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Medical surgical nursing 7th edition TEST BANK with all the correct answers

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Chapter 1: Introduction to Medical-Surgical Nursing Chapter 1: Introduction to Medical-Surgical Nursing Test Bank MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which action demonstrates that the nurse understands the purpos... e of the Rapid Response Team? a. Monitoring the client for changes in postoperative status such as wound infection b. Documenting all changes observed in the client and maintaining a postoperative flow sheet c. Notifying the physician of the client’s change in blood pressure from 140 to 88 mm Hg systolic d. Notifying the physician of the client’s increase in restlessness after medication change ANS: C The Rapid Response Team (RRT) saves lives and decreases the risk for harm by providing care to clients before a respiratory or cardiac arrest occurs. Although the RRT does not replace the Code Team, which responds to client arrests, it intervenes rapidly for those who are beginning to decline clinically. It would be appropriate for the RRT to intervene when the client has experienced a 52-point drop in blood pressure. Monitoring the client’s postoperative status, maintaining a postoperative flow sheet, and notifying the physician of a change in the client’s status after a medication change would not be considered activities of the Rapid Response Team. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension/Understanding REF: pp. 2-3 TOP: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment (Management of Care—Collaboration with Interdisciplinary Team) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Assessment) 2. The Joint Commission focuses on safety in health care. Which action by the nurse reflects The Joint Commission’s main objective? a. Performing range-of-motion exercises on the client three times each day b. Ensuring that the client is eating 100% of the meals served to him or her c. Assessing the client’s respirations when administering opioids d. Delegating to the nursing assistant to give the client a complete bath daily ANS: C It is important for the nurse to assess respirations of the client when administering opioids because of the possibility of respiratory depression. The other interventions may or may not be necessary in the care of the client and do not focus on safety. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A TOP: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment (Safety and Infection Control) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Assessment) 3. Which action by the nurse shows an understanding of the principle of self-determination? a. Allowing a postoperative client to decide to take medication with fruit juice rather than water b. Allowing a teenager to decide not to go to a clinic when there is evidence that she is having profuse vaginal bleeding c. Allowing a parent to decide not to proceed with a lifesaving operation for a 12-year-old client d. Allowing an older client with dementia to decide not to take cardiac medication throughout the shift ANS: A Respect for people is one of three basic ethical principles that nurses and other health care professionals should use as a basis for clinical decision making. Respect implies that clients are treated as autonomous individuals capable of making informed decisions about their care. This client autonomy is referred to as self-determination, or self-management, and is best illustrated by allowing a client to decide to take medication with fruit juice rather than water. The other answer choices would not illustrate self-determination appropriately and might possibly endanger the client’s life. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A TOP: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment (Management of Care—Ethical Practice) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Assessment) 4. The nurse is initiating a series of teaching sessions with an older client. What is the nurse’s highest-priority, client-centered action before beginning the session? a. Ensure that the client’s family is present and will participate. b. Make certain that the client is wearing his glasses. c. Have printed handouts ready to use during the session. d. Schedule the session for early evening after the client’s meal. ANS: B The most important client-centered action is to ensure that the client is wearing his or her glasses. The ability to see adequately will outweigh the need for family presence, use of printed handouts, and hunger (or lack thereof). DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A TOP: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance (Principles of Teaching/Learning) MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning 5. Which action best demonstrates the nurse using client-centered care when planning a menu for a Vietnamese client who is newly diagnosed with diabetes? a. Asking the client what food he or she would eat on a standard diabetic menu b. Asking family members to make selections for the client from a diabetic menu c. Ordering a typical diabetic meal for the client and planning diet teaching d. Researching the Vietnamese culture before discussing diabetic meal planning ANS: D Client-centered care is best illustrated by the nurse researching Vietnamese culture and native cooking before discussing meal planning. This shows that the nurse is interested and is involved in the client’s care. The nurse can then suggest foods from the standard diabetic menu to the client and his or her family. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Basic Care and Comfort—Nutrition and Oral Hydration) MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning 6. