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Potter et al.: Fundamentals of Nursing, 9th Edition Fundamentals of Nursing 9th Edition Potter - Perry 01: Nursing Today Chapter 01: Nursing Today Potter et al.: Fundamentals of Nursing, 9th Editio... n MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which nurse most likely kept records on sanitation techniques and the effects on health? a. Florence Nightingale b. Mary Nutting c. Clara Barton d. Lillian Wald ANS: A Nightingale was the first practicing nurse epidemiologist. Her statistical analyses connected poor 17 sanitation with cholera and dysentery. Mary Nutting, Clara Barton, and Lillian Wald came after Nightingale, each contributing to the nursing profession in her own way. Mary Nutting was instrumental in moving nursing education into universities. Clara Barton founded the American Red Cross. Lillian Wald helped open the Henry Street Settlement. DIF:Understand (comprehension)REF:5 OBJ: Discuss the influence of social, historical, political, and economic changes on nursing practices. TOP: Evaluation MSC: Health Promotion and Maintenance The nurse prescribes strategies and alternatives to attain expected outcome. Which standard of nursing practice is the nurse following? a. Assessment b. Diagnosis c. Planning 34 d. Implementation ANS: C In planning, the registered nurse develops a plan that prescribes strategies and alternatives to attain expected outcomes. During assessment, the registered nurse collects comprehensive data pertinent to the patient’s health and/or the situation. In diagnosis, the registered nurse analyzes the assessment data to determine the diagnoses or issues. During implementation, the registered nurse implements (carries out) the identified plan. DIF:Understand (comprehension)REF:2 OBJ: Discuss the development of professional nursing roles. TOP: Planning 17MSC:Management of Care 23 An experienced medical-surgical nurse chooses to work in obstetrics. Which level of proficiency is the nurse upon initial transition to the obstetrical floor? a. Novice b. Proficient c. Competent 34 d. Advanced beginner ANS: A A beginning nursing student or any nurse entering a situation in which there is no previous level of experience (e.g., an experienced operating room nurse chooses to now practice in home health) is an example of a novice nurse. A proficient nurse perceives a patient’s clinical situation as a whole, is able to assess an entire situation, and can readily transfer knowledge gained from multiple previous experiences to a situation. A competent nurse understands the organization and specific care required by the type of patients (e.g., surgical, oncology, or orthopedic patients). This nurse is a competent practitioner who is able to anticipate nursing care and establish long- range goals. A nurse who has had some level of experience with the situation is an advanced beginner. This experience may only be observational in nature, but the nurse is able to identify meaningful aspects or principles of nursing care. DIF:Apply (application)REF:2 OBJ: Discuss the development of professional nursing roles. TOP: Evaluation MSC:Management of Care 23A nurse assesses a patient’s fluid status and decides that the patient needs to drink more fluids. The nurse then encourages the patient to drink more fluids. Which concept is the nurse demonstrating? a. Licensure b. Autonomy c. Certification d. Accountability 17 ANS: B Autonomy is an essential element of professional nursing that involves the initiation of 34independent nursing interventions without medical orders. To obtain licensure in the United States, the RN candidate must pass the NCLEX-RN®. Beyond the NCLEX-RN®, the nurse may choose to work toward certification in a specific area of nursing practice. Accountability means that you are responsible, professionally and legally, for the type and quality of nursing care provided. DIF:Apply (application)REF:3 OBJ: Discuss the roles and career opportunities for nurses. TOP: Implementation MSC:Management of Care 23 A nurse prepares the budget and policies for an intensive care unit. Which role is the nurse implementing? a. Educator b. Manager c. Advocate d. Caregiver ANS: B A manager coordinates the activities of members of the nursing staff in delivering nursing care and has personnel, policy, and budgetary responsibility for a specific nursing unit or facility. As an educator, you explain concepts and facts about health, describe the reason for routine care activities, demonstrate procedures such as self-care activities, reinforce learning or patient behavior, and evaluate the patient’s progress in learning. As a patient advocate, you protect your patient’s human and legal rights and provide assistance in asserting these rights if the need arises. As a caregiver, you help patients maintain and regain health, manage disease and symptoms, and attain a maximal level function and independence through the healing process. DIF:Apply (application)REF:4 OBJ: Describe the roles and career opportunities for nurses. TOP: Implementation