Biology > QUESTIONS & ANSWERS > Exam 4 practice questions from chapters 10, 11, 13. Questions and answers, 2022/2023. Rated A (All)

Exam 4 practice questions from chapters 10, 11, 13. Questions and answers, 2022/2023. Rated A

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Exam 4 practice questions from chapters 10, 11, 13. Questions and answers, 2022/2023. Rated A On one chromosome, the allele for white eyes is located at loci 12 and the allele for a hairy body is... located at loci 16. On a second chromosome, the allele for red eyes is located at loci 15 and the allele for a normal body is located at loci 17. Which allele combination has the greater map distance? - ✔✔white eyes and hairy body The map units between white eyes and hairy body is four units, while the map units between red eyes and a normal body is two units. The alleles have to be on the same chromosome to measure the map units. Sickle-cell disease is caused by a single mutation in the DNA of a particular gene. A person with this disease has red blood cells that lose their original donut shape and form a sickle shape. People with this disorder suffer from low energy levels, blood clots, and strokes. This is an example of - ✔✔pleiotropy A single gene has several different effects. Vitamin-D resistant rickets is a sex-linked dominant trait, which leads to softening of the bones, which can cause fractures and deformities. Rickets is often due to a deficiency of vitamin D; however, with vitamin-D resistant rickets, ingestion of vitamin D is ineffective. Maria's mother is normal and does not display any symptoms of this disease. Maria's father, however, has the disease. Maria marries a man that does not have the disease. What is the probability that they will have a son that has the disease? - ✔✔50% Maria must be heterozygous for the trait because her mother did not have the disease. Thus, there is a 50% chance that any of her sons will have the disease. Which of the following is incorrectly matched? - ✔✔identical alleles - homologous Identical alleles refer to an individual that is homozygous, not homologous. Parents with the dominant phenotype cannot have offspring with the recessive phenotype. - ✔✔False, because both parents could carry the recessive allele. If both parents are heterozygous, then there is a ¼ chance that they could have offspring with the recessive phenotype. Linked genes - ✔✔tend to be close together on a single chromosome. Linked genes are on the same chromosome and tend to be passed together. Morgan breeds and sells snakes. He knows that he can make the most money by breeding and selling albino snakes. Albinism is a recessive trait. His female albino corn snake just produced six offspring. Two displayed normal coloration and four were albino. What do you know about the genotype of the father? - ✔✔He must be heterozygous. If recessive offspring are produced, both parents must have the recessive allele. A man with blood type A and a woman with blood type B can have a baby with blood type O. - ✔✔True, because A and B are the dominant blood types and both individuals could carry a type O allele. Type O blood is recessive, so parents that are AO and BO could have a child that is OO. A woman with type AB blood marries a man with type B blood. If they have children, what are all the possible blood types for the children? - ✔✔AB, BB, AO, and BO The man could be IBi or IBIB. Thus, any of these are possible. Which of the following is not a correct match? - ✔✔anther - female Pollen grains containing sperm are produced in the anther; the anther is male. What are all possible gametes that can be produced by an individual with the following genotype: FFGg? - ✔✔Fg, FG The individual can only produce FG and Fg combinations. Which of the following is true about an individual with the chromosomes shown in this figure? - ✔✔The individual is heterozygous for all traits. An individual with one capital letter and one lowercase letter for a trait is considered heterozygous. If a heterozygous dominant tall pea plant is crossed with a short pea plant, what is the expected phenotypic ratio of tall:short plants? - ✔✔1:1 A cross of Tt with tt will have a 50% chance of tall progeny and a 50% chance of short progeny. Which of the following is not true about blood types? - ✔✔This is an example of a multiple allele trait and an individual can have up to three different alleles. Blood type is an example of multiple alleles (A, B, or O). However, each individual can only have two alleles for a trait. A red-eyed male Drosophila mates with a red-eyed female Drosophila. One of the female's parents had white eyes. What proportion of the male offspring will have white eyes? - ✔✔50% The female must be heterozygous for the trait. Thus, there is a 50% chance that she will pass this trait on to any of her male children. Which of the following is not a correct match? - ✔✔identical alleles - heterozygous A heterozygous organism possesses unlike alleles for a particular trait. A homozygous organism possesses two identical alleles for a particular trait. Vitamin-D resistant rickets is a sex-linked dominant trait, which leads to softening of the bones, which can cause fractures and deformities. Rickets is often due to a deficiency