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) identified interventions to save client lives. Which actions are within the scope of nursing practice to improve quality of care? a. Insert a central line to give intravenous fluid to a dehydrated client. b. Use sterile technique when changing dressings on a new surgical site. c. Intubate a client whose oxygen saturation is 92%. d. Prescribe aspirin for a client who presents with an acute myocardial infarction ANS: B The only intervention identified within the scope of nursing practice is to use sterile technique. Central line insertion, intubation, and prescription are functions of the physician. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A TOP: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment (Management of Care—Legal Rights and Responsibilities) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Implementation) 7. Which action by the nurse demonstrates the best practice for nursing documentation on a computerized record? a. Deleting all documentation errors on the computerized record b. Using red font to denote all significant events that have occurred c. Waiting until the end of the shift to record a summary of information d. Documenting assessment data at the point of care ANS: D The best practice for nursing documentation is to document as soon as the assessment is completed. The other practices listed are ineffective and are not recommended. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A TOP: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment (Management of Care—Legal Rights and Responsibilities) MSC: Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation 8. A client is scheduled for a mastectomy. As she is about to receive the preoperative medication, she tells the nurse that she does not want to have her breast removed but wants a lumpectomy. Which response indicates that the nurse is acting as a client advocate? a. Telling the client her surgeon is excellent and knows what is best for her condition b. Calling the surgeon to come and explain all treatment options to the client c. Holding the client’s hand and offering to pray with her for a good outcome d. Arranging for a postoperative visit from a cancer survivor ANS: B Clients have the right to be fully informed about their treatment plans and to change their minds. A client who expresses doubt, uncertainty, or a change of feeling about a treatment plan should be supported by the nurse and heard by the health care provider, and should serve as an active participant in treatment planning. The nurse would be functioning best as a client advocate by notifying the surgeon that the client wants a different treatment option. The nurse would not be acting as a client advocate by providing vague reassurance, arranging for a cancer survivor to come meet with the client, or offering to pray with the client because none of these options would address the client’s desire for a different treatment option. Calling the surgeon to come and explain all treatment options also promotes communication and client advocacy. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A TOP: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment (Management of Care—Ethical Practice) MSC: Integrated Process: Caring 9. What priority assessment data should be shared with the interdisciplinary team from a client admitted to the emergency department with a lacerated artery? a. Information regarding next of kin to notify in case the client dies b. History about what medications the client is currently taking c. Measurement of blood pressure and pulse d. Assessment of rate and depth of respirations ANS: C In establishing an emergency database, assessment first focuses on the immediate problem, especially with a high probability for a life-threatening consequence. Assessing vital signs such as blood pressure and pulse, which indicate the client’s hemodynamic status, is the priority intervention. Determining the client’s current medications, notifying next of kin, or measuring the rate and depth of respirations is of less importance at this time. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Physiological Adaptation—Medical Emergencies) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Assessment) 10. Which intervention can the client expect to receive from a medical-surgical nurse in an ambulatory care setting? a. Drawing blood for routine or preoperative testing b. Teaching the client how to change a dressing on an incision c. Obtaining the client’s signature on a surgical consent form d. Performing a comprehensive physical examination ANS: B Client teaching is a primary role of the medical-surgical nurse. Obtaining a surgical consent is usually the responsibility of the person performing the surgery. Blood drawing and performing physicals may be done by the nurse but are not primary nursing responsibilities. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A TOP: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment (Management of Care—Continuity of Care) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Planning) 11. An emergency department (ED) nurse gives report on a client who is being transferred to the medical-surgical floor. Because of an identified risk for suicide, the ED nurse suggests that the floor nurse contact a sitter and behavioral health. This statement represents which part of the SBAR hand-off? a. Situation b. Background c. Assessment d. Recommendation ANS: D The ED nurse is giving recommendations to the medical-surgical floor nurse about interventions to start for the client who is being transferred. No communication is provided in the SBAR report about the situation, background, or assessment. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge/Remembering REF: p. 4 TOP: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment (Management of Care—Continuity of Care) MSC: Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation 12. The nurse is present when the physician discusses the potential effects of a chemotherapy regimen for a client with cancer. Weighing the benefits of the chemotherapy against possible side effects is an example of which ethical principle? a. Paternalism b. Beneficence c. Justice d. Autonomy ANS: B Beneficence stresses the importance of preventing harm and promoting the client’s well-being. When benefits versus negative effects of an intervention are compared, the client is better informed and can evaluate what could be done in his or her best interest. Autonomy implies self-determination, justice refers to equality, and paternalism refers to the male head of the family for decision making. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension/Understanding REF: p. 4 TOP: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment (Management of Care—Ethical Practice) MSC: Integrated Process: Caring 13. The physician prescribes warfarin (Coumadin) 15 mg daily. The nurse notes that this is three times the normal dose for this client based on the client’s medication profile and laboratory work. What does the nurse do first? a. Give the dose and document the concern. b. Call the pharmacy for a consultation. c. Call the physician to question the order. d. Hold the medication for that day. ANS: C Communication between the physician and the nurse should be the first step in medication administration to ensure safety in client care. The pharmacy can be consulted but not as the first step. The other answers are not safe practices for the nurse. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A TOP: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment (Safety and Infection Control—Error Prevention) MSC: Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation; Nursing Process (Evaluation) 14. Which statement best describes the process of nursing case management? a. The coordination of care services to at-risk populations b. A collaborative process to promote quality and cost-effective care c. The implementation of care to acutely ill, underserved populations d. A cost-effective care delivery model meeting the needs of specially defined groups ANS: B The process of case management involves collaboration to assess, plan, implement, coordinate, monitor, and evaluate services to meet health care needs in a manner that promotes quality and cost-effective outcomes. It does not solely involve coordination of care services to at-risk populations, implementation of care to acutely ill and underserved clientele, nor a cost-effective model of care delivery that will meet the needs of specially defined groups. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension/Understanding REF: p. 4 TOP: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment (Management of Care—Continuity of Care) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Planning) 15. Which client is best served by a case manager? a. An older woman with chronic cystitis b. A middle-aged man with moderate hypertension c. An older woman with chronic heart failure and diabetes mellitus d. A young adult with a fractured ankle from a sports injury ANS: C The case management process is reserved for clients who have complex health problems (high risk) and incur a high cost to the health care system. Clients with chronic cystitis, moderate hypertension, or a fractured ankle probably would not incur high costs to the health care system. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension/Understanding REF: p. 4 TOP: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment (Management of Care—Continuity of Care) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Planning) 16. The client with a stroke was admitted to a medical-surgical unit. Which tasks does the nurse delegate to the unlicensed assistive personnel? a. Complete the nursing care plan. b. Assist the client with meals. c. Evaluate the pulse oximetry reading. d. Assess level of consciousness. ANS: B The nurse needs to know the five rights of delegation: right task, right circumstances, right person, right communication, and right supervision. Unlicensed assistive personnel can help with feeding, but only the nurse can care plan, assess the level of consciousness, and evaluate the oxygenation of the client. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A TOP: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment (Management of Care—Delegation) MSC: Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. The nurse on a medical-surgical unit notices that there has been an increase in the number of client falls. Which methods would be effective in promoting quality improvement on this issue? (Select all that apply.) a. Identify causes of falls on the unit by looking at specific client cases. b. Look at the research and the literature on prevention of falls. c. Complain to the manager that team members are neglecting the clients. d. Use sit and stand alarms because they seem to be working on other units. e. Try more frequent rounding on clients as suggested by co-workers. ANS: A, B, D, E Quality improvement requires individual and systematic evaluation. Evidence-based practice in the form of research and literature can aid in revision of care processes. After review of ways that falls can be prevented, specific recommendations can be made to improve care on the unit. Complaining does not facilitate the resolution of a problem. