THE SATURATION IS LESS THAN 89%. THE BEST ACTION FOR THE TECH IS TO - ANSWER CALL THE PHYSICIAN FOR CONFIRMATION WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS THE MOST LIKELY EFFECT OF ZOLPIDEM AND ZALEPLON ON SLEEP ARCHITECTURE - ANSWER INCREASED SLEEP LATENCY WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING BEST DESCRIBES A REFERENTIAL MONTAGE - ANSWER THERE IS POTENTIAL FOR ELECTRODE CONTAMINATION ACCORDING TO RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES, THE DEVICE THAT SHOULD BE USED TO MONITOR AIRFLOW AND DETECT APNEA DURING A DIAGNOSTIC STUDY IS - ANSWER ORONASAL THERMAL SENSOR WHICH PROCESS WOULD BE AN ADEQUATE ROUTINE FOR DISINFECTING CUP ELECTRODES AFTER REMOVING ADHESIVE RESIDUE, GEL AND ORGANIC MATERIAL, AND WASHING IN WARM WATER AND MILD DETERGENT - ANSWER SOAKING IN 1: 10 BLEACH AND WATER FOR 10 MIN. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING WOULD BE MOST IMPORTANT TO DOCUMENT DURING A POLYSOMNOGRAM - ANSWER POSITION CHANGES THE ELECTRODE ARRAY USED FOR RECORDING PHYSIOLOGIC ACTIVITY IS REFERRED TO AS - ANSWER MONTAGE ACCORDING TO RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES, THE MAXIMUM ELECTRODE IMPEDANCE FOR EEG AND EOG RECORDING IS - ANSWER 5000 OHMS ACCORDING TO RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES, UNATTENDED PORTABLE MONITORING CAN BE USED AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO IN LAB TESTING WHEN - ANSWER THERE IS A HIGH PROBABILITY OF MODERATE TO SEVERE OSA WITHOUT COMORBID CONDITIONS A SELF REPORTING TOOL USED TO EVALUATE SUBJECTIVE SLEEP QUALITY AND DISTURBANCE OVER THE PREVIOUS MONTH IS - ANSWER PITTSBURGH SLEEP QUALITY INDEX THE MOST APPROPRIATE SETTING A TECHNOLOGIST WOULD USE TO CONTROL THE FREQUENCY BAND OF WAVEFORMS ON A RECORDING IS THE - ANSWER (LOW FILTER (HIGH PASS FILTER) WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING CAN NEGATIVELY IMPACT ALL BIOELECTRIC CHANNELS - ANSWER CONTAMINATED M1 WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING SUBSTANCES CAN REDUCE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PAP THERAPY - ANSWER ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES A PATIENT THAT INTENTIONALLY ENGAGES IN BEHAVIORAL PATTERNS THAT ARE INCONSISTENT WITH SLEEPING WELL IS DEMONSTRATING - ANSWER INADEQUATE SLEEP HYGIENE WHAT IS THE BEST TOOL THAT A PHYSICIAN COULD USE TO MORE CLEARLY EXPLAIN THE RESULTS OF THE SLEEP STUDY AND THE IMPORTANCE OF THERAPY TO A PATIENT - ANSWER HISTOGRAM REAL TIME ACCESS TO PAP COMPLIANCE DATA IS AN EXAMPLE OF - ANSWER EFFICACY MONITORING A PROCESS TO DECREASE FEAR OF ARTIFICIAL CIRCUMSTANCES BY REPEATED AND CONTROLLED EXPOSURE TO A FEARED SITUATION IS - ANSWER DESENSITIZATION WHAT HAS THE LARGEST IMPACT ON ADHERENCE TO PAP THERAPY - ANSWER PATIENT EDUCATION WHICH STATEMENT IS TRUE REGARDING CPAP - ANSWER THERE IS ONE LEVEL OF PRESSURE FOR INSPIRATION AND EXPIRATION SLEEP DEBT CAN BEST BE DESCRIBED AS THE - ANSWER CUMULATIVE EFFECT OF INSUFFICIENT SLEEP ACCORDING TO RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES FOR PEDIATRIC CPAP TITRATION, HOW MANY HYPOPNEAS MUST OCCUR PRIOR TO INCREASING PRESSURE - ANSWER ONE EXCESSIVE WARMING AND HUMIDIFICATION WILL CAUSE - ANSWER WATER TO POOL IN THE CPAP TUBING MAXILLOMANDIBULAR ADVANCEMENT TREATS OSA BY - ANSWER ENLARGING AND STABILIZING THE UPPER AIRWAY IN PATIENTS WITH SEVERE SLEEP-DISORDERED BREATHING THE MOST COMMONLY SEEN RESPONSE RESULTING FROM SUCCESSFUL PAP TITRATION IS - ANSWER REM AND SLOW WAVE REBOUND WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS MOST LIKELY TO OCCUR DUE TO AN IMPROPERLY FITTING PAP INTERFACE? - ANSWER CONJUNCTIVITIS WHEN A PATIENT COMPLAINS OF CLAUSTROPHOBIA, IS UNABLE TO TOLERATE PAP AND REQUESTS TO END THE PSG, THE NEXT BEST STEP IS TO - ANSWER