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QUESTION 1 1. Mr. Jeffers was admitted 2 days ago for a carotid endarterectomy. A Foley catheter was inserted intraoperatively and remains in place. His urine output has declined markedly despite co... ntinued IV fluid infusion. Today his morning labs reveal a BUN of 19 mg/dL and a creatinine of 2 mg/dL. A leading differential includes: A. Foley lodged in the urethra causing post-renal failure B. Decreased renal perfusion causing prerenal failure C. Age-related decreased eGFR causing prerenal failure D. Post-surgical rhabdomyolysis causing intrarenal failure Answer:  D. Post-surgical rhabdomyolysis causing intrarenal failure During surgery, muscles and injured. This can result into rhabdomyolysis, which is the breakdown of muscles to release proteins. The excess proteins causes an increased level of creatinine. Mr. Jeffers is from surgery (post-surgical) and his creatinine levels are above normal. The normal creatinine levels range from 0.6mg/dl to 1.2mg/dl. Thus, the most likely differential is: Post-surgical rhabdomyolysis causing intrarenal failure. 1 points QUESTION 2 1. Janet is admitted with symptomatic tachycardia. Her pulse is 160 b.p.m. and she is weak, diaphoretic, and anxious. Physical examination reveals a 5’4” 107 lb black female who is awake, alert, and oriented, anxious, with moist skin and racing pulse. Her blood pressure is 140/100 mm Hg. Temperature and respiratory rate are within normal limits. The patient admits to having a “thyroid condition” but she never followed up on it when she was advised to see an endocrinologist. The AGACNP anticipates a diagnosis of: A. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis B. Cushing’s syndrome C. Grave’s disease D. Addison’s disease 1 points Answer: C. Grave's disease NURS 6550 FINAL EXAM (QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS)- WALDEN UNIVERSITY SUMMER 2022 QUESTION 3 1. Systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE) is a multiorgansystem autoimmune disorder that can prevent with a wide variety of manifestations. Which clinical triad should prompt an evaluation for SLE? A. Fever, normal white count, elevated sedimentation rate B. Hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, low blood pressure C. Leukocytosis, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia D. Joint pain, rash, fever 1 points QUESTION 4 1. A patient presents with profound vertigo of acute onset yesterday. She can barely turn her head without becoming very vertiginous; she is nauseous and just doesn’t want to move. This morning when she tried to get out of bed she felt like she was pushed back down. The vertigo is reproducible with cervical rotation. The patient denies any hearing loss or tinnitus, she has no fever or other symptoms. The AGACNP knows that the most helpful intervention will probably be: A. Meclizine B. Diazepam C. Bed rest D. Epley’s maneuvers 1 points Answer:  D. Epley's maneuvers The patient is likely suffering from benign paroxysmoly positioning vertigo. This is indicated by inability to turn her head and to get up from the lying position in bed. The best intervention for benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo is Epley's maneuvers. These maneuvers effectively clear the inner ear to relieve symptoms of vertigo QUESTION 5 1. Mrs. Mireya is an 85-year-old female who is admitted for evaluation of acute mental status change from the long term care facility. She is normally ambulatory and participates in lots of facility activities. Today a nursing assistant found her in her room, appearing confused and disconnected from her environment. When she tried to get up she fell down. Her vital signs are stable excepting a blood pressure of 90/60 mm Hg. The AGACNP knows that the most likely cause of her symptoms is: A. Osteoarthritis B. Drug or alcohol toxicity C. Hypotension D. Urosepsis 1 points QUESTION 6 1. A patient with SIADH would be expected to demonstrate which pattern of laboratory abnormalities? A. Serum Na+ 119 mEq/L, serum osmolality 240 mEq/L, urine Na+ of 28 mEq/L, urine osmolality of 900 mOsm/kg B. Serum Na+ 152 mEq/L, serum osmolality 315 mEq/L, urine Na+ of 5 mEq/L, urine osmolality of 300 mOsm/kg C. Serum Na+ 121 mEq/L, serum osmolality 290 mEq/L, urine Na+ of 7 mEq/L, urine osmolality of 850 mOsm/kg D. Serum Na+ 158 mEq/L, serum osmolality 251 mEq/L, urine Na+ of 20 mEq/L, urine osmolality of 420 mOsm/kg Answer: Syndrome of inappropriate anti diuretic hormone is characterized by dilutionalhyponatremia.Serum sodium levels lower than 130mmol/L and urine osmolality