Pharmacology > EXAM > Bio-201-Exam–Straighterline | Bio201 Exam 2 – Straighterline (All)

Bio-201-Exam–Straighterline | Bio201 Exam 2 – Straighterline

Document Content and Description Below

Bio 201 Exam 2 {2020} – Straighterline Which of the following statements regarding thermodynamics is false? Select one: a. A single cell or the planet Earth could be a thermodynamic system b... . Thermodynamics is the study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter c. An automobile engine is a closed system because it does not exchange energy and matter with its surroundings d. An open system exchanges both energy and matter with its surroundings Question 2 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following processes can move a solute against its concentration gradient? Select one: a. Passive transport b. Active transport c. Facilitated diffusion d. Osmosis Question 3 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following examples is classified as a metabolic pathway? Select one: a. Protein synthesis b. Osmosis c. Passive diffusion d. Cell lysis Question 4 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements regarding membrane protein function is false? Select one: a. Membrane proteins transfer genetic information to the cytoplasm b. Membrane proteins serve as enzymes c. Membrane proteins act as receptors to molecules like hormones d. Membrane proteins form junctions between cells Question 5 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements is true among all types of passive transport? Select one: a. The concentration gradient is the driving force b. Only small polar molecules are able to cross the plasma membrane c. Proteins are needed to transport molecules across the membrane d. Ions never cross the plasma membrane by passive transport Question 6 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements regarding enzymes is true? Select one: a. An enzymes function is unaffected by changes in pH b. Enzymes are inorganic c. All enzymes depend on protein cofactors to function d. Enzymes catalyze specific reactions Question 7 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Facilitated diffusion across a biological membrane requires ________ and moves a substance ________ its concentration gradient. Select one: a. Transport proteins, against b. Energy and transport proteins, against c. Transport proteins, down d. Energy and transport proteins, down Question 8 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Anything that prevents ATP formation will most likely Select one: a. Have no effect on the cell b. Result in cell death c. Force the cell to rely on ADP for energy d. Force the cell to rely on lipids for energy Question 9 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements regarding diffusion is false? Select one: a. Diffusion is a result of the thermal energy of atoms and molecules b. Diffusion occurs when particles spread from areas where they are less concentrated to areas where they are more concentrated c. Diffusion occurs even after equilibrium is reached and no net change is apparent d. Diffusion requires no input of energy into the system Question 10 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text A plant cell in a hypotonic solution Select one: a. Bursts because of an inflow of water b. Becomes turgid because of an inflow of water c. Shrivels because of an outflow of water d. Wilts because of an outflow of water Question 11 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text ATP can be used as the cell's energy exchange mechanism because Select one: a. Endergonic reactions can be fueled by coupling them with the hydrolysis of high-energy phosphate bonds in ATP b. ATP is a disposable form of chemical energy, used once and then discarded by the cell c. Endergonic reactions can be fueled by coupling them with the formation of ATP from ADP d. ATP is the most energy-rich small molecule in the cell Question 12 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Oxygen crosses a plasma membrane by Select one: a. Passive transport b. Osmosis c. Pinocytosis d. Active transport Question 13 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Glucose molecules provide energy to power the swimming motion of sperm. In this example, the sperm are changing Select one: a. Kinetic energy into thermal energy b. Kinetic energy into potential energy c. Chemical energy into kinetic energy d. Chemical energy into potential energy Question 14 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Plasma membranes are selectively permeable. This means that Select one: a. Anything can pass into or out of a cell as long as the membrane is intact and the cell is healthy b. Glucose cannot enter the cell c. Plasma membranes must be very thick d. The plasma membrane allows some substances to enter or leave a cell more easily than others Question 15 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text You are adrift in the Atlantic Ocean, and, being thirsty, drink the surrounding seawater. As a result, Select one: a. You dehydrate yourself b. You quench your thirst c. Your cells become turgid d. Your cells lyse from excessive water intake Question 16 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following energy transfers is impossible in living systems? Select one: a. Light energy