MSC:Management of Care 23 The nurse has been working in the clinical setting for several years as an advanced practice nurse. However, the nurse has a strong desire to pursue research and theory development. To fulfill this desire, which program should the nurse attend? a. Doctor of Nursing Science degree (DNSc) b. Doctor of Philosophy degree (PhD) c. Doctor of Nursing Practice degree (DNP) d. Doctor in the Science of Nursing degree (DSN) ANS: B Some doctoral programs prepare nurses for more rigorous research and theory development and award the research-oriented Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in nursing. Professional doctoral programs in nursing (DSN or DNSc) prepare graduates to apply research findings to clinical nursing. The DNP is a practice doctorate that prepares advanced practice nurses such as nurse practitioners. DIF:Understand (comprehension)REF:10 OBJ: Describe educational programs available for professional registered nurse (RN) education. TOP:Teaching/LearningMSC:Management of Care 23 17 A nurse attends a workshop on current nursing issues provided by the American Nurses Association. Which type of education did the nurse receive? a. Graduate education b. Inservice education c. Continuing education d. Registered nurse education ANS: C Continuing education involves formal, organized educational programs offered by universities, hospitals, state nurses associations, professional nursing organizations, and educational and health care institutions. After obtaining a baccalaureate degree in nursing, you can pursue graduate education leading to a master’s or doctoral degree in any number of graduate fields, including nursing. Inservice education programs are instruction or training provided by a health care facility or institution. Registered nurse education is the education preparation for an individual intending to be an RN. DIF:Apply (application)REF:10 OBJ: Describe educational programs available for professional registered nurse (RN) education. TOP:Teaching/LearningMSC:Management of Care 23 A nurse identifies gaps between local and best practices. Which Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) competency is the nurse demonstrating? a. b. c. d. Safety Patient-centered care Quality improvement Teamwork and collaboration ANS: C Quality improvement identifies gaps between local and best practices. Safety minimizes risk of harm to patients and providers through both system effectiveness and individual performance. Patient-centered care 17 recognizes the patient or designee as the source of control and full partner in providing compassionate and coordinated care based on respect for patient’s preferences, values, and needs. Teamwork and collaboration allows effective functioning within nursing and interprofessional teams, fostering open communication, mutual respect, and shared decision making. DIF:Understand (comprehension)REF:7 | 8 OBJ: Describe the roles and career opportunities for nurses. TOP: Evaluation MSC:Management of Care 9. A nurse has compassion fatigue. What is the nurse experiencing? a. Lateral violence and intrapersonal conflict b. Burnout and secondary traumatic stress c. Short-term grief and single stressor 34 d. ANS: B Physical and mental exhaustion Compassion fatigue is a term used to describe a state of burnout and secondary traumatic stress. Compassion fatigue may contribute to what is described as lateral violence (nurse-nurse interactions, not intrapersonal). Frequent, intense, or prolonged exposure to grief and loss places nurses at risk for developing compassion fatigue. Stressors, not a single stressor, contribute to compassion fatigue. Physical and mental exhaustion describes burnout only. DIF:Understand (comprehension)REF:6 OBJ: Discuss the influence of social, historical, political, and economic changes on nursing practices. TOP: Assessment MSC: Health Promotion and Maintenance 17 23 A patient is scheduled for surgery. When getting ready to obtain the informed consent, the patient tells the nurse, “I have no idea what is going to happen. I couldn’t ask any questions.” The nurse does not allow the patient to sign the permit and notifies the health care provider of the situation. Which role is the nurse displaying? a. Manager b. Patient educator c. Patient advocate d. Clinical nurse specialist ANS: C As a patient advocate, the nurse protects the patient’s human and legal rights, including the right of the patient to understand procedures before signing 34 permits. Although nurses can be educators, it is the responsibility of the surgeon to provide education for the patient in preparation for surgery, and it is the nurse’s responsibility to notify the health care provider if the patient is not properly educated. Managers coordinate the activities of members of the nursing staff in delivering nursing care, and clinical nurse specialists are experts in a specialized area of nursing practice in a variety of settings. DIF:Apply (application)REF:3 OBJ: Describe the roles and career opportunities for nurses. TOP: Evaluation MSC:Management of Care 23 The patient requires routine gynecological services after giving birth to her son, and while seeing the nurse-midwife, the patient asks for a referral to a pediatrician for the newborn. Which action should the nurse-midwife take initially? a. Provide the referral as requested. b. Offer to provide the newborn care. c. Refer the patient to the supervising provider. d. Tell the patient that is not allowed to make referrals. 