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Fundamentals of Nursing - Exam 1 questions with answers. 100% pass rate. Rated A+

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What are the most important roles of the nurse (5) - ☑☑Caregiver Advocate Educator Researcher Leader What are the 5 steps in the nursing process? - ☑☑(1) Assessment (2) Nursi... ng Diagnosis (3) Planning (4) Implementation (5) Evaluation *** All of the above require critical thinking! Define Assessment - ☑☑Collects comprehensive data pertinent to the patient's health and/or situation. - info medical personnel can look at - begins the moment you walk through the door Can the RN provide subjective information about patient? - ☑☑NO! Only the patient can give subjective info. OBJECTIVE info is what the RN sees, hears, or smells What is the Diagnosis phase? - ☑☑Analyze the assessment and make a clinical judgement related to an ACTUAL or POTENTIAL health problem. ** Nurses have to be aware of potential risks based on health problems. ** Also collaborate with other specialists to manage the problem(s) What are the three phases of a Nursing Diagnosis? - ☑☑First info → Related to → as evidence by WHAT is the problem? WHY is it a problem? WHAT is the evidence of that problem? Ex: "Acute pain → related to surgical incision → as evidence by patient report (or as evidence by crying)" What are the OUTCOMES IDENTIFICATION? - ☑☑This is the statement of how a patient's status will change once interventions have been successfully instituted Identify the expected outcomes when planning for the patient's individual situation. Interventions must be measurable criterion indicating that objectives have been met. Define the PLANNING stage of the nursing process - ☑☑Develops a plan that prescribes strategies and alternatives to attain expected outcomes. - Prioritize strategies - Goals (statement that describes the aim if the nursing care) should be short term and long term Describe IMPLEMENTATION of the nursing process - ☑☑The actions to facilitate positive patient outcomes What three skills are needed in order to implement goals? - ☑☑Cognitive Personal Psychomotor Describe the EVALUATION phase of the nursing process - ☑☑This describes how well the patients needs were met (or not met). Done through reassessment What percentage of all communication is nonverbal? - ☑☑90% What two characteristics should nurses always exude? - ☑☑CARING COMPETENCE How is communication used in the Assessment phase of the nursing process? - ☑☑Verbal interviewing and history taking Visual and intuitive observation of nonverbal behavior Visual, tactile, and auditory data gathering during physical examination. Written medical records, diagnostic tests, and literature review. Define REFERENT - ☑☑The referent motivates one person to communicate with another. Examples of referents: sights, sounds, odors, time schedules, messages, objects, emotions, sensations, perceptions, ideas, etc. Define SENDER in communication - ☑☑The person who encodes and delivers the message. Sender puts ideas or feelings into form that is transmitted and is responsible for accuracy and emotional tone of message content What is the RECEIVER in the communication process? - ☑☑The person who receives and decodes the message ** senders message acts as a referent for the receiver, who is responsible for attending to, translating, and responding to the message. MESSAGE in communication process - ☑☑Content of communication.... verbal, nonverbal & symbolic language. CHANNELS in communication process - ☑☑These are the means of conveying the message through visual, auditory, and tactile senses. Facial expression = visual message Spoken word = auditory Touch = tactile FEEDBACK in communication process - ☑☑The message that the receiver returns. This indicates if receiver understood meaning of message. Sender can evaluate effectiveness of communication. Explain the communication process briefly - ☑☑The source has a message and encodes the message. Message is sent through a channel Receiver must first decode the message Before message can be fully received What are the 5 levels of communication in nursing? - ☑☑Interpersonal Interpersonal Small group Public Transpersonal Define Intrapersonal - ☑☑a.k.a. SELF-TALK Define Intrerpersonal - ☑☑Occurs between two people or groups - usually one on one conversation Define Small Group Communication - ☑☑Committee or a conference Public Communication - ☑☑Interaction of one person with a group of people Transpersonal Communication - ☑☑Within a person's spiritual domain Forms of Communication - ☑☑Messages conveyed verbally and nonverbally, concretely and symbolically. Expression through: Words, movements, voice inflection, facial expression, and use of space Elements can work in harmony to enhance a message OR conflict with one