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Essentials of Organizational Behaviour, 2nd Canadian Edition by Robbins Test Bank

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Test Bank for Essentials of Organizational Behaviour, 2nd Canadian Edition 2ce by Stephen P. Robbins, Timothy A. Judge, Katherine Breward TEST BANK ISBN-13: 9780135392942 Full chapters included ... Chapter 1 What Is Organizational Behaviour? Learning Objectives The Importance of Interpersonal Skills Enter Organizational Behaviour Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study Big Data Disciplines That Contribute to the OB Field Psychology Social Psychology Sociology Anthropology Political Science Neuroscience A Brief History of OB There Are Few Absolutes in OB Challenges and Opportunities for OB Responding to Economic Pressures Responding to Globalization Increased Foreign Assignments Working with People from Different Cultures Overseeing Movement of Jobs to Countries with Low-Cost Labour Adapting to Differing Cultural and Regulatory Norms Managing Workforce Diversity Improving Customer Service Improving People Skills Working in Networked Organizations Enhancing Employee Well-Being at Work Creating a Positive Work Environment Improving Ethical Behaviour Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model An Overview Summary Implications for Managers Mini Case: Managing Group Behaviour without Formal Power Mini Case: The People Side of Target’s Canadian Catastrophe Chapter 2 Diversity in Organizations Learning Objectives Diversity Diversity in the Canadian Context: Multiculturalism as a Guiding Principle and Formal Policy Demographic Characteristics of the Canadian Workforce Levels of Diversity How Do Employees Differ? Biographical Characteristics Age Gender Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Race, Ethnicity, and Immigration Status Cultural Identity Disability Religion Ability Intellectual and Physical Abilities Physical Abilities Disabilities in the Context of Job Specification Discrimination Implementing Diversity Management Strategies Attracting, Selecting, Developing, and Retaining Diverse Employees Diversity in Groups Effective Diversity Programs Summary Implications for Managers Mini Case: Disability-Based Discrimination Mini Case: Classroom Diversity and Groups Chapter 3 Attitudes and Job Satisfaction Learning Objectives Attitudes What Are the Main Components of Attitudes? Does Behaviour Always Follow from Attitudes? Moderating Variables What Are the Major Job Attitudes? Job Satisfaction Job Involvement Organizational Commitment Perceived Organizational Support Employee Engagement Are these Job Attitudes Really all that Distinct? Job Satisfaction Measuring Job Satisfaction How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs? What Causes Job Satisfaction? The Impact of Satisfied and Dissatisfied Employees on the Workplace Job Satisfaction and Job Performance Job Satisfaction and OCB Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction Job Satisfaction and Absenteeism Job Satisfaction and Turnover Job Satisfaction and Workplace Deviance Managers Often “Don’t Get It” Summary Implications for Managers Mini Case: The Promotion Mini Case: Work Attitudes, Recognition, Feedback, and Fairness Chapter 4 Emotions and Moods Learning Objectives What Are Emotions and Moods? The Basic Emotions The Basic Moods: Positive and Negative Affect Experiencing Moods and Emotions The Function of Emotions and Moods Do Emotions Make Us Irrational? Do Emotions Make Us Ethical? Sources of Emotions and Moods Potential Influences on Moods and Emotions Personality Age Gender Time of Day Day of the Week Weather Stress Social Activities Sleep Exercise Blood Sugar Levels Emotional Labour Affective Events Theory Emotional Intelligence The Case for EI EI is Intuitively Appealing EI Predicts Criteria that Matter EI is Biologically Based The Case against EI EI Researchers do not Agree on Definitions EI can’t be Measured EI is Nothing but Personality with a Different Label Emotion Regulation OB Applications of Emotions and Moods Selection Decision Making Creativity Motivation Leadership Negotiation Customer Service Job Attitudes Deviant Workplace Behaviours Safety and Injury at Work Summary Implications for Managers Mini Case: Emotional Labour at the Call Centre Mini Case: Emotional Contagion Unleashed Chapter 5 Personality and Values Learning Objectives Personality What Is Personality? Defining Personality Measuring Personality Personality Determinants Dominant Personality Frameworks The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator The Big Five Personality Model How do the Big Five Traits Predict Behaviour at Work? Other Personality Frameworks The Dark Triad Machiavellianism Narcissism Psychopathy Approach–Avoidance Other Personality Traits Relevant to OB Core Self-Evaluations Self-Monitoring Proactive Personality Personality and Situations Situation Strength Theory Trait Activation Theory Values The Importance and Organization of Values Terminal versus Instrumental Values Linking an Individual’s Personality and Values to the Workplace Person–Job Fit Person–Organization Fit International Values Hofstede’s Framework The GLOBE Framework Comparison of Hofstede’s Framework and the GLOBE Framework Our Primary Trading Partner: Key U.S./Canadian Differences Nations within Nations: Indigenous Values in the Canadian Context Acculturation and Biculturalism: Immigrant Adjustment and Changes in Values Summary Implications for Managers Mini Case: The Personality Problem Mini Case: Interview