17 ANS: B The practice of nurse-midwifery involves providing independent care for women during normal pregnancy, labor, and delivery, as well as care for the newborn. After being apprised of the midwifery role, if the patient insists on seeing a pediatrician, the nursemidwife should provide the referral. The supervising provider is an obstetric provider, not a pediatrician. A nurse-midwife can make referrals. DIF:Analyze (analysis)REF:4 OBJ: Describe the roles and career opportunities for nurses. TOP: Implementation 34MSC:Management of Care 23 The nurse has a goal of becoming a certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA). Which activity is appropriate for a CRNA? a. Manages gynecological services such as PAP smears b. Works under the guidance of an anesthesiologist c. Obtains a PhD degree in anesthesiology 51 d. Coordinates acute medical conditions ANS: B Nurse anesthetists provide surgical anesthesia under the guidance and supervision of an anesthesiologist, who is a physician (health care provider) with advanced knowledge of surgical anesthesia. Nurse practitioners, not CRNAs, manage self-limiting acute and chronic stable medical conditions; certified nurse-midwives provide gynecological services such as routine Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. The CRNA is an RN with an advanced education in a nurse anesthesia accredited program. A PhD is not a requirement. DIF:Understand (comprehension)REF:4 OBJ: Describe the roles and career opportunities for nurses. TOP: Implementation 17 MSC:Management of Care 23 A nurse teaches a group of nursing students about nurse practice acts. Which information is most important to include in the teaching session about nurse practice acts? a. Protects the nurse b. Protects the public c. Protects the provider d. Protects the hospital ANS: B The nurse practice acts regulate the scope of nursing practice and protect public health, safety, and welfare. They do not protect the nurse, provider, or hospital. DIF:Understand (comprehension)REF:10 34 OBJ: Discuss the influence of social, historical, political, and economic changes on nursing practices. TOP: Teaching/Learning MSC: Management of Care 23 A bill has been submitted to the State House of Representatives that is designed to reduce the cost of health care by increasing the patient-to-nurse ratio from a maximum of 2:1 in intensive care units to 3:1. What should the nurse realize? D O T 23 23 O 24 P 25 T 26 17C 17 17A C D 17 O 17T 17 34 17 34 34 17 17 34 17 17 34 34 51 34 23 While providing care to a patient, the nurse is responsible, both professionally and legally. Which concept does this describe? a. Autonomy b. Accountability c. Patient advocacy d. Patient education ANS: B Accountability means that the nurse is responsible, professionally and legally, for the type and quality of nursing care provided. Autonomy is an essential element of professional nursing that involves the initiation of 17 independent nursing interventions without medical orders. As a patient advocate, the nurse protects the patient’s human and legal rights and provides assistance in asserting these rights if the need arises. As an educator, the nurse explains concepts and facts about health, describes the reasons for routine care activities, demonstrates procedures such as selfcare activities, reinforces learning or patient behavior, and evaluates the patient’s progress in learning. DIF:Remember (knowledge)REF:3 OBJ iscuss the influence of social, historical, political, and economic changes on nursing practices.TOP:EvaluationMSC:Management of Care 23 A nurse is teaching the staff about Benner’s levels of proficiency. In which order should the nurse place the levels from beginning level to ending level? 34 23Expert 24Novice 25Proficient 26Competent 27Advanced beginner a. 2, 4, 5, 1, 3 b. 2, 5, 4, 3, 1 c. 4, 2, 5, 3, 1 d. 4, 5, 2, 1, 3 ANS: B Benner’s levels of proficiency are as follows: novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expert. DIF:Understand (comprehension)REF:2 OBJ: Discuss the development of professional nursing roles. TOP: Teaching/Learning MSC:Management of Care MULTIPLE RESPONSE 17 23 A nurse is preparing a teaching session about contemporary influences on nursing. Which examples should the nurse include? (Select all that apply.) a. Human rights b. Affordable Care Act c. Demographic changes d. Medically underserved e. Decreasing health care costs ANS: A, B, C, D Multiple external forces affect nursing, including the need for nurses’ self-care, Affordable Care Act (ACA) and rising (not decreasing) health care costs, demographic changes of the population, human rights, and increasing numbers of medically underserved. DIF:Understand (comprehension)REF:6 OBJ: Discuss the influence of social, historical, political, and economic changes on nursing practices. TOP: Teaching/Learning MSC: Management of Care 23 After licensure, the nurse wants to stay current in knowledge and skills. Which programs are the most common ways nurses can do this? (Select all that apply.) 