to potential energy b. Chemical energy to kinetic energy c. Light energy to chemical energy d. Heat to light energy Question 17 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Aquaporins Select one: a. Allow water to cross the plasma membrane via facilitated diffusion b. Allow water to cross the plasma membrane against its concentration gradient c. Are found in all cells d. Allow for the active transport of water Question 18 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Living systems Select one: a. Are examples of a closed system b. Violate the second law of thermodynamics c. Violate the first law of thermodynamics d. Decrease their entropy while increasing the entropy of the universe Question 19 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements about the ATP molecule is true? Select one: a. Extremely stable bonds link the second and third phosphate groups b. It releases energy when one phosphate group leaves ATP c. It contains five phosphate groups d. It contains the sugar glucose Question 20 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text An energy barrier Select one: a. Is the amount of energy that must be produced by the reactants to end a chemical reaction b. Is higher than the activation energy of a reaction c. Can only be overcome with the use of enzymes d. Prevents the spontaneous breakdown of molecules in the cell Question 21 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements regarding active transport is false? Select one: a. Active transport is driven by the concentration gradient b. Active transport uses ATP as an energy source c. Active transport can move a solute against its concentration gradient d. Active transport requires the cell to expend energy Question 22 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements regarding enzyme function is false? Select one: a. An enzymes function depends on its three dimensional shape b. Enzymes emerge unchanged from the reactions they catalyze c. Enzymes are very specific for certain substrates d. Enzymes are used up when they catalyze a chemical reaction, so must be synthesized for each new chemical reaction Question 23 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Heating inactivates enzymes by Select one: a. Changing the enzymes three dimensional shape b. Removing phosphate groups from the enzyme c. Causing enzyme molecules to stick together d. Breaking the covalent bonds that hold the molecule together Question 24 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text The cholesterol associated with animal cell membranes Select one: a. Is an abnormality resulting from a diet high in cholesterol b. Helps to stabilize the cell membrane at body temperature c. Is attached to membrane proteins and extends into the watery environment surrounding the cell d. Helps solidify the membranes when the room temperature is below freezing Question 25 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text A major function of glycoproteins and glycolipids in the cell membrane is to Select one: a. Glue cells together to form tissues b. Allow the cells of an embryo to sort themselves into tissues and organs c. Attach the cell membrane to the cytoskeleton d. Help the cell retain its shape Oxidation is the ________, and reduction is the ________. Select one: a. Gain of oxygen, loss of oxygen b. Gain of protons, loss of protons c. Loss of electrons, gain of electrons d. Gain of electrons, loss of electrons Question 2 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text The mitochondrial cristae are an adaptation that Select one: a. Carefully encloses the DNA housed within the mitochondrial matrix b. Helps mitochondria divide during times of greatest cellular respiration c. Increases the space for more copies of the electron transport chain and ATP synthase complexes d. Permits the expansion of mitochondria as oxygen accumulates in the mitochondrial matrix Question 3 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text At the end of the citric acid cycle, most of the energy remaining from the original glucose is stored in Select one: a. Pyruvate b. CO2 c. ATP d. NADH Question 4 Partially correct 1.00 points out of 2.00 Flag question Question text Match the following definitions with the correct term. Glycolysis followed by the reduction of pyruvate to lactate, regenerating NAD+ Answer 1 Glycolysis followed by the reduction of pyruvate to ethyl alcohol, regenerating NAD+ and releasing carbon dioxide Answer 2 Energy-coupling mechanism that uses energy of hydrogen ion gradients across membranes to drive cellular work. Answer 3 A cluster of several membrane proteins that function in chemiosmosis with adjacent electron transport chains, using the energy of a hydrogen ion concentration gradient to make ATP. Answer 4 Question 5 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following options lists the stages in cellular respiration in the correct order? Select one: a. Glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation b. Oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, and the citric acid cycle c. The citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and glycolysis d. Glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, and the citric acid cycle Question 6 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text