Expectations and Cultural Confusion Chapter 6 Perception and Individual Decision Making Learning Objectives What Is Perception? Factors That Influence Perception Social Perception: Making Judgments about Others Attribution Theory Common Shortcuts in Judging Others Selective Perception Halo Effect Contrast Effects Social Identity Effects Stereotyping The Link between Perception and Individual Decision Making Decision Making in Organizations The Rational Model, Bounded Rationality, and Intuition Rational Decision Making Bounded Rationality Intuition Common Biases and Errors in Decision Making Overconfidence Bias Anchoring Bias Confirmation Bias Availability Bias Escalation of Commitment Risk Aversion Hindsight Bias Organizational Constraints on Decision Making Performance Evaluation Reward Systems Formal Regulations System-Imposed Time Constraints Historical Precedents What about Ethics in Decision Making? Three Ethical Decision Criteria Creativity in Organizations Creative Behaviour Causes of Creative Behaviour Creative Potential Creative Environment Creative Outcomes (Innovation) Summary Implications for Managers Mini Case: Hiring School Bus Drivers Mini Case: Career Planning as Decision Making Chapter 7 Motivation Theories Learning Objectives Defining Motivation Early Theories of Motivation Hierarchy of Needs Theory Theory X and Theory Y Two-Factor Theory McClelland’s Theory of Needs Contemporary Theories of Motivation Self-Determination Theory Goal-Setting Theory Implementing Goal-Setting Theory Other Contemporary Theories of Motivation Self-Efficacy Theory Equity Theory and Linkages to Perceptions of Organizational Justice Expectancy Theory Fostering Workplace Motivation Creating Job Engagement Summary Implications for Managers Mini Case: What Does “Fair” Mean? Mini Case: Goals, Revisited Chapter 8 Motivation: From Concepts to Applications Learning Objectives Motivating by Job Design: The Job Characteristics Model The Job Characteristics Model How Can Jobs Be Redesigned? Job Rotation Job Enrichment Relational Job Design Alternative Work Arrangements Flextime Job Sharing Telecommuting Employee Involvement Examples of Employee Involvement Programs Participative Management Representative Participation Linking Employee Involvement Programs and Motivation Theories Using Pay to Motivate Employees What to Pay: Establishing a Pay Structure How to Pay: Rewarding Individual Employees through Variable-Pay Programs Piece-Rate Pay Merit-Based Pay Bonuses Skill-Based Pay Profit-Sharing Plans Gainsharing Employee Stock Ownership Plans Evaluation of Variable Pay Using Benefits to Motivate Employees Flexible Benefits: Developing a Benefits Package Using Intrinsic Rewards to Motivate Employees Employee Recognition Programs Summary Implications for Managers Mini Case: Getting the Best from Your Salesforce Mini Case: Enriching Jobs at the Construction Site Chapter 9 Foundations of Group Behaviour Learning Objectives Defining and Classifying Groups The Five-Stage Model An Alternative Model for Temporary Groups with Deadlines Group Roles Role Perception Role Expectations Role Conflict Group Norms Norms and Behaviour Conformity Deviant Workplace Behaviour Group Status What Determines Status? Status and Norms Status and Group Interaction Group Size Groups and Work Attitudes: More on Social Loafing Group Cohesiveness Group Diversity Faultlines Group Decision Making Groups versus the Individual Strengths of Group Decision Making Weaknesses of Group Decision Making Effectiveness and Efficiency Groupthink and Groupshift Groupthink Groupshift or Group Polarization Group Decision-Making Techniques Summary Implications for Managers Mini Case: Accepting New Norms? A Harassed Reporter Fights Back Mini Case: Canada’s (Biased?) Guide to Healthy Eating Chapter 10 Understanding Work Teams Learning Objectives Why Have Teams Become so Popular? Differences between Groups and Teams Types of Teams Problem-Solving Teams Self-Managed Work Teams Cross-Functional Teams Virtual Teams Multiteam Systems Creating Effective Teams Context Adequate Resources Effective Leadership and Structure A Climate of Trust Performance Evaluation and Reward Systems Team Composition Abilities of Members Personality of Members Allocation of Roles Diversity of Members Size of Teams Member Preferences Team Processes Common Plan and Purpose Specific Goals Team Efficacy Mental Models Conflict Levels Social Loafing Turning Individuals into Team Players Selecting: Hiring Team Players Training: Creating Team Players Rewarding: Providing Incentives to Be a Good Team Player Beware! Teams Aren’t Always the Answer Summary Implications for Managers Mini Case: LifeLong Learning and Teamwork Mini Case: Team Incentives and Unintended Consequences Chapter 11 Communication Learning Objectives The Communication Process Direction of Communication Downward Communication Upward Communication Lateral Communication Organizational Communication Formal Small-Group Networks The Grapevine Modes of Communication Oral Communication Written Communication: Traditional Print and Electronic Forms Nonverbal Communication Choice of Communication Channel Channel Richness Choosing Communication Methods Information Security Persuasive Communication Automatic and Controlled Processing Interest Level Prior Knowledge Personality Message Characteristics Barriers to Effective Communication Filtering Selective Perception Information Overload Emotions Language Silence Communication Apprehension Lying Global Implications Cultural Barriers Cultural Context A Cultural Guide Summary Implications for