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AP European History Exam Review For 2022 Studiers; Everything you need to pass AP European History Exam

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AP European History Exam Review for 2022 Studiers; Everything you need to pass AP European History Exam Benvenuto Cellini ->>>>Goldsmith & sculptor who wrote an autobiography, famous for its arroga... nce and immodest self-praise. Condottiere ->>>>Mercenary soldier of a political ruler. Humanism ->>>>Recovery and study of classical authors & writings. Individualism ->>>>Emphasis on the unique & creative personally (personality?). New Monarchs ->>>>Term applied to Louis XI of France, Henry VII of England, and Ferdinand & Isabella of Spain, who strengthened their monarchical authority often by Machiavellian means. Rationalism ->>>>Application and use of reason in understanding and explaining events. Renaissance ->>>>The period from 1400 to 1600 that witnessed a transformation of cultural and intellectual values from primarily Christian to classical or secular ones. Secularism ->>>>Emphasis on the here and now rather than on the spiritual and otherworldly. Lorenzo Valla ->>>>(1407-1457) Humanist who used historical criticism to discredit an eighth-century document giving the papacy jurisdiction over Western lands. Virtu ->>>>Striving for personal excellence. Baroque ->>>>The sensuous and dynamic style of art of the Counter Reformation. Brethren of the Common Life ->>>>Pious laypeople in sixteenth-century Holland who initiated a religious revival in their model of Christian living. John Calvin ->>>>(1509-1564) French theologian who established a theocracy in Geneva and is best known for his theory of predestination. Charles V ->>>>(1519-1556) Hapsburg dynastic ruler of the Holy Roman Empire and of extensive territories in Spain and the Netherlands. Council of Trent ->>>>The congress of learned Roman Catholic authorities that met intermittently from 1545 to 1563 to reform abusive church practices and reconcile with the Protestants. Index ->>>>A list of books that Catholics were forbidden to read. Indulgence ->>>>Papal pardon for remission of sins. Inquisition ->>>>Religious committee of six Roman cardinals that tried heretics and punished the guilty by imprisonment and execution. Jesuits ->>>>(Society of Jesus) Founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism. John Knox ->>>>(1505-1572) Calvinist leader in sixteenth-century Scotland. Martin Luther ->>>>(1483-1546) German theologian who challenged the church's practice of selling indulgences, a challenge that ultimately led to the destruction of the Roman Catholic world. Sir Thomas More ->>>>(1478-1535) Renaissance humanist and chancellor of England. Executed by Henry VIII for his unwillingness to publicly recognize his king as Supreme Head of the church and clergy of England. Nepotism ->>>>Practice of rewarding relatives with church positions. Peace of Augsburg ->>>>(1555) Document in which Charles V recognized Lutheranism as a legal religion in the Holy Roman Empire. The faith of the prince determined the religion of his subjects. Pluralism ->>>>The holding of several benefices (church offices). Simony ->>>>Selling of church offices Theocracy ->>>>A community, such as Calvin's Geneva, in which the state is subordinate to the church. Usury ->>>>Practice of lending money for interest. Gustavus Adolphus ->>>>(1594-1632) Swedish Lutheran who won victories for the German Protestants in the Thirty Years War and lost his life in one of the battles. Duke of Alva ->>>>(1508-1582) Military leader sent by Phillip to pacify the Low Countries. Armada ->>>>(1588) Spanish vessels defeated in the English Channel by an English fleet, thus preventing Philip II's invasion of England. Vasco de Balboa ->>>>First European to reach the Pacific Ocean (1513). Catherine de Medici ->>>>(1547-1589) The wife of Henry II (1547-1559) of France, who exercised political influence after the death of her husband and during the rule of her weak sons. Christopher Columbus ->>>>First European to sail to the West Indies (1492). Concordat of Bologna ->>>>(1516) Treaty under which the French Crown recognized the supremacy of the pope over a council and obtained the right to appoint all French bishops and abbots. Hernando Cortez ->>>>Conqueror of the Aztecs (1519-1521). Defenestration of Prague ->>>>The hurling, by Protestants, of Catholic officials from a castle window in Prague, setting off the Thirty Years' War. [Show More]

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