What are techniques for clearing an obstructed airway? - ANSWER -Chest compressions (unconscious) -Suctioning -Rolling to side (left for pregnant women) -Magill forceps (to be used with laryngoscop... e) -Abdominal thrusts -Manual removal if you can see it What are indications for removing an airway adjunct? - ANSWER OPA: remove if gag reflex intact NPA: remove if the patient cannot tolerate What are indications for nasotracheal intubation? - ANSWER -Anticipated difficult laryngoscopy -Locked jaw (trismus) What are signs of a misplaced ET tube? - ANSWER -Epigastric sounds -Asymmetrical chest rise -Diminished lung sounds on left side -Poor capnography reading How do you secure the airway of a patient with facial trauma? - ANSWER -Insert an OPA or NPA -Ensure the use of a jaw thrust maneuver to manually open the airway -Cricothrotomy (open or needle) What are complications of ET intubation? - ANSWER -Equipment malfunction -Tooth breakage and soft tissue laceration -Aspiration -Elevated ICP (from reflex response) -Transport delays -Hypoxemia -Esophogeal intubation -Endobronchial intubation -Tension pneumothorax What are indications for lower airway suctioning? - ANSWER -Air in the stomach -Aspiration What are techniques for oral intubation? - ANSWER -Macintosh (curved blade) -Miller (straight blade) -Retrograde -Video laryngoscopy -Optical laryngoscopes -Digital How do you treat a patient with gastric distention? - ANSWER -NG tube -Be prepared to suction aspiration What are signs of a displaced ET tube? - ANSWER -Hypoxia -Absent lung sounds -Gastric distention What are subjective confirmation techniques for ET intubation? - ANSWER -Direct visualization -Tube misting -Lung sounds What are objective confirmation methods for ET intubation? - ANSWER -Capnography -SPO2 -ETT inducer What are side effects of ET intubation? - ANSWER -Teeth breaking -Tension pneumothorax -Aspiration -Endobronchial intubation -Vocal chord trauma -Injuries to larynx and pharynx What are signs and symptoms of lower airway diseases? - ANSWER -Sputum -Shortness of breath -Lung sounds (wheezing, crackles, rhonchi) How do you treat a patient with a tracheostomy? - ANSWER -Hyperventilate before suction -Turn them to the side for aspiration -Inject 3mL of normal saline down the tube to break up secretions then suction -Replace it if it comes out, an ET tube works temporarily (1-2 cm beyond distal cuff) What is important to know when treating a patient with a thermal injury? - ANSWER Intubation must always be done What are signs and symptoms of a lower airway injury? - ANSWER -Signs and symptoms of pneumothorax -Shortness of breath -Absent lung sounds What are signs and symptoms of a pneumothorax? - ANSWER Chest pain that worsens with deep inspirations, dyspnea, tachypnea, and decreased or absent breath sounds in the affected side. How do you answer "what should you do" questions? - ANSWER -Select the best treatment option available -Order of operations -If multiple correct answers, pick the best option by imagining a "next" or "first" at the end. How do you answer "what should you suspect" questions? - ANSWER -Worst case scenario -Consider the most lethal diagnosis given the signs and symptoms How do you answer "what is the most likely cause" questions? - ANSWER -Asks what is most likely, not the most lethal -Think about the most probable cause based on the signs and symptoms What are signs and symptoms of a tension pneumothorax? - ANSWER -Absent lung sounds -Hypotension -Hypoxia -Tracheal deviation -JVD How do you treat a patient with a pulmonary embolism? - ANSWER -Transport ASAP -O2 -BVM What are important parts of assessment in a patient with low SPO2? - ANSWER -Is he cyanotic? -Pulse oximeter -Check for hypoxia How do you assess a patient with an upper airway obstruction? - ANSWER -Look -Use magill forceps with a laryngoscope -Suction -Turn him to the side -Abdominal thrusts -CPR may be necessary if patient becomes unconscious. How do you treat a patient with asthma exacerbation? - ANSWER -Use a nebulizer -Assist with a metered dose inhaler -Consider epi/supplemental oxygen -Bronchodilator meds What are signs and symptoms of hyperventilation? - ANSWER -Hypocarbia -Respiratory alkalosis All due to patient letting off too much CO2 What are signs and symptoms of CHF? - ANSWER -Crackles -Low BP -SOB -Fluid in the lungs -Peripheral edema is right sided heart failure How do you treat a patient who is hyperventilating? - ANSWER -Attempt to calm them down -Tell him to breath in through the nose, and out through the mouth -Nonrebreather What are indications for assisting ventilations? - ANSWER -Hypoxemia -Breathing too fast or too shallow -Low respiratory rate What are techniques for opening an airway? - ANSWER -Trauma: jaw thrust -Head tilt chin lift -Intubation -OPA/NPA -King tubes -Laryngeal mask airway What are signs and symptoms of respiratory insufficiency? - ANSWER -Low pulse oximeter reading -SOB -Inadequate chest rise -Cyanosis What are complications of BVM ventilations? - ANSWER -Overventilation -Insufficient ventilations -Distention -Tension pneumothorax What are signs and symptoms of left sided ventricular failure? - ANSWER -Inadequate perfusion -Hypoxic -Fluid buildup -SOB -Low BP -Tachycardic but weak What is the anatomy of [Show More]
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