SCHEDULE DESENSITIZATION A PATIENT REPORTS A COMPLETE NASAL OBSTRUCTION PRIOR TO PAP TITRATION. THE TECH SHOULD - ANSWER USE A ORO-NASAL INTERFACE THE BEST CANDIDATE FOR ORAL APPLIANCE WOULD HAVE - ANSWER MILD OSA DURING STAGE N2 SLEEP, THE PATIENT CHANGES POSITION AND THE TECH NOTES INCREASED SNORING AND AN INCREASING LEAK. THE TECH SHOULD - ANSWER REPOSITION AND ADJUST PAP INTERFACE ACCORDING TO RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES, CPAP SHOULD BE INCREASED AT AN INTERVAL NO LESS THAN - ANSWER 5 MINUTES THE PRIMARY FUNCTION OF EPAP IS TO - ANSWER MAINTAIN UPPER AIRWAY PATENCY THROUGH INSPIRATION BASED ON THE PSG RESULTS BELOW, WHAT WOULD BE THE BEST RECOMMENDATION FOR A PATIENT THAT IS NON-COMPLIANT AND REFUSES TO CONTINUE WITH CPAP THERAPY OVERALL AHI 8 OVERALL REM AHI 38 SUPINE REM AHI 28 SUPINE NREM AHI 21 LATERAL NREM AHI 1 LATERAL REM 3 - ANSWER POSITION THERAPY THE BEST METHOD FOR DETECTING APNEAS AND HYPOPNEAS DURING PAP TITRATION IS TO USE A/AN - ANSWER AIRFLOW SIGNAL GENERATED BY THE PAP DELIVERY DEVICE THE PRIMARY BENEFIT OF HEATED HUMIDIFICATION IS TO - ANSWER HELP REDUCE NASAL CONGESTION A SIDE EFFECT OF CPAP IS - ANSWER AEROPHAGIA THE MOST COMMON REASON FOR CHANGING THE PAP INTERFACE DURING A TITRATION IS - ANSWER UNACCEPTABLE LEAK VALUE WHAT IS THE RECOMMENDED STARTING PRESSURE FOR PEDIATRIC AND ADULT CPAP TITRATION - ANSWER 4 CMH2O THE PURPOSE OF INTENTIONAL LEAK IS TO - ANSWER WASH OUT CO2 AND PREVENT REBREATHING DURING CPAP TITRATION AT 10 CM H2O, SPO2, VALUES RANGE BETWEEN 80 AND 85% FOR 10 MIN DESPITE ABSENCE OF RESPIRATORY EVENTS. WHAT IS THE BEST ACTION FOR THE TECH TO TAKE - ANSWER FOLLOW PROTOCOL FOR SUPPLEMENTAL OXYGEN ACCORDING TO RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES, ADAPTIVE SERVO VENTILATION CAN BE CONSIDERED DURING A TITRATION STUDY WHEN A DOWN TITRATION - ANSWER HAS NOT ELIMINATED CHEYNE STOKES RESPIRATION OR CENTRAL EMERGENT APNEAS DURING A TITRATION STUDY THE PATIENTS APNEAS ARE ELIMINATED AT 10 CM H2O BUT HYPOPNEAS AND SNORING CONTINUE AT 16 CM H20. ACCORDING TO RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES, THE APPROPRIATE PRESSURES TO BEGIN A BILEVEL TITRATION ARE - ANSWER IPAP 10 EPAP 14 DURING A CPAP TITRATION AT 15 CM H20, THE PATIENT IS RESTLESS AND CONTINUES TO HAVE FREQUENT OBSTRUCTIVE RESPIRATORY EVENTS. THE BEST ACTION IS TO - ANSWER CHANGE TO BI LEVEL DC Channel - ANSWER PSG channel derived from an external piece of equipment such as a PAP device or oximeter. Stray Capacitance - ANSWER When electrical signals from external sources interfere w/ signals derived from the pt. Amperes are measured in what units? - ANSWER Coulombs/second Time Axis - ANSWER Horizontal positioning of the pen. Common Mode Rejection - ANSWER The process by which a differential amplifier rejects identical inputs (unwanted signals). Mechanical Baseline - ANSWER Pen's vertical position when the power to the PSG is turned off. Electrical Baseline - ANSWER The vertical positioning of the pen w/ power of PSG turned ON. Capnometer - ANSWER A device used to measure the level of CO2 in a sample of air. Frequency - ANSWER Measured in hertz(Hz) or cycles/second. Paper Speed for PSG - ANSWER 10 mm/sec When a pt. looks towards an EOG electrode it causes what? - ANSWER A positive charge, or downward deflection. Rise Time - ANSWER Amount of time it takes for a wave to reach 63% of its peak. Sensitivity Setting for EEG Channel - ANSWER 7uV/mm or 70uV/cm *In pt.'s w/ low amplitude EEGs, the sensitivity can be adjusted to 5uV/mm or 50uV/cm Filter Settings for Respiratory Effort & Airflow - ANSWER LFF= 0.1Hz HFF= 15Hz Filter Settings for EOG - ANSWER LFF= 0.3Hz HFF= 35Hz High Level Disinfection - ANSWER Used for items that come into contact w/ non-intact skin, blood, and