KIN 164 1-6. All Questions with accurate answers, Graded A. 2022/2023 updates Sociology of sport - ☑☑primarily a sub discipline of sociology and physical education that studies sports as so... cial phenomena Research findings as well as popular ideas about sports and violence are often full of contradictions. One of the reasons for this is that - ☑☑All sports are lumped together regardless of their purpose or organization When sociologists study sports in society, their recommendations are sometimes controversial because they may call for changes in the - ☑☑structure and organization of sports and society Knowledge produced in the sociology of sport is primarily based on - ☑☑B. social research and social theories. According to the definition used in Chapter 3, socialization refers to a process that - ☑☑C. involves social development and learning about social worlds. Organized youth sports in the United States were originally developed to teach lower-class boys how to work together peacefully and to help middle-class boys - ☑☑A. counteract the "feminized" values they learned at home from their mothers. Knowledge and theories in the sociology of sport enable us to - ☑☑view sports from multiple perspectives Norms - ☑☑Exist only in formal social situations, include both written laws and inwritten customs, used to identify deviance The definition of socialization used by the author is based on - ☑☑A. a social interaction model. Messner and other sociologists use either quantitative or qualatative methods when they do research. but which is false? - ☑☑Quantitative methods are used primarily when the sample population is small The majority of parents today in the U.S. - ☑☑B. encourage both their daughters and sons to play organized sports. Deviance - ☑☑Always involves a violation of a law Social theories are useful and practical because they - ☑☑C. enable us to make sense out of life and learn from our experiences. Ideologies are different than the ideas and beliefs of individuals because they - ☑☑influence the overall social organization of society As defined by the chapter, violence refers to - ☑☑Using excessive physical force that can cause harm or destruction Sociology - ☑☑the study of social worlds that people create, maintain, and change through their relationships Recent studies of socialization are based on social interaction models rather than personal internalization models. Social interaction models emphasize that human beings are - ☑☑C. active decision makers who give meaning to their experiences. Messners research findings enabled him to explain that gender consists of - ☑☑meaning, performance, and organization Organized, adult-controlled youth sports have become prevalent in neoliberal societies. A neoliberal society is one in which - ☑☑C. individualism is valued and public programs are cut back or eliminated. Studying deviance in sports presents problems in that - ☑☑Actions that are normal in sports may be deviant outside sports Sociological theories are different from our personal theories in that they - ☑☑D. are developed by using systematic research and logic. Social class ideology in the United States is organized around - ☑☑the idea income and wealth inequality is normal a belief in meritocracy When violence occurs in connection with widespread rejection of norms, it is often described as anarchy; when it occurs in connection with blind obedience yo norms and autocratic leaders, it is described as - ☑☑Fascism goal of sociology - ☑☑describe and explain social worlds, including societies-how they are created, re-created, and changed; how they are organized; and how they influence our lives and relationships social world - ☑☑identifiable sphere of everyday actions and relationships; patterns of social world constitute identifiable ways of life and social arrangements that are maintained or changed One of the reasons it is difficult to study deviance in sports is that much of it involves actions grounded in - ☑☑Accepting and overconforming to norms in sport cultures As defined by the chapter, aggression refers to - ☑☑Verbal or physical actions intended to control or do harm to another person According to the author, culture consists of - ☑☑ways of life that people create as they live together In the chapter it is noted that personal theories, as opposed to sociological theories, - ☑☑C. are based on the immediate experiences of individuals. In recent years, those who study sports and socialization have tended to use research methods that emphasize - ☑☑B. qualitative data that provide detailed descriptions of sport experiences. Which of the following is NOT among the five changes that have encouraged participation in organized youth sports? - ☑☑D. Parents know that playing informal games will harm child development. The theories that explain what is known about patterns of relationships that influence opportunities to play sports are - ☑☑structural theories Sociologist Mike Messner decided to initiate his research on gender and sports after witnessing events at - ☑☑A. his son's soccer season opening ceremonies. Theories that used concepts such as role model and identity are - ☑☑interactionist theories A negative consequences of the expectation that parents are responsible for the supervision of their children 24-hours a day, 7-days a week is that - ☑☑C. Parents without resources may be defined as irresponsible. Carefully designed studies based on structural theories and a personal internalization model of socialization have found that three things are related to becoming involved in sports. Which of the following is NOT one of those things? - ☑☑D. A person's willingness to practice even when not having fun. When people in a society generally see the body as machine and sport as performance, it is likely that - ☑☑athletes will use technology to control and manage their bodies As defined by the chapter, intimidation refers to - ☑☑Words, gestures, or actions that threaten violence or aggression One reason it is difficult to study deviance in sports is that - ☑☑The types and causes of deviance in sports are very diverse Sociology concepts - ☑☑sociology uses