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Patho quiz questions & Answers, Exam Questions 2022/2023 latest update.

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Patho quiz questions & Answers, Exam Questions 2022/2023 latest update. A nurse recalls if the surface barriers such as the skin or mucus membranes are breached, the second line of defense in inn... ate immunity is the: A. lymph node B. lymphocyte response C. inflammatory response D. memory cells - ✔✔C. inflammatory response A nurse is teaching about inflammation. Which information should be included? The first vascular response in inflammation is: A. vasoconstriction B. vasodilation C. increased vascular permeability D. decreased vascular permeability - ✔✔A. vasoconstriction when a nurse is asked about the purpose of vasodilation and increased vascular permeability during inflammation, how should the nurse respond? A. to bring white blood cells to the area of injury B. to inactivate inflammatory chemicals at the area of injury C. to concentrate toxins D. to spread injury to other cells - ✔✔A. to bring white blood cells to the area of injury While discussing the complement system, which information should the nurse include? the alternative pathway of the complement system is activated by: A. histamine B. antigen- antibody complexes C. bacteria D. bleeding - ✔✔C. bacteria A patient asks a nurse what leukotrienes do. What is the nurse's best answer? Leukotrienes: A. cause smooth muscles relaxation B. activate chemotactic cytokines C. cause increased vascular permeability D. activate complement proteins - ✔✔C. cause increased vascular permeability When a nurse is asked how cytokines are classified, which of the following is the best response? Cytokines are classified as: A. leukocytes or monocytes B. interleukins or interferons C. platelets or macrophages D. bacteria or microorganisms - ✔✔B. interleukins or interferons Which lab test helps the nurse monitor the primary phagocyte in the blood? A. macrophages B. eosinophils C. neutrophils D. basophils - ✔✔C. neutrophils A patient is taking an antihistamine. This assessment finding would indicate the mediation having a therapeutic effect? A. inflammation decreases B. swelling increases C. coughing increases D. free radicals decrease - ✔✔A. inflammation decreases A patient has chronic inflammation. Which principle should the nurse use to guide nursing care? Chronic inflammation is characterized by a dense infiltration of: A. neutrophils B. eosinophils C. macrophages D. cytophages - ✔✔C. macrophages When the nurse is asked about how long it takes neutrophils to arrive at the site of inflammation, how should the nurse respond? A. 1-2 hours B. 6-12 hrs C. 24-48 hrs D. at least 48 hours - ✔✔B. 6-12 hrs In addition to phagocytosis, which of the following functions are also performed by macrophages? A. promoting angiogenesis B. inhibiting growth factors C. inhibiting inflammation D. promoting blood clotting - ✔✔A. promoting angiogenesis What term does the nurse use to describe a monocyte once it enters the tissue during an inflammatory response? A. Neutrophil B. macrophages C. mast cells D. fibroblast - ✔✔B. macrophages A nurse recalls that to increase a macrophages capacity to kill, they must be activated by: A. neutrophils B. plasma cells C. mast cells D. interferon - ✔✔D. interferon When a nurse is asked which of the following inhibits the inflammatory response, what is the nurses best answer? A. Neutrophils B. mast cells C. eosinophils D. basophils - ✔✔C. eosinophils A nurse is assessing a patient with systemic acute inflammation. Which assessment signs and symptoms does the nurse expect to find? A. fever, leukocytosis, increased plasma proteins B. pallor, pain, increase warmth C. sweating, irritability, increased vomiting D. sweating, nausea, increased diarrhea - ✔✔A. fever, leukocytosis, increased plasma proteins While reviewing lab results, which finding would alert the nurse to a patient with acute inflammation? A. decerased neutrophils B. increased eosinophils C. decreased leukocytes D. increased sedimentation rate - ✔✔D. increased sedimentation rate When a patient asks how non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen work, how should the nurse reply? A. Histamine B. prostaglandins C. leukotrienes D. interferons - ✔✔B. prostaglandins While planning care for a patient with acute inflammation and pain, which principle should the nurse remember? The inflammatory chemicals responsible for inducing pain during inflammation are: A. braykinin and prostaglandins B. histamine and chemotatic cytokines C. lymphokines D. nitrous oxide and platelet-activating factor - ✔✔A. braykinin and prostaglandins A staff member asks the nurse what opsonization does. How should the nurse respond? Opsonization promotes the process of: A. phagocytosis B. vasodilation C. incrased vascular permeability D. clotting - ✔✔A. phagocytosis Upon assessment, which of the following would the nurse expect to find in a patient with local inflammation? A. edema B. pallor C. bruising D. necrosis - ✔✔A. edema What term does the nurse use to describe the exudate that is characterized by the movement of watery fluid, containing few cells and little protein? A. fibrinous B. serous C. purulent D. hemorrhagic - ✔✔B. serous What term would the nurse chart for the exudate that would be present in the highest concentration at the site