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NURSE-UN 70 Cell Structure Test Bank Patton: Anatomy and Physiology, 9th Edition,100% CORRECT

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NURSE-UN 70 Cell Structure Test Bank Patton: Anatomy and Physiology, 9th Edition Chapter 05: Cell Structure Test Bank MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The fundamental unit of life is the: a. atom. b. cell.... c. gene. d. DNA molecule. ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Introduction 2. Which of the following recognize and destroy nonself cells? a. Gland cells b. Immune cells c. Nerve cells d. Red blood cells ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Examples of Cell Types 3. Main cell structures include all of the following except: a. organelles. b. plasma membrane. c. interstitial fluid. d. cytoplasm. ANS: C DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Structure 4. Which of the following is not a function of the plasma membrane? a. Self-identification b. Receptor site for messages c. Selective barrier d. Control center of the cell ANS: D DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Some Major Cell Structures and Their Functions 5. The structure in cells that is associated with the enzymatic breakdown (digestion) of foreign material is the: a. lysosome. b. Golgi apparatus. c. ribosome. d. centriole. ANS: A DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Lysosomes 6. The major function of ribosomes is to synthesize: a. proteins. b. carbohydrates. c. fats. d. cholesterol. ANS: A DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Ribosomes 7. Which are the organelles that allow for the recycling of amino acids in the cell? a. Peroxisomes b. Mitochondria c. Ribosomes d. Lysosomes ANS: D DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Lysosomes 8. Which organelle processes and packages material to be secreted? a. Nucleolus b. Ribosome c. Mitochondrion d. Golgi apparatus ANS: D DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Golgi Apparatus 9. Projections from the cell that move materials and mucus are called: a. cilia. b. flagella. c. microvilli. d. microtubules. ANS: A DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Extensions 10. Granules or threads within the nucleus are called: a. microfilaments. b. chromatin. c. nucleotides. d. microtubules. ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Nucleus 11. Skin cells (epithelial) are held tightly together by: a. gap junctions. b. desmosomes. c. tight junctions. d. adhesions. ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Connections 12. The inner membrane of what double-membrane structure is contorted into folds called cristae? a. Golgi apparatus b. Mitochondrion c. Endoplasmic reticulum d. Ribosome ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Mitochondria 13. The cell extension that assists epithelial cells in absorption is called: a. cilia. b. flagella. c. microvilli. d. desmosomes. ANS: A DIF: Application REF: TOP: Cell Extensions 14. A specialized cell structure that propels the sperm is the: a. flagellum. b. cilium. c. microvillus. d. microtubule. ANS: A DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Extensions 15. DNA is a major constituent of which cell organelle? a. Lysosome b. Ribosome c. Chromosome d. Nucleus ANS: D DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Nucleus 16. An area of cytoplasm that coordinates the building and breaking of microtubules is called: a. cytoplasm A. b. mitochondria. c. centrosome. d. ribosomes. ANS: C DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Centrosomes 17. The structure that separates the contents of a cell from the surrounding tissue is known as: a. Golgi apparatus. b. plasma membrane. c. cytoplasm. d. centrosome. ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Membrane 18. Which organelles consist of vesicles that have pinched off from the Golgi apparatus? a. Mitochondria b. Cilia c. Peroxisomes d. Lysosomes ANS: D DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Lysosomes 19. Tiny indentations of the plasma membrane that resemble caves are called: a. mitochondria. b. caveolae. c. cisternae. d. vesicles. ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Caveolae 20. The is often called the microtubule organizing center. a. centrosome b. cytoskeleton c. centriole d. ribosome ANS: A DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Centrosomes 21. Each of the following is an example of the plasma membrane function except: a. boundary. b. self-identification. c. receptor sites. d. production of proteins. ANS: D DIF: Synthesis REF: TOP: Cell Membrane 22. Which of the following is a functional characteristic of ribosomes? a. Manufacture of mRNA b. Protein synthesis c. DNA replication d. Housing of DNA ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Ribosomes 23. ATP production occurs within which organelle? a. Rough endoplasmic reticulum b. Golgi apparatus c. Flagellum d. Mitochondrion ANS: D DIF: Application REF: TOP: Mitochondria 24. Which organelle consists of separate tiny sacs called cisternae? a. Golgi apparatus b. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum c. Rough endoplasmic reticulum d. Mitochondria ANS: A DIF: Application REF: TOP: Golgi Apparatus 25. In nondividing cells, DNA appears as threads that are referred to as: a. chromatin. b. chromosomes. c. histones. d. none of the above. ANS: A DIF: Application REF: TOP: Nucleus 26. The nucleolus is composed chiefly of: a. mRNA. b. rRNA. c. tRNA. d. DNA. ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Nucleus 27. The largest human cell, measuring about 150 m, is a: a. white blood cell. b. female sex cell or ovum. c. liver cell. d. male sex cell or sperm. ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Functional Anatomy of Cells 28. In the cell membrane, the hydrophilic part of the phospholipid molecule: a. faces the exterior of the cell. b. faces the interior of the cell. c. is in the center of the phospholipid bilayer. d. both A and B. ANS: D DIF: Application REF: TOP: Cell Membrane 29. In the cell membrane, the hydrophobic part of the phospholipid molecule: a. faces the exterior of the cell. b. faces the interior of the cell. c. is in the center of the phospholipid bilayer. d. both A and B. ANS: C DIF: Application REF: TOP: Cell Membrane 30. The presence of which substance in the cell membrane keeps it from breaking too easily? a. Cholesterol b. Protein c. Phospholipids d. Glycoproteins ANS: A DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Membrane 31. The identification function of the cell membrane is carried out by the: a. cholesterol molecules. b. phospholipid molecules. c. glycoprotein molecules. d. channel proteins. ANS: C DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Membrane 32. Which of the following is not a function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum? a. Provides a site for ribosome attachment b. Supplies membrane for use throughout the cell c. Makes steroid hormones d. Makes glycoproteins ANS: A DIF: Application REF: TOP: Endoplasmic Reticulum 33. Which of the following is not true about ribosomes? a. Contain protein b. Composed of a large unit and a small unit c. Surrounded by a membrane structure d. Contain RNA ANS: C DIF: Application REF: TOP: Ribosomes 34. The membranous structure containing substances that protect the cell from harm are: a. ribosomes. b. lysosomes. c. peroxisomes. d. both B and C. ANS: D DIF: Application REF: TOP: Lysosomes and Peroxisomes 35. Which of the following statements does not describe the nucleolus? a. It is found in the nucleus. b. It has a membrane similar to the nucleus. c. It is made of nucleic acids. d. All of the above are true about the nucleolus. ANS: D DIF: Application REF: TOP: Nucleus 36. A list of the cell fibers from largest to smallest would read: a. microtubules, intermediate filaments, microfilaments. b. microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments. c. microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules. d. microfilaments, microtubules, intermediate filaments. ANS: C DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Fibers 37. The cell extension that contains microfilaments is called: a. microvilli. b. flagella. c. cilia. d. All cell extensions contain microfilaments. ANS: A DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Extensions 38. Which of the following organelles is considered a membranous organelle? a. Lysosome b. Ribosome c. Nucleolus d. Both A and B ANS: A DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Some Major Cell Structures and Their Functions 39. Which of the following organelles is considered a nonmembranous organelle? a. Golgi apparatus b. Ribosome c. Mitochondria d. Both A and B ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Some Major Cell Structures and Their Functions 40. The barrier function of the plasma membrane is accomplished by the: a. receptor proteins. b. glycoproteins. c. rafts in the cell membrane. d. phospholipid bilayer. ANS: D DIF: Application REF: TOP: Cell Membrane 41. Which structures in the cell membrane are a stiff grouping of membrane molecules that are rich in cholesterol? a. Glycoproteins b. Rafts c. Phospholipids d. Receptor proteins ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Membrane Structure 42. Which of the following is not true of the rough endoplasmic reticulum? a. It makes lipids and carbohydrates. b. It is made of broad, flattened sacs. c. It has many ribosomes attached to it. d. All of the above are true of rough endoplasmic reticulum. ANS: A DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Endoplasmic Reticulum 43. The enzyme catalase is an important chemical in the functioning of the: a. mitochondria. b. proteasomes. c. peroxisomes. d. lysosomes. ANS: C DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Peroxisomes 44. Which of the following structures contains DNA? a. Nucleus b. Mitochondria c. Ribosome d. Both A and B ANS: D DIF: Application REF: TOP: Mitochondria and Nucleus 45. Damage to the centrosome and centrioles in a cell would have the greatest impact on which cell function? a. Energy production b. Protein synthesis c. Cell division d. Synthesis of lipids and carbohydrates ANS: C DIF: Application REF: TOP: Centrosomes 46. Which cell extension lacks a central pair of microtubules, is not found in blood cells, and functions in the kidney to monitor urine flow? a. Microvilli b. Primary cilium c. Cilia d. Flagella ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Extensions 47. Which of the following is not a function of the integral membrane proteins? a. Acting as receptors b. Signal transduction c. Identification of “self” d. All of the above are functions of the integral membrane proteins. ANS: D DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Membrane 48. Which of the following does not describe a structure or function of the proteasome? a. Digests proteins down to individual amino acids so they can be recycled by the cell b. Looks like a hollow cylindrical drum made of protein subunits c. Requires the small protein called ubiquitin to pull proteins in d. All of the above are structures or functions of proteasomes. ANS: A DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Proteasomes 49. Which cell fiber is called the engine of the cell? a. Centrosome b. Microfilament c. Microtubule d. Intermediate filament ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Fibers 50. Which fiber is the smallest of the cell fibers? a. Centrosome b. Microfilament c. Microtubule d. Intermediate filament ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Fibers 51. Which cell fiber is made of twisted strands of protein? a. Centrosomes b. Microfilament c. Microtubule d. Intermediate filament ANS: D DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Fibers 52. Which type of cell connection joins heart muscle cells? a. Tight junction b. Desmosome c. Macrofilament d. Gap junction ANS: D DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Connections 53. Which type of cell connection acts like a “spot weld” to hold cells together? a. Tight junction b. Desmosome c. Macrofilament d. Gap junction ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Connections TRUE/FALSE 1. The longest extension of a nerve cell can be almost a foot long. ANS: F DIF: Application REF: TOP: Functional Anatomy of Cells 2. An important function of the cell membrane is the maintenance of cell integrity. ANS: T DIF: Synthesis REF: TOP: Cell Membrane 3. Peroxisomes contain enzymes that detoxify harmful substances. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Peroxisomes 4. The outer portion of the cell membrane is hydrophobic, or water loving. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Membrane 5. Ribosomes attached to the endoplasmic reticulum are responsible for making proteins to be exported out of the cell. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Endoplasmic Reticulum 6. The functions of the nucleus are regulated by RNA. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Nucleus 7. The major direct cell connections are tight junctions, gap junctions, and desmosomes. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Connections 8. Tight junctions do not allow molecules to spread through the cracks between cells. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Connections 9. Gap junctions are found in the small intestine. They allow molecules to flow between cells. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page 84 TOP: Cell Connections 10. The number of mitochondria in a cell is basically related to its degree of cell activity. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Mitochondria 11. The cell’s internal supporting framework is called the cytoskeleton. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cytoskeleton 12. The size of a cell’s nucleolus is indirectly related to the amount of protein the cell produces. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Nucleus 13. Heart muscle cells are joined by gap junctions to facilitate the movement of electrical impulses. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Connections 14. Cell connections called desmosomes are like Velcro holding cells together. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Connections 15. Cilia are longer and more numerous than flagella. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Extensions 16. The nucleolus is made up of tightly coiled DNA. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Nucleus 17. The thinnest cell fibers are tiny, hollow tubes called microtubules. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Fibers 18. The plasma membrane can be described as a double layer of phospholipid molecules. ANS: T DIF: Synthesis REF: TOP: Cell Membrane 19. Generally, the more active a cell is, the fewer mitochondria it will contain. ANS: F DIF: Application REF: TOP: Mitochondria 20. Cell fibers that are composed of twisted protein strands are microtubules. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Fibers 21. The “typical” cell described in this chapter is very similar to most of the cells in the human body. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: The Typical Cell 22. The watery fluid in the cell is called cytosol. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Structure 23. Water-soluble substances easily pass through the cell membrane. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Membrane 24. Glycoproteins on the cell membrane identify the cell as “self.” ANS: T DIF: Application REF: TOP: Cell Membrane 25. Rough endoplasmic reticulum looks rough because there are mitochondria attached to it. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Endoplasmic Reticulum 26. Proteins in the cell membrane can control the movement of material through the cell membrane. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page 72 TOP: Cell Membrane 27. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is the organelle that supplies membrane material for use throughout the cell. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Endoplasmic Reticulum 28. Ribosomes are only found attached to endoplasmic reticulum. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Ribosomes 29. The main function of the ribosome is to provide energy to the cell. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Ribosomes 30. The Golgi apparatus helps to prepare material for export from the cell. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Golgi Apparatus 31. The protein-processing units of the Golgi apparatus are called cisterna. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Golgi Apparatus 32. Lysosomes can be called the “garbage disposals” of the cell. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Lysosomes 33. The catalase in the peroxisomes reacts to detoxify carbon dioxide. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Peroxisomes 34. The inner folds of the mitochondria are called cisterna. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Mitochondria 35. It is likely that a muscle cell would have more mitochondria than a fat cell. ANS: T DIF: Application REF: TOP: Mitochondria 36. One of the main functions of the mitochondria is to supply the cell with ATP. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Mitochondria 37. The name nucleus comes from the Greek word for color. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Nucleus 38. Chromosomes and chromatin are both forms of DNA. ANS: T DIF: Application REF: TOP: Nucleus 39. Microtubules are sometimes called the engines of the cell. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Fibers 40. The body of a female does not produce cells with flagella. ANS: T DIF: Application REF: TOP: Cell Extensions 41. Schleiden and Schwann were the first scientists to see cells. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Introduction 42. The largest human cell is the female ovum or egg cell. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Functional Anatomy of Cells 43. Another term for cytosol is intracellular fluid. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Structure 44. The fluid mosaic model describes the chromatin material found in the nucleus. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Membrane 45. One function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum is to help maintain a low Ca++ concentration in the cell’s interior. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Endoplasmic Reticulum 46. A major part of ribosomes is deoxyribonucleic acid. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Ribosomes 47. The proteasomes contain enzymes that assist in protein synthesis. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Proteasomes 48. Proteasomes only destroy abnormal or misfolded proteins in the cell. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Proteasomes 49. Small proteins called ubiquitins assist the proteasomes in accomplishing their function. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Proteasomes 50. An organelle called a vault, composed of RNA and protein, functions to shuttle molecules to and from the nucleus. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Vaults 51. An angstrom is larger than a nanometer. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Units of Size 52. Two types of lipids, phospholipids and cholesterol, are important molecules in the cell membrane. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Membrane 53. Rafts are stiff groupings of membrane molecules that are rich in cholesterol. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Membrane Structure 54. Hormones attach to special cholesterol molecules in the cell membrane. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Membrane Function 55. Three ribosomal subunits must come together to form a functioning ribosome. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Ribosomes 56. Many ribosomes can work on the same mRNA strand at the same time; when this occurs, the structure is called a polyribosome. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Ribosomes 57. A complete ribosome only exists when it is making a protein. ANS: T DIF: Application REF: TOP: Ribosomes 58. In order for the Golgi apparatus to function correctly, both the ribosomes and the rough endoplasmic reticulum must be functioning also. ANS: T DIF: Application REF: TOP: Golgi Apparatus 59. Muscular dystrophy is a disease condition that can be linked to the malfunctioning of proteasomes. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Proteasomes 60. The nucleus is the only structure in the cell that contains DNA. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Mitochondria 61. Another name for the centrosome is the microtubule organizing center. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Centrosomes 62. The centriole is a single cylindrical structure at the boundary of the centrosome. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Centrosomes 63. Small protein structures called molecular motors pull loads from one part of the cell to another along the cytoskeleton. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Molecular Motors 64. All of the cell extensions—microvilli, cilia, and flagella—have basically the same structure. They only differ in number per cell and length. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Extensions 65. Primary cilia are unable to move because they lack the central pair of microtubules and motor molecules. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Extensions 66. Cytoplasm is another term for cytosol. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Structure 67. One important function of integral membrane proteins is signal transduction or carrying messages across the cell membrane. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Membrane Function 68. Integral membrane proteins play an important role in pinching off the cell membrane so two new cells can form during cell division. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Membrane Function 69. Organelles can be divided into two groups, hydrophobic (water fearing) and hydrophilic (water loving). ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cytoplasm and Organelles 70. The only structural difference between the rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is that the rough ER has ribosomes attached. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Endoplasmic Reticulum 71. The ribosome is an example of a membranous organelle. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Ribosomes 72. When vesicles from the Golgi apparatus reach the cell membrane, the contents are secreted to outside the cell. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Golgi Apparatus 73. The usual destination for vesicles released by the Golgi apparatus is the nucleus of the cell. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Golgi Apparatus 74. Lysosomes are vesicles that have been pinched off from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Lysosomes 75. Nuclear pore complexes regulate what can enter and leave the nucleus. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Nucleus 76. Centrioles are made up of cylinders of nine bundles of microtubules with two tubules in each bundle. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Centrosomes 77. Centrosomes play an important role in cell division. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Centrosomes 78. Primary cilia can act as sensory organelles. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Extensions 79. One function of the microvilli is to increase the surface area of a membrane to provide for more efficient absorption. ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Extensions MATCHING Match each cell structure with its corresponding description or function. a. Plasma membrane b. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum c. Golgi apparatus d. Nucleolus e. Nucleus f. Ribosome g. Lysosome h. Mitochondria i. Peroxisomes j. Rough endoplasmic reticulum k. Proteasomes 1. Tubular network in the cell with no ribosomes that synthesize lipids and carbohydrates 2. Outer boundary of the cell made up of phospholipids and proteins 3. Functions in processing and packaging of protein molecules to be exported from the cell 4. Protein factory made up of two subunits 5. Structure in the cell nucleus that makes ribosomes 6. Major source of ATP synthesis; the “powerhouse” of the cell 7. Vesicles or sacs in the cell that can destroy large molecules or even the cell itself 8. Vesicles that contain catalase that are important in metabolic reactions involving hydrogen peroxide 9. Structures that destroy improperly folded protein molecules that could possibly harm the cell 10. One of the largest structures in the cell; contains DNA 11. Broad, flattened sacs that extend from the nucleus and have ribosomes attached to them 1. ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Endoplasmic Reticulum 2. ANS: A DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Membrane 3. ANS: C DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Golgi Apparatus 4. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Ribosomes 5. ANS: D DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Nucleus 6. ANS: H DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Mitochondria 7. ANS: G DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Lysosomes 8. ANS: I DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Peroxisomes 9. ANS: K DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Proteasomes 10. ANS: E DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Nucleus 11. ANS: J DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Endoplasmic Reticulum Match each term to the phrase that describes it best. a. Microtubules b. Intermediate filaments c. Microfilaments d. Centrosomes e. Cilia f. Flagella g. Microvilli h. Desmosomes i. Tight junctions j. Gap junctions k. Primary cilium l. Centrioles 12. Cell fiber that can be found in muscle cells 13. Cell extension that is found on the sperm cell 14. Cell connections that are like small “spot welds” 15. Cell extension that increases surface area for more efficient absorption 16. Largest of the cell fibers; act like “engines” for the cell 17. Microtubule organizing centers that also play a role in cell division 18. Cell connections that form tunnels between cells and are found in heart muscles 19. Cell fibers that are slightly thicker than microfilaments 20. Cell extensions that are shorter than flagella and are found lining the respiratory tract 21. Cell connection that forms a “collar” around groups of cells 22. Tiny cylinders that can be found near the boundaries of the centrosomes 23. Cell extensions that lack the center pair of microtubules and can function as sensory organelles; not found in blood cells, but most other cells have them 12. ANS: C DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Fibers 13. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Extensions 14. ANS: H DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Connections 15. ANS: G DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Extensions 16. ANS: A DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Fibers 17. ANS: D DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Centrosomes 18. ANS: J DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Connections 19. ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Fibers 20. ANS: E DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Extensions 21. ANS: I DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Connections 22. ANS: L DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Centrosomes 23. ANS: K DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Extensions OTHER 1. Describe the structure of the cell membrane, and explain what is meant by the fluid mosaic model. ANS: Answers will vary. DIF: Application REF: TOP: Cell Membrane 2. Explain the functions of the cell membrane. ANS: Answers will vary. DIF: Application REF: TOP: Cell Membrane 3. Explain what structure on the cell membrane makes it difficult to transplant an organ from one person into another. ANS: Answers will vary. DIF: Synthesis REF: TOP: Cell Membrane 4. Name and give the functions of the membranous organelles of the cell. ANS: Answers will vary. DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Structure 5. Name and give the functions of the nonmembranous organelles of the cell. ANS: Answers will vary. DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Structure 6. Name and explain the function of each of the three types of cell fibers in the cell. ANS: Answers will vary. DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Fibers 7. What is the function of the centrosome, and by what other name is it known? ANS: Answers will vary. DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Centrosomes 8. What are molecular motors, and what is their function in the cell? ANS: Answers will vary. DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Molecular Motors 9. Explain the structure and function of the microvilli. ANS: Answers will vary. DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Extensions 10. Explain the structure and function of cilia and flagella. What is the only type of human cell that has a flagellum? ANS: Answers will vary. DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Extensions 11. Explain the structure and function of the primary cilium in the cell. Which cell type does not have a primary cilium? ANS: Answers will vary. DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Extensions 12. Describe the structure and function of the nucleus. Include the structure and function of the nucleolus. ANS: Answers will vary. DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Nucleus 13. Name and describe the three types of cell connections. ANS: Answers will vary. DIF: Memorization REF: TOP: Cell Connections ESSAY 1. Joanne, a 75-year-old patient, has an active peptic ulcer. Describe the cellular organelles involved in synthesizing digestive enzymes for the stomach. ANS: Answers will vary. DIF: Synthesis REF: TOP: Cytoplasm and Organelles 2. Rebecca received second-degree sunburn and was very uncomfortable for several days. Her skin began to heal, and some of the epithelial tissue began to peel off in layers. Explain the cell connections that allow the skin cells to hold onto each other in a sheet. ANS: Answers will vary. DIF: Synthesis REF: TOP: Cell Connections 3. Explain the process by which a protein is processed in preparation for being released by the cell, starting at the ribosome and ending at the cell membrane. ANS: Answers will vary. DIF: Synthesis REF: TOP: Golgi Apparatus [Show More]

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