mucous membranes. DO THE NAPS OCCUR EVERY 2 HOURS FROM THE TIME THE PREVIOUS NAP ENDED OR EVERY 2 HOURS ON THE HOU R OR HALF-HOUR? - ANSWER Every 2 hours on the hour or half hour. HOW LONG BEFORE A NAP BEGINS SHOULD THE SUBJECT CEASE SMOKING? - ANSWER 30 minutes WHAT EPOCH SIZE IS BEST FOR RECORDING THE "MSLT"? - ANSWER 30 seconds. A MEAN SLEEP LATENCY OF INDICATES WHAT? - ANSWER Pathological sleepiness. A normal mean sleep latency is how many minutes? - ANSWER 10 - 20 minutes How many naps must have unequivocal periods of REM to arrive at a Diagnosis of Narcolepsy? - ANSWER 2 naps. What is the Narcoleptic Tetrad? - ANSWER Excessive daytime sleepiness, hypnagogic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, cataplexy. How is the mean sleep latency calculated? - ANSWER Sum of all latencies, divided by total# of naps. During REM, inhibition of thermoregulatory mechanisms lead to what state? - ANSWER Poikilothermia. What equation best expresses time constant? - ANSWER TC= C x R TC=Time Constant C= Capacitance R= Resistance What sleep stage requires at least 20% but no more than 50% of the epoch to consist of wave of 2 cps or slower w/amplitudes greater than 75 uV. - ANSWER Stage 3. AN EPOCH THAT DOES NOT MEET THE CRITERIA FOR ACTIVE SLEEP OR QUITE SLEEP IS CALLED WHAT? - ANSWER Intermediate Sleep TRACE ALTERNANT PATTERN IS ASSOCIATED WITH WHAT STAGE OF SLEEP IN THE INFANT? - ANSWER Quiet Sleep (NREM Sleep) INFANT BREATHING PATTERNS THAT ALTERNATES REGULAR BREATHING WITH 5-10 SECONDS OF APNEA? - ANSWER Periodic Breathing. REM OCCUPIES WHAT PERCENTAGE OF SLEEP IN THE NEONATE AT TERM? - ANSWER 50%. A FUNCTION THAT EXPRESSES THE FREQUENCY OF EYE MOVEMENTS PER UNIT TIME DURING SLEEP STAGE REM? - ANSWER REM Density. KNOW AS THE PACEMAKER FOR MAMMALIAN CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS? - ANSWER Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN). A COMPLAINT OF MORNING HEADACHES ASSOCIATED WITH SEVERE SLEEP APNEA IS A RESULT OF WHAT? - ANSWER Severe oxygen desaturation and hypercapnia (Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the blood). Pre-Sleep Interviews - ANSWER conducted by sleep technicians who ask questions to clarify information and make careful observations of the patient such as, willingness to learn, mental age, physical limitations, etc. Sleep Diary - ANSWER Patient keeps a record of sleep habits for 2 weeks preceding the test. The sleep diary generally has two components: Before Sleep and After Sleep. Pre-sleep Questionnaire - ANSWER standardized form that reviews issues related to sleep, but tech asks additional questions for clarification, as needed. The questionnaire determines if the patient's preceding 24 hrs was normal for that individual. Bed-Partner Questionnaires - ANSWER Filled out by the patient's bed partner (or roommate or parent in some cases) with the patient's permission. The partner typically is aware of snoring or periods of apnea even though the patient may not be aware. Morning Questionnaire - ANSWER Takes place in the morning after PSG; May come in the form of a checklist, or the tech may ask specific questions regarding sleep quality,onset to sleep time,number of arousals,TST,Differences between sleeping at home and in lab, and Sleepiness upon awakening.-If pt reports sleep was very different from home, repeat PSG may be warranted. Morning/Evening Questionnaires - ANSWER asks 19 questionnaires about time preferences to determine if patient is a morning,evening, or neutral person. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness - ANSWER increasing societal problem related to lack of adequate sleep, causing the patient to feel sleepy during the waking hours to the point that the patient may fall asleep or feel the need to nap. Fatigue - ANSWER General feeling of tiredness, weakness, or lack of energy and may be related to physical or emotional problems. "Do you feel the need to sleep during the daytime?" "Do you feel drowsy?"