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Pathophysiology Mid-Term Exam - QUIZ QUESTIONS & Answers. 100% Predictor questions. Rated A

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Pathophysiology Mid-Term Exam - QUIZ QUESTIONS & Answers. 100% Predictor questions. Rated A The human body requires cholesterol. It is used to construct: a. muscle fibers b. proteins c. DNA d. ... the cell membrane - ✔✔correct answer: d. the cell membrane Cholesterol is used by the cell to construct the phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane. Every cell in the body. Mitochondria contain the enzymes necessary for: a. gluconeogenesis b. phagocytosis c. photosynthesis d. ATP production - ✔✔correct answer: d. ATP production Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell. Their main function is to produce ATP. The movement of ions through the sodium-potassium pump is an example of ________. a. osmosis b. active transport c. simple diffusion d. passive transport - ✔✔correct answer: b. active transport The sodium-potassium pump is an example of an active transport pump. Active transport requires an energy input; in this case, ATP. In the resting membrane potential, potassium is predominantly an ________-cellular ion and sodium is predominantly an ________-cellular ion. a. extra-; intra- b. intra-; intra- c. intra-; extra- d. extra-; extra- - ✔✔correct answer: c. intra-; extra- Sodium in predominantly an extracellular ion, with a normal serum concentration of 135-145 mEq/L and intracellular concentration of 3.5-5 mEq/L. Potassium is largely an intracellular ion, at concentrations of 135-145 mEq/L intracellularly and extracellular concentration of 3.5-5 mEq/L. During the action potential of a muscle or nerve cells, sodium rushing into the cell causes an ________ response. - ✔✔correct answer: all or none An all-or-none response occurs after sodium influx, which results in the subsequent phases of the action potential. Once sodium influxes into the cell, conduction cannot be stopped. Hypertension, or high blood pressure, requires the heart to become stronger. The cell's adaption strategy in response to hypertension is ________. a. atrophy b. hypertrophy c. metaplasia d. dysplasia - ✔✔correct answer: b. hypertrophy Hypertrophy is the equivalent of body builders getting huge from lifting weights. Gangrene is an example of: a. hyperplasia b. apoptosis c. necrosis d. cellular aging - ✔✔correct answer: c. necrosis An individual who carries a copy of the gene is a carrier. A synonym for carrier, in this case, is ________. a. recessive b. dominant c. heterozygous d. homozygous - ✔✔correct answer: c. heterozygous Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder. One strange and cruel feature of Huntington's disease is that patients usually have had children by the time symptoms emerge. What is the likelihood that children of parents—each homozygous (i.e. HH and HH)—will inherit the disease? a. 25% b. 75% c. 50% d. 100% - ✔✔correct answer: d. 100% Since Huntington's disease follows an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, any dominant allele (i.e. "big H") that is passed on will result in the disease. In the case of two homozygous parents, 100% of the offspring will have the disease. What is epigenetics? - ✔✔Epigenetics is the study of changes in organisms caused by modification of gene expression rather than alteration of the genetic code itself. Antigen-presenting cells function to: a. initiate the complement cascade by way of the alternate pathway b. stimulate cytokine production by macrophages c. phagocytose and degrade foreign antigens d. display foreign antigen on their cell surfaces bound to MHC - ✔✔correct answer: d. display foreign antigen on their cell surfaces bound to MHC Which clinical finding is most indicative of an acute bacterial infection? a. increased (band) neutrophils b. elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate c. elevated WBC count d. elevated temperature - ✔✔correct answer: a. increased (band) neutrophils Remember that initially in the stress response (release of cortisol) WBCs are released from their moorings along the vessel walls. It takes time for more WBCs to be produced in the bone marrow and the first WBCs to be released are immature "teenagers" who haven't yet matured into fully functional neutrophils. THAT's the indication that there's an active infection. We call it a "left shift;" a shift to less mature cells in response to active infection. Interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α are inflammatory cytokines secreted by: a. lymphocytes b. plasma cells c. neutrophils d. macrophages - ✔✔correct answer: d. macrophages Immunity to a specific organism can be determined by a lab test to check the ________. a. erythrocyte sedimentation rate b. WBC count c. antibody titer d. active phase protein count - ✔✔correct answer: c. antibody titer The primary function of B cells is: a. killing antigen-presenting cells b. making (i.e. synthesizing) antibodies c. secreting cytokines d. killing virally infected cells - ✔✔correct answer: b. making (i.e. synthesizing) antibodies B cells = antibodies Dramatic hypotension sometimes accompanies type I hypersensitivity