Managers Mini Case: The Informal Communication Network Mini Case: Voicing and Being a “Team Player” Chapter 12 Leadership Learning Objectives What Is Leadership? Trait Theories Behavioural Theories Summary of Trait Theories and Behavioural Theories Contingency Theories The Fiedler Model Identifying Leadership Style  Defining the Situation Matching Leaders and Situations Evaluation Other Contingency Theories Situational Leadership Theory Path–Goal Theory Leader–Member Exchange Theory Charismatic Leadership and Transformational Leadership Charismatic Leadership What Is Charismatic Leadership? Are Charismatic Leaders Born or Made? How do Charismatic Leaders Influence Followers? Does Effective Charismatic Leadership Depend on the Person and the Situation? The Dark Side of Charismatic Leadership Transformational Leadership Full Range of Leadership Model Evaluation of Transformational Leadership Transformational Leadership and Charismatic Leadership Authentic Leadership: Ethics and Trust What Is Authentic Leadership? Ethical Leadership Servant Leadership Trust and Leadership What Are the Consequences of Trust? Leading for the Future: Mentoring Mentoring Challenges to the Leadership Construct Leadership as an Attribution Substitutes for and Neutralizers of Leadership Finding and Creating Effective Leaders Selecting Leaders Training Leaders Summary Implications for Managers Mini Case: A Study of Leadership Style Mini Case: Situational Leadership Comes Clean Chapter 13 Power and Politics Learning Objectives A Definition of Power Contrasting Leadership and Power Bases of Power Formal Power Coercive Power Reward Power Legitimate Power Personal Power Expert Power Referent Power Which Bases of Power Are Most Effective? Power Tactics How Power Affects People Politics: Power in Action Definition of Organizational Politics The Reality of Politics Causes and Consequences of Political Behaviour Factors Contributing to Political Behaviour Individual Factors Organizational Factors How Do People Respond to Organizational Politics? Impression Management The Ethics of Behaving Politically Mapping Your Political Career Summary Implications for Managers Mini Case: Power Abused—Celebrity and Harassment Mini Case: Power in Academe Chapter 14 Conflict and Negotiation Learning Objectives A Definition of Conflict The Traditional View of Conflict The Interactionist View of Conflict Types and Loci of Conflict Types of Conflict Loci of Conflict The Conflict Process Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility Communication Structure Personal Variables Stage II: Cognition and Personalization Stage III: Intentions Stage IV: Behaviour Stage V: Outcomes Functional Outcomes Dysfunctional Outcomes Managing Functional Conflict Negotiation Bargaining Strategies Distributive Bargaining Integrative Bargaining The Negotiation Process Steps in the Negotiation Process Preparation and Planning Definition of Ground Rules Clarification and Justification Bargaining and Problem Solving Closure and Implementation Individual Differences in Negotiation Effectiveness Personality Traits in Negotiation Moods/Emotions in Negotiation Culture in Negotiations Gender Differences in Negotiations Summary Implications for Managers Mini Case: Win–Lose Negotiation Tactics Lead to Corporate Humiliation Mini Case: Coming Back from Conflict Chapter 15 Foundations of Organization Structure Learning Objectives What Is Organizational Structure? Work Specialization Departmentalization Chain of Command Span of Control Centralization and Decentralization Formalization Common Organizational Designs The Simple Structure The Bureaucracy The Matrix Structure New Design Options The Virtual Organization The Boundaryless Organization The Leaner Organization: Downsizing Why Do Structures Differ? Organizational Strategies Organization Size Technology Environment Organizational Designs and Employee Behaviour Summary Implications for Managers Mini Case: Structured for Service Mini Case: Structuring for Multiple Purposes—Finding the Right Balance Chapter 16 Organizational Culture Learning Objectives What Is Organizational Culture? A Definition of Organizational Culture Culture Is a Descriptive Term Do Organizations Have Uniform Cultures? Strong versus Weak Cultures Culture versus Formalization What Do Cultures Do? The Functions of Culture Culture Creates Climate Culture as a Liability Institutionalization Barriers to Change Barriers to Diversity Barriers to Acquisitions and Mergers Creating and Sustaining Culture How a Culture Begins Keeping a Culture Alive Selection Practices Top Management Actions Socialization Methods Summary: How Cultures Form How Employees Learn Culture Stories Rituals Symbols Language Creating an Ethical Organizational Culture Creating a Positive Organizational Culture Building on Employee Strengths Rewarding More Than Punishing, and the Value of the “Small” Stuff Emphasizing Vitality and Growth Limits of Positive Culture Global Implications Summary Implications for Managers Mini Case: Developing and Maintaining a Safety Culture Mini Case: Culture Change at the RCMP Chapter 17 Organizational Change and Stress Management Learning Objectives Forces for Change Resistance to Change Overcoming Resistance to Change Education and Communication Participation Building Support and Commitment Develop Positive Relationships Implementing Changes Fairly Manipulation and Cooptation Selecting People Who Accept Change Coercion Approaches to Managing Organizational Change Lewin’s Three-Step Model [Show More]

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