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The Human Body in Health and Illness, 7th Edition by Herlihy Test Bank

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Test Bank for The Human Body in Health and Illness, 7th Edition, 7e by Barbara Herlihy TEST BANK ISBN-13: 9780323711265 FULL CHAPTERS INCLUDED 1. Introduction to the Human Body Anatomy and Physi... ology: What They Are Why Do I need to Know This? The Body’s Levels of Organization Major Organ Systems Homeostasis: Staying the Same Anatomical Terms: Talking About The Body Anatomical Position Relative Positions Planes of the Body Regional Terms Cavities of the Body Dorsal Cavity Ventral Cavity 2. Basic Chemistry Matter, Elements, and Atoms Elements Atoms Chemical Bonds Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds Hydrogen Bonds Polarity Ions Ion Formation Ionization Molecules and Compounds Compounds Some Important Compounds and Molecules Chemical Reactions Acids and Bases Acids Bases Neutralization of Acids and Bases Measurement: The pH Scale Energy Forms of Energy Conversion of Energy Energy Transfer: The Role Of Adenosine Triphosphate Mixtures, Solutions, Suspensions, and Precipitates Mixtures Solutions Suspensions Precipitates 3. Cells Typical Cell Cell Membrane Inside the Cell On the Cell Membrane Movement Across the Cell Membrane Passive Transport Mechanisms Active Transport Mechanisms Cell Division Cell Cycle Cell Differentiation Stem Cells Order, Disorder, and Death 4. Cell Metabolism Metabolism Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides Uses of Glucose The Breakdown of Glucose The Making of Glucose Lipids (Fats) Uses of Lipids Proteins Amino Acids Uses of Proteins Protein Synthesis and Dna DNA Structure Steps in Protein Synthesis 5. Microbiology Basics What is Disease? Types of Pathogens Microorganisms (Microbes) Other (Multicellular) Disease-Causing Organisms Laboratory Identification of Pathogens The Spread of Infection Portals of Entry and Exit Five Germ-Laden Stories Dr. Semmelweis screams, “wash those mitts!” Flora and Her Vaginal Itch Rick, Nick, and the Sick Tick Why Typhoid Mary Needed to Lose Her Gallbladder A pox news alert! 6. Tissues and Membranes Epithelial Tissue What does it do? What is it like? Classification Simple Epithelia Stratified Epithelia Glandular Epithelia Connective Tissue What is it Like? Types of Connective Tissue Nervous Tissue Muscle Tissue Skeletal Muscle Smooth Muscle Cardiac Muscle Tissue Repair Membranes Epithelial Membranes 7. Integumentary System and Body Temperature Functions of the Integumentary System Structure of the Skin Layers of the Skin Skin Color Accessory Structures of the Skin Hair Nails Glands Body Temperature Heat Production Heat Loss Regulation of Temperature When Skin is Burned 8. Skeletal System Arrangement and Functions of Bones The Skeletal System: What It Does Many Sizes and Shapes of Bones Bone Tissue and Bone Formation Compact and Spongy Bone Parts of Long Bones Ossification Growing Bones Divisions of the Skeletal System Axial Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton Joints (Articulations) Joint Classification Naming of Joints Freely Movable (Synovial) Joints: Classification According to Movement Clinically “BIG” Synovial Joints 9. Muscular System Types and Functions of Muscles Skeletal Muscle Smooth Muscle Cardiac Muscle Structure of the Whole Muscle Layers of Connective Tissue Muscle Attachments Structure and Function of a Single Muscle Fiber Function: how Muscles Contract The Role of Calcium and Adenosine Triphosphate Skeletal Muscles and Nerves The Motor Unit The Neuromuscular Junction Muscle Responses Energy Source for Muscle Contraction Muscle Fatigue Muscle Terms Prime Mover, Synergist, and Antagonist The What-IFS of Muscle Overuse and Underuse How Skeletal Muscles are Named Size Shape Orientation of Fibers Location Number of Origins Origin and Insertion Muscle Action Muscles From Head to Toe Muscles of the Head Muscles of the Neck Muscles of the Trunk Muscles of the Shoulder (Pectoral) Girdle and Arm Muscles That Move the Forearm Muscles That Move the