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A TOP: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment (Safety and Infection Control—Accident/Injury Prevention) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Planning, Evaluation) 2. Which settings would require maximum implementation of the nurse supervisor role? (Select all that apply.) a. Acute care setting b. Home care setting c. Skilled nursing facility d. Assisted-living facility e. Rehabilitation facility ANS: A, B, C, D, E In all of the listed facilities and settings, numerous unlicensed assistive personnel are delegated various tasks. The registered nurse is responsible for overseeing the actions of such personnel and therefore would implement the supervisor role to its maximal extent. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension/Understanding REF: p. 5 TOP: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment (Management of Care—Concepts of Management) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Planning) 3. Which activities are within the role of the case manager? (Select all that apply.) a. Gathering and organizing data about a client from client records and interviews b. Planning care for a client with emphasis on client satisfaction c. Coordinating care among a variety of health care professionals and settings d. Promoting the client’s interests while negotiating necessary health care e. Advocating for the client and the family throughout the continuum of care f. Using resources for appropriate client health care services ANS: A, C, D, E, F Primary roles of the nursing case manager include wide-reaching assessment, planning for timely and cost-effective outcomes, facilitation, and advocacy. Roles of the nursing case manager do not include planning care for a client with emphasis on client satisfaction. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension/Understanding REF: p. 4 TOP: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment (Management of Care—Concepts of Management) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Planning) 4. A client has metastatic lung cancer and is hospitalized for chemotherapy. Which intervention does the nurse delegate to the unlicensed assistive personnel? (Select all that apply.) a. Assist the client with repositioning. b. Teach the client to use the incentive spirometer. c. Take vital signs every 4 hours. d. Record intake and output measurements. e. Promote the expression of grief and loss. ANS: A, C, D UAP can perform vital signs, record intake and output measurements, and aid in turning and positioning. Teaching and promoting client expression of feelings related to the grieving process are within the role of the nurse. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A TOP: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment (Management of Care—Delegation) MSC: Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation Chapter 2: Introduction to Complementary and Alternative Therapies Chapter 2: Introduction to Complementary and Alternative Therapies Test Bank MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The nurse wishes to learn more about the client’s use of natural products and their effectiveness. The nurse consults the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine because it is known that this center serves which function? a. Educates health professionals about complementary therapies b. Educates new mothers on the benefits of massage c. Engages in fundraising to offset client expenses with medical care d. Provides a scholarship for a student to study naturopathy ANS: A The purposes of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) are to fund studies examining the effectiveness of various complementary therapies, advance knowledge about complementary therapies of health professionals, and serve as a clearinghouse for information about these therapies. It does not fund scholarships, nor is it a nonprofit organization. It focuses on advancing knowledge for health professionals rather than the general public. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension/Understanding REF: p. 9 TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Basic Care and Comfort—Non-Pharmacological Comfort Interventions) MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning 2. A client is anxious about having a dressing change. Which statement indicates that the nurse is promoting appropriate complementary therapy? a. “I’ll call the doctor and ask for a larger dose of pain medication before the dressing change.” b. “As we begin the next dressing change, I want you to think of a beautiful, calm place where you feel happy and peaceful.” c. “I’ll get another nurse to stay in the room with us during the dressing change so that you have a hand to hold during the procedure.” d. “Are you familiar with acupuncture? It’s a very effective technique.” ANS: B Because the client’s primary problem is anxiety rather than pain at this point, the use of guided visual imagery should be the most effective intervention. Calling the physician for more pain medication and having another nurse present to help comfort the client will not address the main problem of the client. Acupuncture is used for relief of pain; an experienced practitioner is required to implement this technique. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Basic Care and Comfort—Non-Pharmacological Comfort Interventions) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Planning) 3. The nurse has designed a treatment plan that includes the use of massage. Which intervention will the nurse implement first? a. Assess the client to determine the most effective type of massage technique to use. b. Inspect the skin over the tissue to be massaged to ensure that it is not infected or bruised. c. Determine whether a licensed therapist will be needed to carry out the massage technique d. Obtain permission from the client to implement this type of technique. ANS: D Permission to use the procedure must be obtained from the client before any of the other interventions can be implemented. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Basic Care and Comfort—Non-Pharmacological Comfort Interventions) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Assessment) 4. A client who has been using which therapy requires the most immediate intervention by the nurse? a. Aromatherapy to treat depression b. Herbal preparations to treat hypertension c. Therapeutic touch to decrease level of pain d. Tai Chi to improve joint flexibility ANS: B The client who has been using herbal preparations to treat hypertension may have endangered his or her life by inadvertently ingesting a substance that interacts poorly with another drug or that can be toxic. Aromatherapy may be used as a complementary therapy to treat depression. Therapeutic touch has been shown to decrease pain, and Tai Chi may assist in mobility. These therapies are appropriate and are not life threatening. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies—Adverse Effects/Contraindications) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Assessment) 5. A client scheduled for surgery has been taking garlic supplements. Which action is most important for the nurse to take? a. No action is necessary because the herbal agent is harmless. b. Notify the charge nurse that the client has been taking garlic. c. Note the information on the client’s record and place in the chart. d. Notify the surgeon that the client has been taking garlic capsules. ANS: D Because garlic acts as an antiplatelet agent and has the potential to decrease clotting, much in the same way as aspirin, the surgeon will have to decide whether the surgery will be postponed. The nurse should never assume that any herbal supplement is “harmless” because many can interact with medications and diet. The nurse will note the information on the client’s chart, but the most important action is to notify the surgeon. Informing the charge nurse about the garlic is not necessary if the surgeon is notified. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Reduction of Risk Potential—Potential for Alterations in Body Systems) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Planning) 6. For which client does the nurse arrange animal-assisted therapy? a. Middle-aged adult in a psychiatric facility with a history of schizophrenia b. Older adult client with end-stage lung cancer in hospice care c. Older adult client in a nursing home who is unresponsive d. Adolescent in a drug treatment facility with a history of violent outbursts ANS: B A client in hospice care may benefit from animal-assisted therapy because this type of therapy may decrease stress. A client in a psychiatric facility who has schizophrenia may not yet be stable enough to experience this type of therapy. A client who is unresponsive and is not interacting with the environment is not likely to benefit from this therapy. A client who is prone to violent outbursts would not be able to benefit from this type of therapy. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A TOP: Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity (Therapeutic Environment) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Assessment) 7. Which statement indicates that the nurse understands the risks associated with herbal preparations? a. Herbs are guaranteed to be safe and effective but are not necessarily natural. b. Herbs require a different type of prescription than is required for standard prescribed medications. c. Herbs are not classified as drugs and are regulated less strictly by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). d. Herbs are guaranteed to be all natural and of high quality but are not necessarily effective. ANS: C Herbal preparations are regulated as food and nutritional supplements by the FDA. They do not require a prescription because they are not medications. Unfortunately, herbs are not under regulation by the government as drugs, and are not guaranteed to be natural, safe, or effective. This is one of the major disadvantages of herbal therapy. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension/Understanding REF: p. 9 TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies—Expected Actions/Outcomes) MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning 8. A client asks the nurse to pray with him. The nurse is an atheist. Which statement by the nurse is the correct response? a. “Yes, let’s pray together.” b. “No, I’m sorry, I can’t do that.” c. “No, I don’t believe in prayer.” d. “I’ll hold your hand while you pray.” ANS: D By stating that he will hold the client’s hand, the nurse offers support for the client’s choice without compromising his beliefs. The nurse should not participate in any activity that goes against his or her beliefs. The nurse should not just state that he or she can’t do this or tell the client personal views or preferences. