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NUR 2349 / NUR2349 Professional Nursing I / PN I Final Exam Review | Rated A Guide | Latest | Rasmussen College

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NUR 2349 / NUR2349 Professional Nursing I / PN I Final Exam Review | Rated A Guide | Latest | Rasmussen College 1. Ulcerative Colitis - Edema and inflammation primarily in the rectum and rectos... igmoid colon; in severe cases, it can involve the entire length of the colon; classified as mild, moderate, severe, or fulminant 2. Ulcerative Colitis Risk Factors - Cause is unknown - Genetics - Culture (Caucasians, Jewish heritage) - Adolescents and young adults - Gender (female) 3. Ulcerative Colitis Symptoms - Abdominal pain/cramping (LLQ) - Anorexia - Weight loss - Fever - Diarrhea: up to 1520 liquid stools per day - Stools can contain mucus, blood, or pus - Abdominal distension, tenderness, and/or firmness upon palpation - High-pitched bowel sounds - Rectal bleeding 4. Ulcerative Colitis Diagnostics - Lab: • Hematocrit and hemoglobin: decreased • Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR): increased • WBC: increased • Creative protein: increased • Serum albumin: decreased • Stool for occult blood: can be positive • K, Mg, Ca: decreased - Tests: • Magnetic resonance enterorrhaphy • sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy • Barium enema • CT scan • MRI • Stool examination 5. Ulcerative Colitis Treatment - Medication therapy and vitamin supplements - Monitor I&O; assess for dehydration - Colectomy with or without ileostomy - Medications: - 5aminosalicylic acid: inflammatory - Corticosteroids - Immunosuppressants - Immunomodulators - Antidiarrheals 6. Ulcerative Colitis Education - Seek emergency care for indications of bowel obstruction or perforation (fever, sudden abdominal pain, vomiting) - Eat high protein, high calories, low fiber foods - Avoid caffeine and alcohol - Take a multivitamin that contains iron - Small frequent meals may reduce the occurrence of manifestations - Refer to nutritional counseling 7. Ulcerative Colitis Complications - Peritonitis: life-threatening inflammation of the peritoneum and lining of the abdominal cavity often caused by bacteria in the peritoneal cavity - Bleeding: due to deterioration of the bowel - Fluid and electrolyte imbalance: occurs due to loss of fluid through diarrhea, vomiting, and nasogastric suctioning - Abscess and fistula formation: occurs due to the destruction of the bowel wall, leading to an infection - Toxic megacolon: occurs due to inactivity of the colon; massive dilation of the colon occurs, and the client is at risk for perforation 8. Paget's Disease - A disease that disrupts the replacement of old bone tissue with new bone tissue; over time, the disease can cause affected bones to become fragile and misshapen; more common in the pelvis, spine, skull, and legs; cause is unknown, but may be related to environmental and genetic factors 9. Paget's Disease Risk Factors - Age (40+ years) - Sex (men) - National origin (England, Scotland, Central Europe, and Greece) - Family History 10. Paget's Disease Symptoms - Often has no symptoms, but the most common is bone pain - Pelvis: hip pain - Skull: hearing loss or headaches - Spine: nerve pain, tingling, and numbness in arm or leg - Leg: bowlegged, osteoarthritis of the knee or hip 11. Paget's Disease Diagnostics - Radiographs - Bone scan - Blood tests (usually have elevated levels of alkaline phosphate) 12. Osteoarthritis - Progressive deterioration of the articular cartilage; noninflammatory (unless localized) non systemic disease; not symmetrical 13. Osteoarthritis Risk Factors - Age: majority of adults 60+ have joint changes on xray - Genetic factors - Joint injury due to acute or repetitive stress on joints (tennis, etc.) - Obesity: affects weightbearing joints such as knees and hips in overweight clients [Show More]

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