Wrist, Hand, and Fingers Muscles That Move the Thigh, Leg, and Foot Muscles That Move the Leg Muscles That Move the Foot 10. Nervous System: Nervous Tissue and Brain The Nervous System: Structure and Function Divisions of the Nervous System Functions of the Nervous System Cells That Make up the Nervous System Neuroglia Neuron White Matter Versus Gray Matter The Neuron Carrying Information The Nerve Impulse: What it is The Nerve Impulse: What Causes it The Nerve Impulse: What Causes it to Move The Nerve Impulse: What Causes it to Move Quickly Synapse Across Neurons Parts of a Synapse Events at the Synapse Brain: Parts and Function Cerebrum Diencephalon Brain Stem Cerebellum Structures Across Divisions of the Brain Protecting the Central Nervous System Bone: First Layer of Protection Meninges: Second Layer of Protection Cerebrospinal Fluid: Third Layer of Protection Blood–Brain Barrier: Fourth Layer of Protection 11. Nervous System: Spinal Cord and Peripheral Nerves What the Spinal Cord is Gray on the Inside, White on the Outside What the Spinal Cord Does Decussation Reflexes What Reflexes Are The Reflex Arc Many, Many Reflexes Peripheral Nervous System Nerves Classifying the Peripheral Nervous System 12. Autonomic Nervous System Autonomic (Visceral) Reflexes Pathway Organization and Function of the Autonomic Nervous System Autonomic Tone and Vasomotor Tone Autonomic Nervous System Neurons Neurons of the Sympathetic Nervous System Neurons of the Parasympathetic Nervous System Naming Fibers and Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters: Termination of Activity Receptors of the Autonomic Nervous System Cholinergic Receptors Adrenergic Receptors Autonomic Terminology: “Doing” Autonomic Pharmacology 13. Sensory System Receptors and Sensation Sensation and Perception Experiencing a Sensation The General Senses Pain Touch and Pressure Temperature Proprioception The Special Senses Sense of Smell: The Nose Sense of Taste: The Tongue Sense of Sight: The Eye Sense of Hearing: The Ear Sense of Balance: The Ear 14. Endocrine System Endocrine Glands Classification Of Hormones Targets Hormone Receptors Control of Hormone Secretion Pituitary Gland and the Hypothalamus Anterior Pituitary Gland Posterior Pituitary Gland Thyroid Gland Thyroid Follicle What Thyroid Hormones (T3 and T4) Do Regulation of Secretion The Need for Iodine Calcitonin Parathyroid Glands Parathyroid Hormone Deficiency and Hypocalcemic Tetany Adrenal Glands Adrenal Medulla Adrenal Cortex Pancreas Insulin Glucagon Gonads Thymus Gland Pineal Gland Other Hormones Prostaglandins Adipose Tissue Hormones 15. Blood What Blood Does Composition of Blood Blood Has Two Parts Origin of Blood Cells Bone Marrow Woes: Too Little, Too Much Blood cells White Blood Cells Platelets Blood Counts Hemostasis: Prevention of Blood Loss Blood Vessel Spasm Formation of a Platelet Plug Blood Coagulation Blood Types Antigens and Blood Types Antibodies and Blood Type Antigen–Antibody Interaction Compatibility and Incompatibility of Blood Types Rh Classification System 16. Anatomy of the Heart Function, Location, and Size of the Heart Layers and Covering of the Heart Endocardium Myocardium Epicardium Pericardium A Double Pump and Two Circulations The Heart’s Chambers and Great Vessels Right Atrium Right Ventricle Left Atrium Left Ventricle Great Vessels of the Heart Heart Valves Atrioventricular Valves Semilunar Valves Heart Sounds Pathway of Blood Flow Through the Heart Blood Supply to the Myocardium Cardiac Enzymes and Leaky Cells Cardiac Conduction System Parts of the Cardiac Conduction System Automaticity and Rhythmicity Electrocardiogram 17. Function of the Heart The Coordinated and Adaptable Pump Autonomic Control of the Heart Heart Talk Heart Talk: Receptor Language The Failing Heart: When the Heart Can’t Pump Left Heart Failure Right Heart Failure 18. Anatomy of the Blood Vessels and Special Circulations Circles, Circuits, and Circulations Blood Vessels Blood Vessel Walls: The Layered Look Blood Vessels: What They do Major Arteries of the Systemic Circulation Aorta Branches of the Aorta Major Veins of the Systemic Circulation Venae Cavae Special Circulations Blood Supply to the Head and Brain Blood Supply to the Liver and the Hepatic Portal Circulation Fetal Circulation Pulse What can you Learn About a Patient by Feeling the Pulse? 