less than 100mmol/L.Urine sodium is less than 30mmol/L.Serum level of sodium is likely to be 121 1 points QUESTION 7 1. Sean is a 29-year-old male who presents to the emergency department for evaluation and treatment of foreign body in the eye. Ophthalmic anesthesia is achieved and removal is attempted unsuccessfully with a moist cotton tipped swab. A wet fluorescein stain is applied to the lower eyelid, and a corneal abrasion ruled out but the AGACNP notes a positive Seidel sign. This indicates: A. Penetration of the cornea with resultant aqueous leak B. A rust ring remnant due to metal foreign body C. An elevated intraocular pressure D. Paradoxical pupil dilation in response to light 1 points Answer:  A. Penentration of the cornea with resultant aqueous leak A positive Seidel sign indicates a leakage from the anterior chamber into the cornea. It is used to diagnose corneal disorders such as corneal perforation and corneal degeneration. The AGACNP should therefore suspect Penentration of the cornea with resultant aqueous leak as indicated by the positive Seidel sign. QUESTION 8 1. Mrs. Lowen is an 82-year-old female who comes to the emergency department for evaluation of a fever of 102.9° F. She complains of a headache in the right side of her temple and some right-sided jaw pain. A urinalysis, chest radiograph, complete blood count (CBC) and 12-lead ECG are all noncontributory. A comprehensive metabolic panel is significant only for a slightly elevated BUN and creatinine. The AGACNP appreciates distinct right temple tenderness to percussion. Which laboratory test is necessary to support the suspected diagnosis? A. An erythrocyte sedimentation rate B. A white blood cell differential C. Two sets of blood cultures D. Echocardiography Answer:  A. An erythrocyte sedimentation rate Mrs. Lowen's most likely diagnosis is temporal arteritis,also known as, giant cell arteritis. The disease presents with one-sided temporal headache accompanied with jaw pain, fatigue and tenderness at the temples. The main diagnostic tests for temporal arteritis are erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels 1 points QUESTION 9 1. Ms. Schiebel, a 31-year-old female who is brought to the emergency department by police after being arrested for disruptive behavior in a public establishment. The differential diagnosis includes drug and alcohol ingestion/toxicity, central nervous system disease, severe trauma, and psychotic illness; ultimately the alcohol and toxicology screen as well as head imaging are negative. When considering psychotic illness, the AGACP knows that this is a physiologic imbalance that typically involves an excess of: A. Serotonin B. Norepinephrine C. Acetylcholine D. Dopamine Answer:  B. Norepinephrine Since Mr. Schiebel has been arrested for disruptive behavior, he most likely suffers from maniac behavioural disorder. Mania is a physiological imbalance disorder characterized by excessively high levels of norepinephrine. 1 points QUESTION 10 1. Mr. Lincoln is a 55-year-old male who was admitted for management of sepsis secondary to pneumonia. He has declined rapidly, and today chest radiography demonstrates a diffuse, bilateral “white-out” appearance. His paO2 is 55 mm Hg. In order to increase his oxygenation the AGACNP knows that which of the following interventions is indicated? A. Increased FiO2 B. Increased respiratory rate C. Increased tidal volume D. Increased PEEP Answer:  C. Increased tidal volume Tidal volume refers to the maximum amount of air that can be inhaled or exhaled during breathing. When the amount of tidal volume increases, the amount of oxygen that is inhaled into the lungs also increases. This results into an increase in the diffusion gradient and a subsequent increase in the rate of diffusion of oxygen into the lungs. Therefore, the patient's (Mr. Lincoln's) oxygenation will improve and his paO2 will rise/improve when his tidal volume is increased 1 points QUESTION 11 1. A 29-year-old female patient presents with a complaint of palpitations. Physical examination reveals an essentially healthy female with no significant medical history and no maintenance medications; the only thing she can report is that she had a head cold a week or so ago. The vital signs include a blood pressure of 139/90 mm Hg, pulse of 105 b.p.m, respiratory rate of 16 b.p.m. and a temperature of 98.6° F. The only abnormal finding on physical examination is diffuse anterior neck tenderness with thyroid palpation. The AGACNP considers which medication for symptom contro [Show More]

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