of vitamin D; however, with vitamin-D resistant rickets, ingestion of vitamin D is ineffective. Maria's mother is normal and does not display any symptoms of this disease. Maria's father, however, has the disease. Maria marries a man that does not have the disease. What is the probability that they will have a daughter that has the disease? - ✔✔50% Maria must be heterozygous for the trait because her mother did not have the disease. Thus, there is a 50% chance that any of her daughters will have the disease because only one copy of the gene is required. Which is not true according to Mendel's law and meiosis? - ✔✔One factor must be dominant and one factor recessive in each individual. While one allele may be dominant over another, it is not necessary for the individual to contain one of each choice. The individual could have two dominant alleles (homozygous dominant) or two recessive alleles (homozygous recessive). If an individual expresses a dominant disease, which of the following is true? - ✔✔There is at least a 50% probability that his children will inherit the disease. The man could be either DD or Dd. Thus, at the very least, 50% of his children will have the disease. A cow with black and white patches is produced from a white bull and a black cow. This is an example of - ✔✔codominance. Incomplete dominance is exhibited when the heterozygote has an intermediate phenotype between that of either homozygote. Codominance is a type of inheritance pattern in which more than one allele is fully expressed. A dominant trait masks the expression of a recessive trait. Polygenic is a pattern of inheritance that occurs when a trait is governed by two or more sets of alleles. Pleiotropy occurs when a single gene has more than one effect. During the elongation cycle of translation, the A site on a ribosome functions in - ✔✔receiving a new tRNA with the correct amino acid. During the elongation cycle, an incoming tRNA carrying the specified amino acid binds to the anticodon of the mRNA at the A site of the ribosome. Which base is found in DNA, but not in RNA? - ✔✔thymine In RNA, uracil replaces thymine. The stages of translation are - ✔✔initiation, elongation cycle, and termination. Translation occurs in three stages: initiation, the elongation cycle, and termination. Which of the following events in gene expression control does not occur in the nucleus? - ✔✔mRNA translation All of the above processes, except for translation of mRNA, occur within the nucleus. In eukaryotes, one gene may specify the construction of several proteins. - ✔✔True Alternative mRNA processing of the mRNA resulting from a gene's transcription can give rise to multiple transcripts from one gene, and may result in different proteins being made during translation. For a DNA strand that contains the sequence AGT in the 5' to 3' direction, what nucleotides are found on the other DNA strand in the 5' to 3' direction? - ✔✔ACT By Chargaff's rules, T hydrogen bonds with A, C with G, and A with T. Since the opposite strand runs antiparallel, the correct order of these nucleotides is ACT. If an organism's DNA contains 17% adenine nucleotides and 33% guanine nucleotides, what percentage of its DNA is composed of cytosine nucleotides? - ✔✔33% By Chargaff's rules, the amount of G=C, so the DNA is also 33% cytosine. Which of the following series of events are in the correct order? - ✔✔chemical binds to receptor, signal transduction pathway stimulates transcription activator, target gene is transcribed and translated Signal transduction pathways are initiated by the binding of a chemical signal by a receptor, which initiates the pathway. The pathway usually ends with the stimulation of a transcription activator, which brings about the needed response in the cell by causing the transcription of needed genes. Which of the following enzymes is needed to reseal breaks in the sugar-phosphate backbone during replication? - ✔✔DNA ligase DNA ligase reseals breaks in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA. If an organism's DNA contains 20% adenine nucleotides, what percentage of its DNA is composed of guanine nucleotides? - ✔✔30% Which section of the DNA is inactive? - ✔✔heterochromatin Eukaryotes utilize chromatin condensation as a way to keep genes turned on or off. The more tightly chromatin is compacted, the less often genes within it are expressed. Darkly staining portions of chromatin, called heterochromatin, represent tightly compacted, inactive chromatin. Female mammals form Barr bodies because - ✔✔compacting the chromatin of one of their X chromosomes allows them to inactivate it and produce the same amount of gene product as a male. Barr bodies are formed because otherwise, a female would produce twice as much gene product as a male from genes on the X chromosome, and too much of some gene products can be harmful. The two DNA strands must be separated before DNA replication or transcription can occur. - ✔✔True In order to copy the information in the DNA by complementary base pairing, it is necessary to pull the two DNA strands apart. The three steps that are required for DNA replication are - ✔✔unwinding, complementary base pairing, and joining. [Show More]

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