19. Functions of the Blood Vessels Blood Vessels Deliver Blood Vessels Regulate Blood Pressure Blood Pressure: Normal and Abnormal Blood Pressure in Different Blood Vessels What Determines Blood Pressure? How Blood Pressure Stays Within Normal Limits Blood Vessels act as Exchange Vessels What is an Exchange Vessel? Why Capillaries are Good Exchange Vessels Capillary Forces: Exchange Blood Vessels Distribute Blood Blood Vessels Regulate Body Temperature 20. Lymphatic System Lymph and Lymphatic Circulation Lymphatic Vessels What Causes Lymph to Move? Lymphatic Tissue Lymphatic Organs Lymph Nodes Thymus Gland Spleen Lymphatic Nodules 21. Immune System Classification of the Immune System Nonspecific Immunity Specific Immunity: Third Line of Defense Types of Immunity Genetic Immunity Acquired Immunity The What-Ifs of Altered Immune Responses 22. Respiratory System Structure: Organs of the Respiratory System Nose and Nasal Cavities Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchial Tree: Bronchi, Bronchioles, and Alveoli Lungs Pleural Membranes Collapsed and Expanded Lungs Why Lungs Collapse Why Lungs Expand Saying it Another way: Compliance Respiratory Function Amounts of Air Control of Breathing 23. Digestive System Overview of the Digestive System Digestion and Absorption Layers and Membranes of the Digestive Tract Structures and Organs Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small Intestine Large Intestine Accessory Digestive Organs Liver Gallbladder Pancreas Digestion and Absorption Carbohydrates and Carbohydrate-Splitting Enzymes Proteins and Protein-Splitting Enzymes Fats, Bile, and Fat-Splitting Enzymes Nutrition: Concepts to Know Carbohydrates Proteins Fats (Lipids) Vitamins Minerals Health and a Balanced Diet 24. Urinary System Excretion Urinary System Organs Urinary System Terms Kidneys Structure Blood Supply Nerve Supply Functions of the Kidneys Urine Making: The Nephron Unit Urine Formation Hormones That Work on the Kidneys Aldosterone Antidiuretic Hormone The What-Ifs of Impaired Secretion of Aldosterone and Antidiuretic Hormone Natriuretic Peptides Parathyroid Hormone and Calcitonin Composition of Urine Uremia and Dialysis Your Plumbing Ureters Urinary Bladder Urination Urethra An Autonomic Moment 25. Water, Electrolyte, and Acid–Base Balance Body Fluids: Distribution and Composition Composition of Body Fluids Water Balance Water Intake Water Output The What-Ifs of Water Imbalance Why Does Fluid Shift? Fluid Spacing—Terminology Electrolyte Balance Quick Reference: Electrolytes Most Important Ions Acid–Base Balance Quick Reference: Acids and Bases Where the Acid Comes From How the Body Regulates pH Lungs Respiratory Activity as the Cause of Changes in pH Respiratory Activity as the Correction for Changes in pH Compensatory Mechanisms in Acid–Base Imbalances Acidosis Alkalosis 26. Reproductive Systems Male Reproductive System Testes Genital Ducts Accessory Glands Semen External Genitals Male Sexual Response: Erection, Emission, Ejaculation, and Orgasm Male Sex Hormones Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitals Female Sexual Response Hormonal Control of the Reproductive Cycles Two Reproductive Cycles The Female Breast and Lactation Hormones of Lactation… Got Milk? Methods of Birth Control 27. Human Development and Heredity Fertilization When Fertilization Occurs Where Fertilization Occurs How Fertilization Occurs Human Development Prenatal Development Early Embryonic Period Embryonic Period Fetal Period Changes in the Mother’s Body During Pregnancy Birth Postnatal Changes and Developmental Stages Development as a Lifelong Process Heredity Deoxyribonucleic Acid, Genes, and Chromosomes It’s a Boy; It’s a Girl: How the Sex of the Child is Determined Congenital and Hereditary Disease [Show More]

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