concepts of culture, social, interaction, and social structure to create social world Culture concept - ☑☑shared ways of life and shared understandings of people who live together It has become difficult to determine what actions are deviant and what actions are accepted parts of athletic training today because - ☑☑All training involves surpassing limits that are acceptable as normal in society Studies show that in comparison with sports today, the tournaments and sport activities in medieval and early modern Europe were - ☑☑More violent When the sociology of sport is used to study sport participation among women, the primary focus would likely be on - ☑☑women's access to the time and resources needed to play sports The process of producing knowledge in the sociology of sport, as well as other scientific disciplines, is a 5 stage process that begins with observation and ends with - ☑☑C. the publication of research results Studies using a qualitative approach have found that becoming involved and staying involved in sports primarily is the result of - ☑☑D. continuing processes of decision-making in people's lives. The trend toward privatization in organized youth sports has - ☑☑A. made youth programs more selective and exclusive The process of producing knowledge in the sociology of sport, as well as other scientific disciplines, is a five-stage process that begins with observation and ends with - ☑☑the publication of research results As Messner began his investigation of gender and sports, he formed research questions around - ☑☑A. issues related to culture, social interaction and social structure. An emphasis on the performance ethic is most likely in programs sponsored by - ☑☑D. private commercial clubs. When Sharon Wheeler interviewed British elementary school children for whom sports were important, she found that their sport participation was linked to - ☑☑C. the routine and lifestyle of their families. Which of the following questions would NOT be asked when using a critical approach in a sociological study of spports? - ☑☑What is the most efficient way to organize spectator sports? Which of the following is LEAST likely to be a concern among sociologists who study sports? - ☑☑The motivation and personalities of athletes When a basketball player dribbles the ball out of bounds during a game, she has - ☑☑Violated a formal norm social interaction concept - ☑☑people taking each other into account and influencing others Social historians suggest that violence remains an issue in sports because - ☑☑Sports are designed to create tension and excitement Theories that explain what is known about the ways that people express their values, ideas and beliefs are called - ☑☑C. cultural theories. In organized youth sport programs that emphasize the performance ethic there often is a corresponding emphasis on - ☑☑C. sport specialization among children. In the United States, the young people most likely to receive encouragement from friends, family, coaches, and teachers to play sports if they - ☑☑B. are African Americans The purpose of publication in the research process is to - ☑☑allow other scholars to critically review the quality and accuracy of research The author explains that a sociological approach to studying sports - ☑☑will grow if it produces knowledge that is useful to many people The chapter is organized partly around a typology of violence developed by Mike Smith. The categories in his typology include - ☑☑Criminal violence, Borderline violence and Brutal body contact When two college basketball players turn their back to the U.S. flag during the playing of the national anthem, they - ☑☑Violate an informal norm social structure concept - ☑☑established patterns of relationships and social arrangements that take shape as people live, work, and play with each other sports - ☑☑physical activities that involve challenges or competitive concepts (organized but purpose varies) (pleasure or competition) An absolutist approach to deviance in sports is based on the assumption that - ☑☑Unchanging moral truths are the foundation for all norms Some forms of violence are accepted widely by athletes and even used as a basis for gaining status among fellow athletes. These include - ☑☑Borderline violence and brutal body contact When sociologists study ideologies, they focus on - ☑☑webs of ideas and beliefs that people use to make sense of the world Theories that used concepts such as role model and identity are - ☑☑A. interactionist theories. After doing in-depth interviews with British adolescents from working class British families, Anita White and Jay Coakley concluded that sport participation among these young people was the result of - ☑☑B. continuous decisions made over time by young people. Different sponsors of youth sport programs have different goals. The programs that are most likely to be inclusive and emphasize overall participation are those - ☑☑C. sponsored by public, tav-supported community recreation organizations. Sociologists Mike Messner decided to initiate his research on gender and sports after witnessing events at - ☑☑his sons soccer season opening ceremonies The in-depth interviews done by Anita White and Jay Coakley indicated that young people are most likely to participate in sports when they - ☑☑D. saw sports as linked to their own growth and development. Critical feminist theory is used as a guide by Messner and many others in the sociology of sport, it is based on the assumption that knowledge about social life requires that we understand - ☑☑how gender and gender relations operate in our lives The potential for child abuse is highest in elite, specialized sport training programs when - ☑☑A. the income of adults depends of the performance of children. According to an absolutist approach to studying deviance - ☑☑All deviance is caused by a lack of moral character or a moral failure The theories most likely to be used in research on the process of developing and maintaining athletic identities are - ☑☑A. interactionist theories. Athletes may be marginalized or formally punished if they engage in - ☑☑Quasi-criminal or criminal violence physical