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NUR 2063 Pathophysiology Rasmussen College Final Exam 2022/2023

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NUR 2063 Pathophysiology Rasmussen College Final Exam 2022/2023 Explain primary prevention - answer Preventing"; altering susceptibility or reducing exposure of disease for people Explain secondar... y prevention - answer "Screening"; early detection, screening, and management of disease to catch disease early before it spreads Explain tertiary prevention - answer "Treating" and preventing further complications from a disorder or disease after the person has the condition What are examples of primary prevention? - answer Vaccinations and Handwashing What are examples of secondary prevention? - answer PAP smears for STDs, lab work for HBA1C check, mammogram What are examples of tertiary prevention? - answer Rehab for hip surgery, relearning ADL's after amputation, Wound care after stroke to prevent pressure ulcer What happens to the body during the sympathetic phase of the flight or fight response? - answer Pupils dilate, salivation inhibited, increase in HR, bronchodilation of airway, increased respirations, glucose release, inhibit GI/GU. What happens to the body during the parasympathetic phase of the flight or light response? - answer Rest and Digest. Pupils constrict, salivation occurs, decreased HR, bronchoconstriction,decreased respiration, GI/GU systems resume action Explain the role of the nucleus - answer control center of the cell, where DNA and genes are stored, produces mRNA to help build body proteins Explain the role of the mitochondria - answer Powerhouse of the cell. Provides energy in ATP, and has its own set of DNA Explain the role of the ribosome - answer produces RNA to produce proteins through transcriptions of DNA and translation of RNA into a protein Explain the role of the lysosomes - answer helps breakdown and digest dead cells, organelles, or tissues Explain the role of the rough ER - answer folded membranes that move proteins around the cell. Has ribosomes attached to it and helps produce proteins for the cell membrane Explain the role of the smooth ER - answer helps the Liver and kidney cells to detoxify, lipid metabolism, synthesis of hormones, and calcium storage Explain the role of the peroxisome - answer membrane cells that contain oxidase and catalase to detoxify harmful chemicals, breakdown hydrogen peroxide and filter metabolic wastes Explain the role of the Golgi body - answer stacked membranes that act as the sorter and packager for proteins from the ER. Helps move things in and out of cell Explain passive immunity - answer the transfer of preformed antibodies against specific antigens from a protected or immunized individual to an unprotected or non immunized person. Provides immediate and short term protection. No memory cells are produced. IgA and IgE. Passes protection What are examples of passive immunity? - answer mom to fetus through placenta or mom to infant through breast milk. Serotherapy Explain active immunity - answer a protective state owing to the immune system response as a result of active infection or immunization. It has to be activated in the body and the body has to fight it to have long term immunity What are examples of active immunity? - answer Vaccinations Explain what edema is - answer accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space. Leads to tissue swelling What are some causes of edema? - answer increase in the forces that move fluid from capillaries to interstitial compartments or decrease in the opposite. What are factors that contribute to edema? - answer Increase in hydrostatic forces in the capillaries that increases the blood volume, increased capillary permeability, CHF, HYPTN, decrease in plasma proteins like albumin (causes liver to hold onto more water- ascites, cirrhosis), blockage of lymph drainage What is a hypersensitivity? - answer an overreaction to antigens or allergens that is beyond the normal range, leading to damage What is a type 1 hypersensitivity? - answer anaphylactic. Occurs within 2-30mins of exposure. Can be systemic or localized. Binds to IgE and mast cells that release histamine, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins to create inflammation Mediating Factor for type 1 hypersensitivity - answer IgE Examples of type 1 hypersensitivity - answer allergic reaction to dust. someone eats peanuts and breaks out in hives and runny nose How do we treat type 1 hypersensitivity reactions? - answer antihistamines to block histamine, beta adrenergics to bronchodilator , corticosteroids, to decrease inflammation. IgE therapy, epinephrine given during anaphylaxis through IV or through IM in epipens What are signs and symptoms of a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction? - answer hives, runny nose, eczema, throat constriction, ,localized edema, wheezing, tachycardia, anaphylaxis. Explain Type 2 Hypersensitivity - answer The cells attack healthy organs and blood, causing symptoms Mediating factor for type 2 hypersensitivity - answer cytotoxic- IgM/ IgG Examples of type 2 hypersensitivity - answer Blood transfusions when wrong blood given, hemolytic disease of newborn, grans disease, myasthenia gravis What is type 3 hypersensitivity? - answer The igG antibodies are stuck beneath the membranes of cells. Can activate immune responses that can damage tissues. Immune complex Mediating factor type 3 hypersensitivity - answer immune complexes Examples type 3 hypersensitivity - answer RA, lupus What is type 4 hypersensitivity? - answer there is a delayed cell reaction caused by the T cells. Antigens are phagocytized and are sensitized to receptors on the t cell. Reexposure causes the memory cells to release destructive cytokines. Mediating factor type 4 hypersensitivity - answer delayed cell mediated Examples type 4 hypersensitivity - answer TB test, contact dermatitis Characteristics of benign tumors - answer Localized growth that is curable. They more closely resemble the original tissue type, they grow slowly, have little vascularity, rarely necrotic, and usually have similar function to the original cells. Can be fatal depending on the location (brain, heart,etc), usually grows at the original areas of the body. Encapsulated Characteristics of malignant tumors - answer usually cancerous. They ignore growth controlling signals and replicate despite signals from the environment. They can escape signals and can die. they can also display different functions poorly or not at all related to the tissue. Greater degree of differentiation means that it is more aggressive. Can move around with a poor prognosis. Anaplasia, metastasis [Show More]

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