During cellular respiration, the energy in glucose Select one: a. Is carried by electrons b. Becomes stored in molecules of ammonia c. Is released all at once d. Is used to manufacture glucose Question 7 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text During cellular respiration, NADH Select one: a. Is the final electron acceptor b. Is reduced to form NAD ion c. Delivers its electron load to the first electron carrier molecule d. Is chemically converted into ATP Question 8 Incorrect 0.00 points out of 3.00 Flag question Question text Match the following definitions with the correct term. The loss of electron from a substance involved in a redox reaction Answer 1 The aerobic harvesting of energy from food molecules Answer 2 The multistep chemical breakdown of a molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate Answer 3 The gain of electrons by a substance involved in redox reactions Answer 4 A series of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP Answer 5 The chemical cycle that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules begun in glycolysis by oxidizing acetyl CoA to carbon dioxide. Answer 6 Question 9 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text A mutant protist is found in which some mitochondria lack an inner mitochondrial membrane. Which of the following pathways would be completely disrupted in these mitochondria? Select one: a. Biosynthesis b. Glycolysis c. Oxidative phosphorylation d. Alcoholic fermentation Question 10 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Respiration ________, and cellular respiration ________. Select one: a. Produces ATP, is gas exchange b. Produces glucose, produces oxygen c. Is gas exchange, produces ATP d. Uses glucose, produces glucose Question 11 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text A culture of bacteria growing aerobically is fed glucose containing radioactive carbon and is then examined. As the bacteria metabolize the glucose, radioactivity will appear first in Select one: a. Glucose 6 phosphate b. Pyruvate c. Carbon dioxide d. ATP Question 12 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements about the energy yield of aerobic respiration is false? Select one: a. Less than 50% of the chemical energy available in glucose is converted to ATP energy b. Oxidative phosphorylation resulting from 1 glucose molecule yields about 12 ATP molecules c. Most of the ATP derived during aerobic respiration results from oxidative phosphorylation d. The total yield of ATP molecules per glucose molecule is about 32 Question 13 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text How do cells capture the energy released by cellular respiration? Select one: a. They produce ATP b. They store it in molecules of carbon dioxide c. The energy is coupled to oxygen d. They produce glucose Question 14 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text A drug is tested in the laboratory and is found to create holes in both mitochondrial membranes. Scientists suspect that the drug will be harmful to human cells because it will inhibit Select one: a. The citric acid cycle b. Oxidative phosphorylation c. The citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation d. Glycolysis Question 15 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text In the electron transport chain, the final electron acceptor is Select one: a. ADP b. A molecule of water c. An oxygen atom d. A molecule of carbon dioxide Question 16 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements regarding glycolysis is false? Select one: a. Glycolysis is considered to be an ancient metabolic system because it is the most efficient metabolic pathway for ATP synthesis b. Glycolysis is considered to be an ancient metabolic process because it is not located in a membrane bound organelle c. Glycolysis is considered to be an ancient metabolic process because it does not require oxygen d. Glycolysis is considered to be an ancient metabolic system because it occurs universally Question 17 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text A child is born with a rare disease in which mitochondria are missing from skeletal muscle cells. However, the muscles still function. Physicians find that Select one: a. The muscles contain large amounts of lactate following even mild physical exercise b. The muscle cells cannot split glucose to pyruvate c. The muscles require extremely high levels of oxygen to function d. The muscles contain large amounts of carbon dioxide following even mild physical exercise Question 18 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text The enzymes of the citric acid cycle are located in the Select one: a. Matrix and inner mitochondrial membrane b. Nucleus c. Cytoplasm d. Outer mitochondrial membrane Question 19 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Humans use about ________ of their daily calories to maintain brain cells and power other life sustaining activities. Select one: a. 90% b. 25% c. 75% d. 50% Question 20 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text The functioning of an electron transport chain is analogous to Select one: a. A Slinky toy going down a flight of stairs b. A person leaping from the top to the bottom of a flight of stairs in one jump c. A canoe going over a waterfall d. A