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A TOP: Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity (Therapeutic Communication) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Implementation) 9. The client has been diagnosed with cancer and is experiencing depression and insomnia as side effects of chemotherapy. The client tells the nurse that she has been supplementing her antidepressant medication with lavender oil and sandalwood but they aren’t working. Which statement by the nurse is the best response? a. “Tell me more about exactly what you are taking, how much you take, and when you take the antidepressants and use the oils.” b. “Perhaps you’re not using enough of the oil or are using it incorrectly.” c. I’ll speak with your doctor to get you some medication that you can take while continuing the aromatherapy.” d. “You don’t want your doctor to put you on sleeping pills and antidepressants. Keep using them.” ANS: A The nurse should continue the assessment of the client to determine exactly what medications the client is taking and the specific type of complementary therapy the client is using, to determine whether the regimen is dangerous. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies—Adverse Effects/Contraindications/Interactions/Side Effects) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Assessment) 10. The client is undergoing treatment for cancer and is experiencing a high level of anxiety. The client expresses interest in complementary therapies that might decrease the level of anxiety. Which action is the best choice for the nurse to implement with this client? a. Direct the client to an imaginative peaceful setting using imagery. b. Provide assistance in finding an acupuncturist. c. Suggest Tai Chi during chemotherapy treatments. d. Encourage the use of acupressure over tumor sites. ANS: A Nurses traditionally have used a number of mind-body therapies such as prayer, imagery, meditation, music, and pet therapy to decrease anxiety in clients. Acupuncture and acupressure are pain relief therapies that usually require special education. Tai Chi is a body-based therapy that requires energy that may not be appropriate during chemotherapy sessions. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Basic Care and Comfort—Non-Pharmacological Comfort Interventions) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Implementation) 11. Which clients would benefit most from relaxation therapy? a. Middle-age client who is undergoing chemotherapy treatments b. Young client who is diagnosed with schizophrenia c. Older client who is comatose and unresponsive d. Young client who is diagnosed with major depression ANS: A By reducing physical, mental, and emotional tension, relaxation is believed to result in changes opposite those of the “fight-or-flight” mechanism. Relaxation is helpful during painful procedures but may not be helpful with certain mental health problems or unresponsive clients because relaxation requires action from the client to relieve the tension. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Basic Care and Comfort—Non-Pharmacological Comfort Interventions) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Evaluation) 12. A nurse is assisting a client in preparing for surgery by using progressive muscle relaxation. Which rationale best supports the use of this therapy at this time? a. It rebalances or repatterns a person’s energy field. b. It improves flexibility and assists with positioning during surgery. c. It applies pressure, releasing congestion and promoting energy flow. d. It uses intentional tensing and releasing of successive muscle groups. ANS: D Progressive muscle relaxation provides intentional tensing and releasing of successive muscle groups, thereby promoting relaxation and decreasing anxiety. Anxiety reduction would be the best rationale for a client preparing for surgery. The other statements are inaccurate descriptions of progressive muscle relaxation and its use. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge/Remembering REF: p. 11 TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Basic Care and Comfort—Non-Pharmacological Comfort Interventions) MSC: Integrated Process: Caring; Nursing Process (Implementation) 13. A client tells the nurse that he or she is considering using herbal supplements. What is the nurse’s best response? a. “Herbs are not classified as drugs in the United States, so there is no contraindication to using them.” b. “Herbs have pharmacologic effects on the body and can interact with some prescription medications.” c. “It is never permissible to use herbal supplements with prescription medications.” d. “I will refer you to an herbalist, who can help you decide which medications you can take.” ANS: B Although herbs are not classified as drugs, they do possess pharmacologic properties. In caring for a client, the nurse should inquire whether the client takes herbal preparations and, if so, for what purpose. Many herbal preparations have not been adequately studied, and some can interact with prescription medications, causing toxic effects. The nurse should not refer the client to an herbalist. The client should be instructed that there are contraindications to herbal usage, but that herbs can be used with prescription medications, depending on the medication, the herbal substance, and the condition of the client. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension/Understanding REF: p. 9 TOP: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance (Health and Wellness) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Implementation) 14. A client who is status post aortic valve replacement takes sodium warfarin (Coumadin) daily and has started taking Ginkgo biloba. What is the priority action for the nurse to take? a. Encourage the use of Ginkgo biloba to enhance the client’s systemic circulation. b. Assess the client for any bruising or petechiae. c. Explain that replacing Ginkgo biloba with garlic would be much safer. d. Assess for any forgetfulness or inappropriate speech. ANS: B Taking Ginkgo biloba with warfarin increases the client’s risk of bleeding. Therefore, the client should be monitored first for bruising or bleeding associated with use of this combination. Ginkgo biloba is purported to reduce memory problems and dementia and has vasodilator properties, but these uses cannot be supported if the client is on an anticoagulant for the heart valve replacement. Garlic would not be a safer choice because it can act as an antiplatelet agent and would increase the risk of bleeding with warfarin (Coumadin). DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A TOP: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance (Health Promotion/Disease Prevention) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Planning) 15. Which statement indicates that the client needs further teaching about complementary therapy? a. “I’ve decided to use herb therapy for cancer treatment, so I can cancel my radiation treatments.” b. “I’m hoping that massage therapy will help reduce the amount of pain medication I use for my myalgia.” c. “I think it helps me get better faster when I picture the drugs punching out the germs in my body.” d. “I intend to pray about my cancer treatment several times a day. It makes me feel so much better.” ANS: A Complementary therapies are intended to be used with, rather than to replace, traditional forms of therapy to integrate mind, body, and spirit into the healing process. The client must have this information clarified, so that he will follow his recommended regimen for cancer treatment. The other statements appropriately indicate that the client understands the purpose of complementary therapy. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A TOP: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance (Self-Care) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Assessment) 16. Which teaching strategy is appropriate for a client who wishes to use mind-body complementary therapy to supplement traditional treatment for cancer? a. Instruct the client to make a follow-up appointment with the health care provider after using mind-body treatments to assess the client’s response to treatment. b. Instruct the client never to use alternative or complementary treatments for serious illnesses. c. Explain to the client that physicians and nurses are not prepared to recommend and monitor alternative treatments. d. Explain to the client that physicians and nurses do not incorporate such treatments into their practice. ANS: A Complementary or alternative treatments may be used in association with traditional therapy. The client who uses complementary or alternative therapy should be advised to make a follow-up visit to the health care provider to assess the client’s response to therapy and to detect any adverse effects. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A TOP: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance (Principles of Teaching/Learning) MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning 17. Which complementary or alternative therapy would the nurse recommend to a client with “stiff joints” to improve mobility? a. Imagery b. Animal-assisted therapy c. Tai Chi d. Aromatherapy ANS: C Tai Chi is an active holistic therapy that integrates body movements, concentration, muscle relaxation, and breathing to improve body function, such as flexibility and posture. Imagery has been used successfully to reduce pain, nausea and vomiting, and anxiety. Animal-assisted therapy generally is used with clients who need to improve motor skills or the ability to concentrate. Aromatherapy uses essential oils to achieve relaxation, improve concentration, and ease depression. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Basic Care and Comfort—Non-Pharmacological Comfort Interventions) MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning 18. A client is experiencing nausea and vomiting from chemotherapy. Which alternative or complementary therapy would be best for the nurse to explore with the client? a. Meditation b. Imagery c. Yoga d. Music therapy ANS: B Imagery has been used frequently to help clients reduce nausea and vomiting. Meditation, yoga, and music therapy are more useful for chronic pain, for hypertension, and in improving emotional health. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Basic Care and Comfort—Non-Pharmacological Comfort Interventions) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Assessment) 19. The nurse is working in the community and completes home visits with older adult clients. Which statement by a client demonstrates a need for further instruction about the use of complementary and alternative therapies? a. “My doctor monitors my kidney function since I started taking calcium.” b. “I always talk to my doctor first before starting an herbal preparation.” c. “I heard that St. John’s wort is good for any type of depression.” d. “I may start a Tai Chi program to help with my mobility and lift my spirits.” ANS: C The client needs some education regarding the use of St. John’s wort for depression. It is advisable to seek the advice of a physician and to be evaluated for psychotherapy and/or drug therapy. Often older women consume too much calcium, and this can result in renal calculi. It is recommended that the older adult should have calcium levels monitored, as well as kidney function. All clients need to inform their health care team about any use of herbal preparations because of possible interactions with medications and possible side effects. Tai Chi is to be encouraged in the older adult to improve physical and mental health. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A TOP: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance (Health and Wellness) MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning [Show More]

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