---are questions a tech should ask to determine if they are experiencing EDS or Fatigue? - ANSWER EDS "Do you feel as though you have no energy?" "Do you feel weary or weak?"---are questions a tech should ask to determine if they are experiencing EDS or Fatigue? - ANSWER Fatigue Stanford Sleepiness Scale - ANSWER brief assessment used a number of different times a day to determine if people have excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Epworth Sleepiness Scale - ANSWER evaluates how likely a person is to fall asleep during a number of different activities. The person rates each situation on a scale of 0-3 corresponding to the chance of falling asleep (none, slight, moderate, or high). Sleep-Wake Activity Inventory (SWAI) - ANSWER Measures a number of different aspects of sleep disorders:excessive daytime sleepiness, nocturnal sleep,relaxing ability,energy, etc.-asks patient to score 9 different statements about sleepiness on a 1-9 scale. (A score of 50 or more is normal, 40-50 suggests EDS, 40 or less indicated EDS. Fatigue Severity Scale - ANSWER list of nine descriptions related to fatigue; patient scores each statement on a 1-7 scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree). Scores of 9-35=normal; scores above 35 suggest high degree of fatigue. Multiple Sleep Latency Tests (MSLT's) - ANSWER measure sleepiness during waking hours and the tendency of a person to fall asleep.-may diagnose narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. MSLT includes how many nap periods with first within 3 hours of nocturnal PSG, and then spaced at 2 hours after preceding nap. - ANSWER 5 No smoking is allowed within _____ minutes of starting MSLT nap and no strenuous activity within ____ minutes of a nap. - ANSWER 30;15 Maintenance of Wakefulness Test - ANSWER determines patient's ability to stay awake in the daytime. During MWT, patient is placed at rest, sitting in bed with low lights for ___ 40 minute periods spaced at 2 hours. - ANSWER 4 Tracheostomy - ANSWER An opening directly into the trachea bypasses the obstruction and opens the airway, but it is invasive and can result in many complications, so it is rarely done.-can be blocked during waking hours and opened during sleep.-usued as last resort usually in elderly or morbidly obese, facial abnormalities etc Higher Sampling Rates are needed to detect seizure activity in infant and child PSG'S. What sampling Rates for EOG AND EMG recordings during psg for seizure acivity? - ANSWER greater than or equal to 500 Hz for EOG and greater than or equal to 200 Hz for EMG recording. Initiate Low-Flow Supplemental Oxygen at how many liters per minute when SpO2 falls below 85% on ambient room air. - ANSWER 1 liter per minute Monitor SpO2 carefully to ensure it increases to at least __% - ANSWER 90% Titrate oxygen by slowly increasing the flow rate by _._ liters per minute at a time until the SpO2 is 90% or more, but do not exceed 4 liters/min. without a physicians order. - ANSWER 0.5 l/min. Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome occurs when the body mass index is __kg/m2 or more, resulting in impaired respirations,hypoxia, and hypercapnia during sleep. The obesity results in impairment of muscles of muscles of inspiration, restricting the thorax and causing hypoventilation, leading to hypercapnia. - ANSWER 30 You should begin CPAP when the patient is ready for sleep and start it at the lowest setting, usually _ cm H20 and maintain the low pressure until the patient falls asleep. - ANSWER 5 [Show More]

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