person climbing a flight of stairs one step at a time Question 21 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text When proteins are used as a source of energy for the body, the proteins Select one: a. Are hydrolyzed to glucose and converted to acetyl CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle b. Are converted mainly into intermediates of glycolysis or the citric acid cycle c. Are hydrolyzed to their constituent amino acids; electrons are stripped from the amino acids and passed to the electron transport chain d. Are converted into glucose molecules, which are fed into glycolysis Question 22 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements about the energy yields from cellular respiration is true? Select one: a. Cellular respiration is more efficient at harnessing energy from glucose than car engines are at harnessing energy from gasoline b. The heat produced during cellular respiration is only a tiny fraction of the chemical energy available in a glucose molecule c. Cellular respiration converts all of the energy in glucose into high-energy ATP bonds d. Cellular respiration converts the kinetic energy of glucose into chemical energy Question 23 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Some friends are trying to make wine in their basement. They've added yeast to a sweet grape juice mixture and have allowed the yeast to grow. After several days they find that sugar levels in the grape juice have dropped, but there's no alcohol in the mixture. The most likely explanation is that Select one: a. The mixture needs more sugar, because yeast need a lot of energy before they can begin to produce alcohol b. The mixture needs more oxygen, because yeast need oxygen to break down sugar and get enough energy to produce alcohol c. The mixture needs less oxygen, because yeast only produce alcohol in the absence of oxygen d. The yeast used the alcohol as a carbon source Question 24 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following is a result of glycolysis? Select one: a. Conversion of glucose to two three carbon compounds b. A net loss of two ATPs per glucose molecule c. Conversion of NADH to NAD ion d. Production of CO2 Question 25 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements regarding food is false? Select one: a. Food provides the raw materials for biosynthetic pathways that consume ATP b. Food provides the raw materials for biosynthetic pathways that can produce sugar by a process that is the exact opposite of glycolysis c. Food provides the raw materials for biosynthetic pathways that make molecules for cellular repair and growth d. Food provides the raw materials for biosynthetic pathways that can produce molecules that are not actually present in the original food Question 26 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text If you consume 1 g of each of the following, which will yield the most ATP? Select one: a. Glucose b. Protein c. Starch d. Fat Question 27 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text A culture of bacteria growing aerobically is fed glucose containing radioactive carbon and is then examined. As the bacteria metabolize the glucose, radioactivity will appear first in Select one: a. Pyruvate b. Glucose 6 phosphate c. Carbon dioxide d. ATP In most green plants, chloroplasts are Select one: a. Concentrated in a zone of leaf tissue called the mesophyll b. Evenly distributed throughout the entire plant c. Concentrated in a portion of the leaf called the stroma d. Evenly distributed throughout the leaf tissue Question 2 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following is part of the light reaction? Select one: a. Formation of waste products in the form of O2 b. Reduction of carbon c. Regeneration of NADP d. Carbon fixation Question 3 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text CO2 enters and O2 escapes from a leaf via Select one: a. Thylakoids b. Stomata c. Grana d. Stroma Question 4 Partially correct 1.00 points out of 3.00 Flag question Question text Match the following definitions with the correct term. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, an electron acceptor that, NADPH, temporarily stores energized electrons produced during the light reactions Answer 1 The first of two stages in photosynthesis; the steps in which solar energy is absorbed and converted to chemical energy Answer 2 The incorporation of carbon from atmospheric CO2 into the carbon in organic compounds. Answer 3 A stack of membrane-bounded thylakoids in a chloroplast; sites where light energy is trapped by chlorophyll and converted to chemical energy during the light reactions of photosynthesis Answer 4 The second of two stages of photosynthesis; a cycle series of chemical reactions that occur in the stroma of a chloroplast, using the carbon in CO2 and the ATP and NADPH produced by the light reason to make energy-rich sugar molecule G3P Answer 5 The entire spectrum of radiation ranging in wavelength from less than a nanometer to more than a kilometer Answer 6 Question 5 Incorrect 0.