reactions because: a. massive histamine release from mast cells leads to vasodilation b. anaphylaxis results in large volume losses secondary to sweating c. toxins released into the blood interfere with cardiac function d. hypoxia resulting from bronchoconstriction impairs cardiac function - ✔✔correct answer: a. massive histamine release from mast cells leads to vasodilation Massive histamine release causes extreme vasodilation, which can result in severe hypotension (e.g. anaphylactic shock). We treat these patients initially with large amounts of IV fluid. Which disorder is considered a primary immunodeficiency disease? a. HIV/AIDS b. malnutrition immunodeficiency c. cancer immunodeficiency d. radiation immunodeficiency - ✔✔correct answer: a. HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS is the only problem listed that directly causes immunocompromise by directly attacking the CD4 cells. The other listed mechanisms are secondary to some other problem—malnutrition causes decreased production of immune cells because the body doesn't have the building blocks to make the cells; cancer immunodeficiency is caused by the drugs we use to treat the cancer; and, radiation destroys impacts the ability of bone marrow to produce immune cells. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID; i.e. "boy in the bubble") syndrome is an example of a(n): a. deficient immune response b. primary acquired immunodeficiency c. excessive immune response d. hypersensitivity reaction - ✔✔correct answer: a. deficient immune response SCID is a deficient immune response caused by a genetic trait that prevents production of B-cells and T-cells. A primary effector cell of the type I hypersensitivity response is: a. neutrophils b. mast cells c. monocytes d. cytotoxic cells - ✔✔correct answer: b. mast cells The hypersensitivity reaction that does not involve antibody production is type: a. II b. III c. I d. IV - ✔✔correct answer: d. IV Type IV hypersensitivity reactions are cell-mediated, not immunoglobulin-mediated. Type IV reactions are unique in that sense. The primary source of erythropoietin is provided by the: a. lung b. bone marrow c. liver d. kidney - ✔✔correct answer: d. kidney Erythropoietin is produced by the kidneys in response to oxygen levels in the blood that flow through the glomerulus. What is necessary for red blood cell production? a. calcium b. iron c. phosphate d. magnesium - ✔✔correct answer: b. iron Iron is the major building block of hemoglobin and RBCs. Which characteristic is indicative of hemolytic anemia? a. jaundice b. increased total iron-binding capacity c. hypovolemia d. increased heart rate - ✔✔correct answer: a. jaundice Hemolysis, the breakdown of RBCs, causes the body to try to preserve the "building blocks" B12, folate and iron. To get to the iron, hemoglobin must be broken down. The breakdown of hemoglobin produces (indirectly) bilirubin, an excess of which causes jaundice. A low mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) are characteristics of which type of anemia? a. vitamin B12 deficiency b. iron deficiency c. folate deficiency d. erythropoietin deficiency - ✔✔correct answer: b. iron deficiency Iron deficient anemia is characterized by hypochromic (pale) and microcytic (small) RBCs. Relative cell size is gotten from the MCHC and the relative color of the cell, which is a function of the amount of hemoglobin present, is gotten from the MCV. Dysfunction of which organ would lead to clotting factor deficiency? a. pancreas b. kidney c. spleen d. liver - ✔✔correct answer: d. liver The liver has 9 functions, one of which is synthesizing clotting proteins. The severity of liver failure can be estimated by looking at the prothrombin time (pro time or PT). The megakaryocyte is a precursor to: a. platelets b. factor IX c. red blood cells d. white blood cells - ✔✔correct answer: a. platelets Widespread activation of the clotting cascade secondary to massive trauma is called: a. Hageman disease b. hemophilia B c. idiopathic intravascular purpura d. disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) - ✔✔correct answer: d. disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) A 3 year old boy who exhibits prolonged bleeding after minor trauma and a prolonged aPTT, but a normal platelet count, is likely to be diagnosed with: a. hemophilia b. thrombocytopenia c. disseminated intravascular coagulation c. liver dysfunction - ✔✔correct answer: a. hemophilia Renal insufficiency is a common complication of which disease? a. myeloma b. chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) c. Hodgkin disease d. chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) - ✔✔correct answer: a. myeloma Myeloma is a disease of the plasma cells. Abnormal (Bence Jones) proteins accumulate in the kidneys and malignant plasma cells take up residence in bone; both of these processes have deleterious effects on the kidneys. A 5-year-old patient's parents report loss of appetite and fatigue in their child. The parents also state that the child refuses to walk as a result of pain. Of the leukemias, the child's most likely diagnosis is: a. ALL (acute lymphoid leukemia) [Show More]

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