another to confuse it. Example Forms of Communication VOCABULARY What is the role of the nurse? - ☑☑Nurse often the interpreter of medical terminology Example Forms of Communication DENOTATIVE AND CONNOTATIVE What is the role of the nurse? - ☑☑Denotative is the exact meaning Connotative is shades of the meaning Be selective in word choice and avoid easily misinterpreted words. Example Forms of Communication PACING What is the role of the nurse? - ☑☑Speak slowly and enunciate clearly! Too fast = unintended messages Too slow = impression of hiding the truth Example Forms of Communication INTONATION What is the role of the nurse? - ☑☑Tone of voice... be careful Example Forms of Communication CLARITY & BREVITY What is the role of the nurse? - ☑☑Simple - short - to the point & possible repeated Example Forms of Communication TIMING & RELEVANCE What is the role of the nurse? - ☑☑When it is appropriate to discuss issues & what is most important at that time. What are forms of Nonverbal Communication? - ☑☑Personal Appearance Posture and gait Facial Expression Eye Contact Gestures Sounds - sighs, moans, groans... Territoriality & Space What are the four phases of the Helping (Nurse-Patient) Relationship? - ☑☑Pre-interaction Orientation Working Termination Describe the PRE-INTERACTION phase of the Helping Relationship. - ☑☑This takes place before meeting the patient: - Review available data, history - Talk to other caregivers who have info about patient - Anticipate health concerns or issues that arise - Identify a location or setting that fosters comfortable, private interaction - Plan enough time for initial interaction Describe the ORIENTATION phase of the Helping Relationship. - ☑☑When nurse and patient first meet and get to know one another: - Set the tone for the relationship by adopting a warm, empathetic, caring manner - Recognize relationship is tentative - Expect patient to test your competence and commitment - Closely observe - Begin to make inference and form judgements about messages and behaviors - ASSESS PATIENT HEALTH STATUS Describe the WORKING phase of the Helping Relationship. - ☑☑When nurse and patient work together to solve problems and accomplish goals. TEACHING occurs. - Encourage pt. to express feelings about health - encourage pt. w/ self exploration - Provide information - Help pt. set goals - Take action to meet said goals - Use therapeutic comm - Use appropriate self-disclosure & confrontation Describe the TERMINATION phase of the Helping Relationship. - ☑☑Ending of the relationship - Remind pt. that termination is near - Evaluate goal achievement with pt. - Reminisce about relationship with pt. - Separate from the pt. by relinquishing responsibility for care - Achieve a smooth transition for pt. to other caregivers Acronym used for successful communication in the workplace to promote teamwork and safety. - ☑☑S - situation B - background A - assessment R - Recommendation Characteristics of communication within Caring/Working Relationships: - ☑☑Professionalism - appearance, demeanor, behavior Courtesy - hello, good-bye, knock on doors, please, thank you... Use of Names - Always introduce yourself Confidentiality - HIPPA Trust - always honest! Acceptance & Respect - Non-judgmental attitudes Availability - "Anything else I can get you? Socializing - don't socialize with pt. and don't socialize with colleagues where pt's can hear What is therapeutic communication techniques? - ☑☑Specific responses that encourage the expression of feeling and ideas and convey acceptance and respect. Define the therapeutic communication technique of: Active Listening - ☑☑Being attentive to what patient is saying both verbally and nonverbally. ** Use SOLER to facilitate attentive listening Define acronym SOLER - ☑☑S - Sit facing the patient O - Open posture L - Lean toward the patient E - Establish & maintain eye contact R - Relax Define the therapeutic communication technique of: Sharing Observations - ☑☑Observations/perceptions can help start a conversation, but need to be careful not to anger patient or make assumptions. Define the therapeutic communication technique of: Sharing Humor - ☑☑Important but often underused resource in nursing interactions. It is a coping strategy that adds perspective and helps adjust to stress. Define the therapeutic communication technique of: Using Silence - ☑☑Allow patient to break the silence, particularly when he/she has initiated it. Particularly useful when people are confronted with decisions that require thought. Define the therapeutic communication technique of: Providing Information - ☑☑To help patient understand, but do not preach Define the therapeutic communication technique of: Clarifying - ☑☑Check that understanding is accurate Restate an unclear message [Show More]

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