of a persistent bacterial infection? A. fibrinous B. serous C. purulent D. hemorrhagic - ✔✔C. purulent After abdominal surgery, an obese patient reports to the nurse that something popped and now there is clear drainage coming from the wound. Which condition does the nurse realize the patient is experiencing? A. keloid formation B. excessive bleeding C. contraction of the wound D. wound dehiscence - ✔✔D. wound dehiscence When a nurse is asked which cell plays an active role in collagen during wound healing, how should the nurse respond? A. mast cell B. elastase C. fibroblast D. osteocyte - ✔✔C. fibroblast A patient has chronic inflammation. A nurse recalls which of the following characteristic feature of chronic inflammation may occur? A. granuloma formation B. bleeding C. neutrophila D. hypertrophic scar - ✔✔A. granuloma formation A patient has a large, deep (stage IV) pressure ulcer. The nurse will observe the wound heal through the process of: A. primary intention B. secondary intention C. reepithelialization without significant scarring D. retraction - ✔✔B. secondary intention A nurse is discussing the proliferative phase of wound healing. Which information should the nurse include? During the proliferative phase of wound healing. ___ Occurs. A. epithelialization B. scar tissue remodeling C. dehiscence D. degranulation - ✔✔A. epithelialization If a patient develops contractures during wound healing, for which possible problems should the nurse monitor? A. limited movement at joints, maturation B. impaired blood flow, enulgment C. organ stricture, megakarycytes D. limited movement at joints, impaired blood flow - ✔✔D. limited movement at joints, impaired blood flow While planning care for a patient, which principle should the nurse use to guide care? The first line of defense against pathogens is the: A. skin and mucous membranes B. inflammatory response C. primary immune response D. hypersensitivity response - ✔✔A. skin and mucous membranes A nurse is explaining the complement system. Which information should the nurse include? The components of the complement and kinin system are: A. antibodies B. white blood cells C. growth factors D. plasma proteins - ✔✔D. plasma proteins Prior to engulfment of a bacterium during phagocytosis, nurse recalls which of the following events must occur? A. release of lysosomal enzymes B. fusion C. recognition and adherence D. formation of phagolysosome - ✔✔C. recognition and adherence When a staff member asks the nurse how phagocytes destroy engulfed bacteria, how should the nurse respond? One way a phagocyte destroys engulfed bacteria is by: A. angiogenesis B. inflammation C. chemokines D. respiratory burst - ✔✔D. respiratory burst A patient has a fever and inflammation. Which of the following chemicals does the nurse suspect caused the fever? A. TNF- aLPHA b. aspirin C. histamine D. collagen - ✔✔A. TNF- aLPHA A nurse is teaching the staff about medications and wound healing. What information should the nurse include? A drug that will not delay wound healing is a/an: A. NSAID B. steroids C. antineoplastic drugs D. vitamins - ✔✔D. vitamins A patient has warmth and redness of the skin from inflammation. When the nurse is asked what process is responsible for these assessment findings, how should the nurse respond? A. increase vascular permeability B. phagocytosis C. vasoconstriction D. vasodilation - ✔✔D. vasodilation Which patient will be most prone to dysfunctional would healing? A patient: A. with diabetes who is taking insulin B. who doe snot smoke C. with ischemia D. who has minimal bleeding - ✔✔C. with ischemia A nurse is reviewing lab results and notices a left shift in the white blood cell count differential. Which result was the nurse checking? A. lymphocytes B. monocytes C. basophils D. bands - ✔✔D. bands A nurse will be teaching about body defense. Which information should the nurse include? The body's first line of defense against microorganisms is comprised of the: A. immune system B. inflammatory response C. skin and mucous membranes D. hypersensitivity response - ✔✔C. skin and mucous membranes While planning care for a patient with an infection, which principle should the nurse remember? In contrast with the inflammatory response, the immune response: A. responds in the same manner to any microorganisms B. is faster C. recognizes specific invaders D. has no memory - ✔✔C. recognizes specific invaders a nurse recalls humoral immunity is generated through the process of: A. directing cell lysis B. stimulating an inflammatory response C. producing antibodies D. secreting toxic molecules - ✔✔C. producing antibodies When a patent asks what activates the immune response, how should the nurse respond? Molecules that are capable of inducing an immune response are called: A. lymphocytes B. hapten C. antigens D. antibodies - ✔✔C. antigens A nurse is discussing an endogenous antigen. Which example indicates the nurse has a good understanding? A. poison ivy B. injected medications C. pollen D. the body's own tissue - ✔✔D. the body's own tissue If an individual has a condition in which the immune cells attack the indivduals own tissues (self-antigen) as if they were invaders, what terms will the nurse observe documented on the chart? A. alloimmunity B. autoimmunity C. hyposensitivity D. graft rejection - ✔✔B. autoimmunity [Show More]

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