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Chlorophyll b Select one: a. Catalyze the incorporation of carbon atoms into RuBP b. Is best at absorbing the energy of green light c. Passes absorbed energy to chlorophyll a d. Is best at absorbing the energy of blue-violet and red light, just like chlorophyll a Question 6 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text A packet of light energy is called a Select one: a. Quantum b. Photon c. Phaser d. Pigment Question 7 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text To produce one glucose, the Calvin cycle needs to be run through ________ times. Select one: a. Two b. Six c. Four d. Eight Question 8 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following has been a major source of ozone destruction over the past 50 years? Select one: a. Chemiosmosis b. Ethylene glycol c. Chlorofluorocarbons d. Carbon dioxide Question 9 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text The Calvin cycle constructs ________, an energy-rich molecule that a plant cell can then use to make glucose or other organic molecules. Select one: a. NADH b. G3P c. ATP d. Carbon dioxide Question 10 Partially correct 1.00 points out of 3.00 Flag question Question text Match the following definitions with the correct term. An organism that cannot make its own organic food molecules and must obtain them by consuming other organisms or their organic products Answer 1 The process by which plants, autotrophic protists, and some bacteria use light energy to make sugars and other organic food molecules from carbon dioxide and water Answer 2 A green pigment located within the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and other prokaryotes. Answer 3 A pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of a leaf. Answer 4 A flattened membranous sac inside a chloroplast Answer 5 An organism that makes its own food, thereby sustaining itself without eating other organisms or their molecules Answer 6 Question 11 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Plant cells are protected from the harmful effects of reactive oxidative molecules by Select one: a. Mitochondria b. Carotenoids c. Chlorophyll d. ATP Question 12 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following is a normal process of photosynthesis that could not occur if all reaction centers were inactivated by a toxin? Select one: a. Donation of excited electrons by chlorophyll b to a primary electron acceptor b. Absorption of photons by carotenoids c. Donation of excited electrons by chlorophyll a to a primary electron acceptor d. Absorption of photons by chlorophyll b Question 13 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Chloroplasts contain disklike membranous sacs arranged in stacks called Select one: a. Thylakoids b. Cristae c. Vacuoles d. Grana Question 14 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text As a result of the cascade of electrons down the electron transport chains of the light reactions, Select one: a. NADP is oxidized to NADPH b. NADP is reduced to NADPH c. NADPH is oxidized to NADP d. NADPH is reduced to NADP Question 15 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Where is chlorophyll found in a plant cell? Select one: a. Cristae b. Thylakoid membranes c. Cytoplasm d. Stroma Question 16 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text The light reactions occur in the ________, while the Calvin cycle occurs in the ________. Select one: a. Stroma, nucleus b. Cytoplasm, thylakoid membrane c. Stroma, thylakoid membranes d. Thylakoid membranes, stroma Question 17 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements regarding photosynthesis is false? Select one: a. Photosynthesis produces O2; respiration produces CO2 b. Photosynthesis consumes CO2; respiration consumes O2 c. Photosynthesis is ultimately powered by light energy and respiration by the chemical energy of fuel molecules d. ATP is not produced during photosynthesis, but only during cellular respiration Question 18 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text The ultimate source of all the food we eat and the oxygen we breathe is Select one: a. Cellular respiration b. Glycolysis c. Photosynthesis d. Anaerobic metabolism Question 19 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements concerning the role of redox reactions in photosynthesis and cellular respiration is true? Select one: a. Photosynthesis involves only reductions, while respiration involves only oxidations b. In photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is oxidized to form sugar, while in respiration, sugar is reduced to form carbon dioxide c. In photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is reduced to form sugar, while in respiration, sugar is oxidized to form carbon dioxide d. Photosynthesis involves only oxidations, while respiration involves only reductions Question 20 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Ozone Select one: a. Protects Earth from UV radiation b. Is broken down by carbon dioxide c. Is a source of oxygen for cellular respiration d. Formation is promoted by CFCs Question 21 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text What is the likely origin of chloroplasts? Select one: a. Mitochondria that had a mutation for photosynthesis b. Eukaryotes that engulfed photosynthetic fungi c. Photosynthetic prokaryotes that lived inside eukaryotic cells d. Prokaryotes with photosynthetic mitochondria Which of the following statements is false? Select one: a. A zygote is a fertilized egg b. Gametes are