17a. Master’s degree b. Inservice education c. Doctoral preparation d. Continuing education e. National Council Licensure Examination retakes 34 ANS: B, D Continuing education programs help nurses maintain current nursing skills, gain new knowledge and theory, and obtain new skills reflecting the changes in the health care delivery system. Inservice education programs are provided by a health care facility to increase the knowledge, skills, and competencies of nurses employed by the institution. Both can help the nurse stay current. Master’s degree programs are valuable for those in the role of nurse educator, nurse administrator, or advanced practice nurse. Professional doctoral programs in nursing (DSN or DNSc) prepare graduates to apply research findings to clinical nursing. National Council Licensure Examination retakes are not to keep current; this test is taken to enter RN practice. DIF:Understand (comprehension)REF:10 OBJ: Describe educational programs available for professional registered nurse (RN) education. TOP:Teaching/LearningMSC:Management of Care 23 A nurse wants to become an advanced practice registered nurse. Which options should the nurse consider? (Select all that apply.) a. Patient advocate b. Nurse administrator c. Certified nurse-midwife d. Clinical nurse specialist e. Certified nurse practitioner ANS: C, D, E Although all nurses should function as patient advocates, “advanced practice nurse” is an umbrella term for an advanced clinical nurse such as a certified nurse practitioner, clinical nurse specialist, certified registered nurse anesthetist, or certified nurse-midwife. A nurse administrator is not an example of advanced practice. DIF:Understand (comprehension)REF:4 17 OBJ: Describe the roles and career opportunities for nurses. TOP: Teaching/Learning MSC:Management of Care 23 The nurse manager from the oncology unit has had two callouts; the orthopedic unit has had multiple discharges and probably will have to cancel one or two of its nurses. The orthopedic unit has agreed to “float” two of its nurses to the oncology unit if oncology can “float” a nursing assistant to the orthopedic unit to help with obtaining vital signs. Which concepts does this situation entail? (Select all that apply.) a. 34 Autonomy b. Informatics c. Accountability a fixed reimbursement amount based on assigned DRG, regardless of a patient’s length of stay or use of services. Capitation means that providers receive a fixed amount per patient or enrollee of a health care plan. DRG reimbursement is based on case severity, rural/urban/regional costs, and teaching costs, not national averages. DIF:Understand (comprehension)REF:15 OBJ: Compare the various methods for financing health care. TOP: Planning MSC:Management of Care 23 A nurse is teaching the staff about managed care. Which information should the nurse include in the teaching session? 17a. Managed care insures full coverage of health care costs. b. Managed care only assumes the financial risk involved. c. Managed care allows providers to focus on illness care. d. Managed care causes providers to focus on prevention. ANS: D 34Managed care describes health care systems in which the provider or the health care system receives a predetermined capitated (fixed amount) payment for each patient enrolled in the program. Therefore, the focus of care shifts from individual illness care to prevention, early intervention, and outpatient care. The actual cost of care is the responsibility of the provider. The managed care organization (provider) assumes financial risk, in addition to providing patient care. DIF:Understand (comprehension)REF:15 OBJ: Explain the structure of the United States health system. TOP: Teaching/Learning MSC:Management of Care 23 A nurse is teaching a family about health care plans. Which information from the nurse indicates a correct understanding of the Affordable Care Act? 23 A family can choose whether to have health insurance with no consequences. 24 Primary care physician payments from Medicaid services can equal Medicare. 25 Adult children up to age 26 are allowed coverage on the parent’s plan. 26 Private insurance companies can deny coverage for any reason. ANS: C 17 Adult children up to the age of 26, regardless of student status, are allowed to be covered under their parents’ health insurance plan. All individuals are required to have some form of health insurance by 2014 or pay a penalty through the tax code. Primary care physician payments for Medicaid services increased to equal Medicare payments. Implementation of insurance regul... [Show More]

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