*NURSING > TEST BANK > TEST BANK Chapter 02: Historical Factors: Community Health Nursing in Context Nies: Community/Public (All)

TEST BANK Chapter 02: Historical Factors: Community Health Nursing in Context Nies: Community/Public Health Nursing, 7th Edition

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1. Which best describes the time period when communities began to agree on collective action to stay healthy? a. When industrialization occurred b. When large urban centers began to develop and the... population expanded c. When people gathered together to settle in villages d. When people were nomads engaged in hunting and gathering ANS: D Primitive prehistorical societies had health practices to ensure their survival. Isolation and fumigation were used for thousands of years. This time period is best described by when people were nomads engaged in hunting and gathering. Industrialization, development of large urban centers, and settlement into villages do not describe this time period. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 2. Which best describes the first measures used by large communities to ensure community health? a. Building safe sewage disposal systems b. Healthy food choices and exercise c. Praying to the gods for preservation d. Use of medicine and other herbal remedies ANS: A In classical times, large cities grew, and elaborate drainage systems were constructed. In Leviticus, the Hebrews formulated the first hygiene code. This hygiene code protected water and food by creating laws that governed personal and community hygiene, such as contagion, disinfection, and sanitation. This is best described through the building of safe sewage disposal systems. Healthy food choices and exercise, praying to the gods for preservation, and the use of medicine and other herbal measures were not among the first measures used by large communities to ensure health. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 3. A nurse has determined that there is always a consistent level of people in the population who experience pneumonia. Which best describes the prevalence of this disease? a. Prevalent b. Endemic c. Epidemic d. Pandemic ANS: B By definition, when diseases are always present in a population they are called endemic. Diseases which were occasionally present and often fairly widespread are called epidemic. Pandemic is used to describe the existence of a disease in a large proportion of the population. Prevalent means widespread, and would not be the best term to describe this disease. NURSINGTB.COM Community Public Health Nursing 7th Edition Nies Test Bank NU RS IN GT B.CO M DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 4. Which best describes an innovation introduced by the Romans? a. Citizenship duties b. Immunizations c. Hospitals and nursing homes d. Daily exercise ANS: C The Romans introduced many health innovations such as fresh water, public physicians, hospitals, surgeries, infirmaries, and nursing homes. Unfortunately, these services were only for the wealthy. Citizenship duties, immunizations, and daily exercise were not innovations introduced by the Romans. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 5. Which best describes a modern public health practice that was originally developed as a means of self-protection from the Black Death (bubonic plague)? a. Care in a hospital b. Chemical intervention c. Isolation and quarantine d. Herbal remedies ANS: C Modern public health practices, such as isolation, disinfection, and ship quarantines, emerged in response to the bubonic plague. Care in a hospital was originally developed by the Romans. Chemical intervention and herbal remedies were not used to self-protect from the Black Death. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 6. Which disease provided immunity to smallpox? a. Cowpox b. Measles c. Mumps d. Scarlet fever ANS: A Those that had an infection of cowpox were thereafter immune from smallpox, which was endemic and killed about 10% of the population. Measles, mumps, and scarlet fever did not provide immunity to smallpox. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 7. A scholar during the Sanitary Revolution created medical topographies. What was the advantage of these surveys? a. Citizens knew which wells were safe to use for drinking water. b. People knew what housing areas to avoid. c. Results demonstrated geographical factors related to regional disease. d. The king could isolate areas of disease from safe areas. NURSINGTB.COM Community Public Health Nursing 7th Edition Nies Test Bank NU RS IN GT B.CO M ANS: C Survey methods were being used to study health problems. The medical topographies illustrated geographical factors related to regional health and disease. They did not address the safety of wells, housing areas, or the isolation of disease. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 8. How did Edwin Chadwick’s ideas help decrease disease in the nineteenth century? a. The minimum wage was increased leading to improved quality of life. b. Parish workhouses where poverty-level children labored for their room and board were closed. c. Social reform legislation resulted in changes such as sidewalks. d. The new emphasis on individual responsibility encouraged people to act to protect their own health. ANS: C Edwin Chadwick’s Report on the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population of Great Britain led to legislation for social reform, including child welfare, factory management, clean water, sewers, fireplugs, and sidewalks. This report did not address increasing the minimum wage, closing parish workhouses, or increasing individual responsibility. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 9. Which best describes how John Snow was able to decrease deaths from cholera? a. Removed a source of contaminated water b. Created the world’s first antibiotic c. Encouraged the new process of vaccination d. Helped pass laws that required home quarantine ANS: A John Snow demonstrated that cholera was transmissible through contaminated water. He removed the pump handle from the contaminated water so an alternate source of water had to be used. Alexander Fleming created the first antibiotic. Legislators were responsible for encouraging the new process of vaccination and passing laws related to home quarantine. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 10. Which best describes the achievement that Lemuel Shattuck is well known for in the United States? a. Publishing the census of Boston, which demonstrated the effect of sanitary reforms b. Demonstrating the usefulness of vital statistics by analyzing environmental data c. Developing ideas about public health care reform, which were eventually adopted d. Establishing a state board of health to deal with the problems he had noted ANS: C Lemuel Shattuck organized the American Statistical Society and issued a census, which demonstrated high mortality rates. His report of the Massachusetts Sanitary Commission recommended modern public health reforms. However, nothing was actually done about the recommendations for almost two decades. Eventually, the merit of his ideas was recognized. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) [Show More]

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