haploid cells c. An X chromosome is an autosome d. Two haploid cells fuse during fertilization Question 2 Partially correct 1.00 points out of 3.00 Flag question Question text Match the following definitions with the correct term. An abnormal tissue mass that can spread into neighboring tissue and to other parts of the body; a cancerous tumor Answer 1 The two chromosomes that make up a matched pair in a diploid cell Answer 2 Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell that develops into a sperm or egg Answer 3 The spread of cancer cells beyond their original site Answer 4 An abnormal mass of cells that remains at its original site in the body Answer 5 The first sign of cytokinesis during cell division in an animal cell; a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate Answer 6 Question 3 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements regarding the cell-cycle control system is false? Select one: a. The cell cycle control system triggers and controls major events in the cell cycle b. The cell cycle control system receives messages from outside the cell that influence cell division c. The cell cycle control system operates independently of the growth factors d. The cell cycle control system includes three key checkpoints to complete a cell cycle Question 4 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements regarding cell division is false? Select one: a. Cell division can reproduce an entire organism b. Cell division is the basis of both sexual and asexual reproduction c. Cell division is necessary for development to occur d. Cell division is common in eukaryotes but rare in prokaryotes Question 5 Partially correct 1.50 points out of 3.00 Flag question Question text Match the following definitions with the correct term. A cell containing a single set of chromosomes Answer 1 A sex cell Answer 2 In an organism that reproduces sexually, a cell containing two homologous sets of chromosomes, one set inherited from each parent Answer 3 The production, by crossing over and/or independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis, of off-spring with allele combinations different from those in the parents Answer 4 The particular site where a gene is found on a chromosome Answer 5 A display of micrographs of the metaphase chromosomes of a cell, arranged by size and centromere position; may be used to identify certain chromosomal abnormalities Answer 6 Question 6 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements about nondisjunction is false? Select one: a. Nondisjunction in meiosis can affect autosomes and sex chromosomes b. In general, a single Y chromosome is enough to produce maleness c. In mammals, extra copies of the Y chromosome are typically inactivated d. Women with a single X chromosome have Turner syndrome and are sterile Question 7 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements regarding prokaryotes is false? Select one: a. Most prokaryotes reproduce by binary fission b. Prokaryotic chromosomes are more complex than those of eukaryotes c. Prokaryotic cells are generally smaller and simpler than eukaryotic cells d. In prokaryotes, daughter chromosomes are separated by an active movement away from each other and the growth of a new plasma membrane between them Question 8 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements regarding Down syndrome is false? Select one: a. Trisomy 21 is the cause of Down syndrome b. Down syndrome is the most common serious birth defect in the United States c. Down syndrome is least likely to be seen in the infants of mothers over 40 d. People with Down syndrome usually have a shorter life span than normal Question 9 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text How many generations does it take to develop a new plant species by polyploidy? Select one: a. About twenty b. Two c. Ten d. One Question 10 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text When animal cells are grown in a petri dish, they typically stop dividing once they have formed a single, unbroken layer on the bottom of the dish. This arrest of division is an example of Select one: a. Cell division repression b. Density dependent inhibition c. Cell constraint d. Growth factor desensitization Question 11 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Eukaryotic cells spend most of their cell cycle in which phase? Select one: a. Prophase b. Telophase c. Interphase d. Metaphase Question 12 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text With the exception of identical twins, siblings who have the same two biological parents are likely to look similar, but not identical, to each other because they have Select one: a. Identical chromosomes, but different genes b. Identical genes but different chromosomes c. The same combination of traits, but different genes d. A similar but not identical combination of genes Question 13 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements regarding mitosis and meiosis is false? Select one: a. Mitosis produces daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell b. A normal human zygote has 46 chromosomes c. All sexual life cycles involve an alternation of diploid and haploid stages d. Meiosis only occurs in the ovaries and testes Question 14 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Without