culture - ☑☑includes all forms of movement and physical activities that people in particular social worlds regularly include in their lives When a coach accuses male players of not playing well by saying that they "play like girls," his statement is most likely to motivate the players if they - ☑☑accept dominant gender ideology Challenges in defining sports - ☑☑only highly organized sports are looked at as sports, causes a negative impact on people and creates less physical activity and society People using an absolutist approach tend to - ☑☑See deviance as located in the person who engages in it Deviant overconformity is associated with some forms of violence in sports. The roots of this violence are grounded in - ☑☑The desire to gain reaffirmation for one's identity as an athlete Sociology helps us examine - ☑☑social life in context The theories that explain what is known about patterns of relationships that influence opportunities to play sports are - ☑☑D. structural theories. When Peter Donnelly and Kevin Young used data from interviews with rock climbers and rugby players they concluded that becoming an athlete involved - ☑☑A. acquiring knowledge and developing an identity as an athlete. Child labor laws in most post-industrial societies prevent adults from using children as sources of financial gain in - ☑☑B. the film and advertising industries but not in sports. The author points out that knowledge produced by research in sociolgy of sport can be used to - ☑☑inform the decisions we make about sports particpation Becoming involved and staying involved in sports is grounded in a series of processes. Which of the following is NOT one of those processes? - ☑☑A. Personality revisions The author explains that sports are more than reflections of society because they are sites where - ☑☑society and culture are created and reproduced Parental involvement in and concern about youth sports have increased because - ☑☑D. parental moral worth is now associated with the success of children. When girls and women first challenged dominant gender ideology by entering the male world of sports, they were - ☑☑demonized as abnormal and immoral The theories most likely to use concepts such as values, symbols, ideology, and beliefs are - ☑☑B. cultural theories. A study by Nancy Theberg found that elite women ice hockey players have a difficult time controlling all forms of brutal body contact in their sport because - ☑☑They love the physicality of ice hockey A social constructionist approach to deviance is based on - ☑☑A combination of cultural, interactionist, and structural theories Social constriction - ☑☑parts of a social world created to gain popularity in society Sports constrictions causing problems - ☑☑disagreements and struggles in defining sports mainly due to funding (no universal agreement on sports) When using a constructionist approach, deviance is defined as ideas, traits, and actions that - ☑☑Fall outside of socially determined normative boundaries Instead of saying that commercialization causes violence, the author states that it is more accurate to say that - ☑☑Commercialization enables more people to play violent sports Physical activity participation rates are most likely to be high in a society when the definition of sport focuses on - ☑☑a wide range of physical activities that are pleasurable for participants When Messner used cultural theories as a guide for collecting and analyzing data in his research project, he focused primarily on - ☑☑C. team names and colors The carefully designed studies done between 1950 and 1980 have led to some basic conclusions about changing or ending sport participation. Which of the following is NOT one of the conclusions? - ☑☑D. People drop out of sports only when they are victims of some form of exploitation in sports. When cultural ideology emphasizes that parents are solely responsible for their children, many parents conclude that they - ☑☑C. are morally obliged to stop anyone interfering with their child's success. Feminism is less visible today in previous decades because - ☑☑many people take it for granted without identifying it by name When sociologists study socialization as it occurs in sports, they are most likely to be guided by - ☑☑D. interactionist theories A sign that some children reject structured, adult-controlled sport programs is the - ☑☑A. increased interest in alternative sports. In the summary of Coakley's analysis of "burnout," it is pointed out that when elite young athletes drop out of a sport they usually do it because they - ☑☑C. see sport participation as an obstacle to developing personal autonomy. When Messner used a critical approach in his research on gender and sports, he was interested in - ☑☑how sports can be used to challenge exploitive practices in society When sociologists say that sports are "contested activities," they mean that - ☑☑people may struggle over what sports are and who should play them According to a constructionist approach, both norms and deviance are - ☑☑Socially constructed through interaction Great sports myth - ☑☑sport is essentially pure and good, and its purity and goodness are transferred to anyone who plays, consumes, or watches sports---> no need to study sports for the purpose of making them better, because they are already good Rates of violence are higher in men's sports than in women's sports because - ☑☑Violence is tied to issues of masculinity for many men in sports Controversies of sociology of sport - ☑☑Research threatens people currently who benefit from current organization of sport; people who are powerful positions blame problems on individuals, blame sociologist are too critical According to a constructionist approach, the process of negotiating normative boundaries is influenced by - ☑☑The power dynamics that exist in a society or social world Research shows that boys and men who play power and performance sports learn that they will be - ☑☑Evaluated favorably for their ability to combine violence and skills The great sport myth is based on the belief that - ☑☑sport is essentially pure and good Messner and other sociologists use either quantitative