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Multidimensional Care II Exam 1 Study Guide

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Multidimensional Care II Exam 1 Study Guide *The exam questions are not limited to only what is listed on this guide, please refer to your chapter readings and module materials Ch. 21: Principles o... f Cancer Development • Benign vs. Malignant cells o Benign tumor cells grow due to hyperplasia • Seven warning signs of cancer o CAUTION ▪ Changes in bowel/bladder habits, A sore throat that does not heal, Unusual bleeding/discharge, Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere, Indigestion or difficulty swallowing, Obvious change in wart/mole, Nagging cough/hoarseness. • Cancer development stages of malignancy o Initiation: ▪ Change in gene expression leading to loss of cellular regulation. ▪ Excessive cell division o Promotion ▪ Enhanced growth of an initiated cell by substances known as promoters • Promoters can be hormones, proteins (insulin and estrogen) o Progression ▪ Continued change of a cancer making it more malignant over time o Metastasis ▪ Cancer cells move from the primary location and establish remote colonies. • Cancer classification o Cancers are classified by type of tissue from which the arise ▪ Solid tumors: associated with the organ where they develop ▪ Hematological cancers: Originate from blood cell-forming tissues such as leukemia, lymphoma, and myelomas • Cancer prevention (primary vs. secondary) o Primary Prevention ▪ Avoidance of known/potential carcinogens • Ex: Teach adults to use skin protection during sun exposure • Ex: Eliminate ▪ Modifying associated factors • Modifying behavior to reduce the associated factor can decrease the risk of CA development. • Ex increased incidence of CA among adults who consume alcohol • Diets high in fat and low in fibers ▪ Removal of “at-risk” tissues • Ex: Chemoprevention • Vaccination o Ex: HPV vaccine o Secondary Prevention ▪ Regular screening for cancer does not reduce cancer incidence but can greatly reduce some types of CA deaths ▪ Teach all adults to participate in routine screenings • Annual mammography (45-54 years of age), Biennial (55+) • Annual breast exams, colonoscopy at 50, annual FOBT, Prostate screening for men 50+ • Testing for gene mutations o Ex: BRCA genes • Types of cancers (carcinoma, sarcoma, melanoma, lymphoma, leukemia, blastoma) Ch. 22: Care of Patients with Cancer • Diagnostic tests • Risk factors • Types of therapy (i.e. surgery, radiation, chemotherapy) o Surgery ▪ Can be used prophylactically or as curative Tx ▪ Used for diagnostics • Ex: biopsies [Show More]

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