or qualitative methods when they do research. Which of the following statements about these two methods is FALSE? - ☑☑C. Quantitative methods are used primarily when the sample population is small. When Konstantinos Koukouris interviewed former athletes in Greece, he discovered that decisions to end or change sport participation were primarily associated with - ☑☑B. the need to take responsibility for their own lives and support themselves. An overall comparison of informal sports and organized sports shows that - ☑☑A. informal sports are action-centered while organized sports are rule-centered. As Messner began his investigation of gender and sports, he formed research questions around - ☑☑issues related to culture, social interaction, and social structure Social scientists generally collect data through the use of surveys, observations and - ☑☑A. text analysis Research that compares children's experiences in organized and informal sports is scare because of three factors. Which of the following is NOT one of those factors? - ☑☑D. A lack of research skills among scholars who want to study children. Garry Wheeler's study of the careers of athletes with disabilities indicated that the main challenge athletes faced when they retired involved - ☑☑A. reinvesting time and energy into other spheres of life. The theories most likely to be used in research on the process of developing and maintaining athletic identitites are - ☑☑interactionist theories Widespread acceptance of the great sport myth leads people to - ☑☑see little need to study sports from a critical perspective A constructionist approach to deviance is based on the assumption that - ☑☑Most ideas, traits, and actions fall into a normally accepted range Example of Controversies of sociology of sport - ☑☑Women in Sports, less likely to play sports because less time, freedom, money, or control of sports programs When playing power and performance sports boys and men learn that - ☑☑Being violent will help them avoid labels such as "wimp" and "fag" In Messner's studies of gender and sports he used - ☑☑B. both quantitative and qualitative methods. The author points out that in comparison with today's children, people who grew up during the 1950s and 1960s were more likely to - ☑☑C. play informal sports more often than they played organized sports. Research indicates that when people retire from sports they are most likely to have problems if they - ☑☑D. have few experiences outside the culture of sports. Theories that explain what is known about the ways that people express their values, ideas, and beliefs are called - ☑☑cultural theories The definition of sports in any particular context usually represents the ideas and interests of - ☑☑some people more than others Using violence in sports comes to be defined as "normal" by many people when the ability to "do" violence is seen as - ☑☑A means for males to prove their "manhood" Deviance may involve underconformity or overconformity to norms. The author explains that deviance involving overconformity is - ☑☑Generally uncontrollable Sports as social activities - ☑☑sports create opportunities for conversations that enable people to form relationships to enhance personal status Sports ideologies - ☑☑Gender, race, social class, and ability Deviance may involve underconformity or overconformity to norms. The author explains that deviance involving underconformity consists of ideas, traits, or actions that - ☑☑Are subnormal Learning to use violence as a strategy in sports tends to be highest in - ☑☑Heavy contact sports Sports are logical topics for sociologists to study because - ☑☑sports are such a pervasive part of many people's lives today When sociologists do ethnographies, data are collected in the field through - ☑☑D. observations and in-depth interviews. A widespread belief long held by many people in North America is that playing sports - ☑☑A. builds character among participants. Informal games are generally organized to emphasize - ☑☑A. action and personal involvement in the action. In chapter 2, it is noted that personal theories, as opposed to sociological theories - ☑☑are based on the immediate experience of individuals . When sociologists do thenographies, data are collected in the field through - ☑☑observations and in depth interviews When Messner and his colleagues analyzed local network sports news and ESPN Sports Center coverage, they - ☑☑A. used data collected through participant observations. Past studies of socialization based on a personal internalization model have produced inconclusive and inconsistent findings because researchers have mistakenly assumed that - ☑☑B. all athletes have unique and similar experiences in all sports. When Tom Farrey of ESPN interviewed developmental soccer coaches in France, they explained that - ☑☑B. informal games help children develop a personal "feel" for the game. Sport facilities and programs are most likely to be supported by government agencies and tax money when people see sports as - ☑☑contributing to the common good Gender ideology - ☑☑interrelated ideas and beliefs that are widely used to definite masculinity and femininity, identify people as male or female, evaluate roles of men and women in society The author argues that players in noncontact sports are - ☑☑Seldom rewarded for aggressive behaviors Anarchy is the social condition that exists when - ☑☑Widespread underconformity creates general lawlessness Research on normative overconformity suggests that if we wish to understand this form of deviance we must - ☑☑Critically examine the organization and dynamics of elite sport cultures In the culture of heavy contact sports, there is a general norm emphasizing that - ☑☑Violence is part of the game The author explains that we should study sports as parts of the social world because sports are - ☑☑closely connected with important ideas and meanings in social life When Messner collected and analyzed data on the organization of the AYSO leagues and teams he found that they were organized in ways that - ☑☑C. created highly gendered experiences [Show More]
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