crossing over Select one: a. Cells could not complete meiosis b. Only a small number of unique gametes could be produced by a single individual c. Meiosis could not produce haploid gametes d. Genetic recombination could not occur Question 15 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following must occur for a plant or animal to grow and develop normally? Select one: a. The organism must be able to control the timing and rate of cell division in different parts of its body. b. The organism must receive a supply of the appropriate hormones from its parents. c. Sufficient light must be available to stimulate cell division. d. Sufficient oxygen must be available to stimulate cell division. Question 16 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Strictly speaking, the phrase like begets like refers to Select one: a. All forms of reproduction b. Production of gametes from a premeiotic cell c. Asexual reproduction only d. Sexual reproduction only Question 17 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text The phase of mitosis during which the mitotic spindle begins to form is Select one: a. interphase b. anaphase c. prophase d. metaphase Question 18 Incorrect 0.00 points out of 3.00 Flag question Question text Match the following definitions with the correct term. The creation of genetically unique offspring by the fusion of two haploid sex cells, forming a diploid zygote Answer 1 One of the two identical parts of a duplicated chromosome in a eukaryotic cell Answer 2 The reproduction of a cell through duplication of the genome and division of the cytoplasm Answer 3 A means of asexual reproduction in which a parent organism, often a single cell, divides into two genetically identical individuals of about equal size Answer 4 The creation of genetically identical offspring by a single parent, without the participation of sperm and egg Answer 5 A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell and most visible during mitosis and meiosis Answer 6 Question 19 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following types of organisms commonly demonstrates polyploidy? Select one: a. Fish b. Reptiles c. Mammals d. Flowering plants Question 1 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text The process of a white blood cell engulfing a bacterium is Select one: a. Receptor mediated endocytosis b. Phagocytosis c. Pinocytosis d. Osmosis Feedback The correct answer is: Phagocytosis Question 2 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Substrates bind to an enzymes ________ site. Select one: a. Phosphate b. Active c. Allosteric d. Inhibitory Feedback The correct answer is: Active Question 3 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Most of a cells enzymes are Select one: a. Lipids b. Amino acids c. Proteins d. Carbohydrates Feedback The correct answer is: Proteins Question 4 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements regarding the differences between mitosis and meiosis is false? Select one: a. In mitosis cytokinesis occurs once, whereas in meiosis cytokinesis occurs twice b. In meiosis four daughter cells are produced, whereas in mitosis two daughter cells are produced c. Crossing over is a phenomenon that creates genetic diversity during mitosis d. Cells produced by mitosis are diploid, whereas cells produced by meiosis are haploid Feedback The correct answer is: Crossing over is a phenomenon that creates genetic diversity during mitosis Question 5 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following are products of cellular respiration? Select one: a. Oxygen and carbon dioxide b. Oxygen and glucose c. Oxygen and energy to make ATP d. Energy to make ATP and carbon dioxide Feedback The correct answer is: Energy to make ATP and carbon dioxide Question 6 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text With the exception of identical twins, siblings who have the same two biological parents are likely to look similar, but not identical, to each other because they have Select one: a. A similar but not identical combination of genes b. Identical genes but different chromosomes c. Identical chromosomes, but different genes d. The same combination of traits, but different genes Feedback The correct answer is: A similar but not identical combination of genes Question 7 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following is part of the light reaction? Select one: a. Carbon fixation b. Regeneration of NADP c. Formation of waste products in the form of O2 d. Reduction of carbon Feedback The correct answer is: Formation of waste products in the form of O2 Question 8 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following must occur for a plant or animal to grow and develop normally? Select one: a. The organism must receive a supply of the appropriate hormones from its parents. b. Sufficient oxygen must be available to stimulate cell division. c. Sufficient light must be available to stimulate cell division. d. The organism must be able to control the timing and rate of cell division in different parts of its body. Feedback The correct answer is: The organism must be able to control the timing and rate of cell division in different parts of its body. Question 9 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text To obtain energy from starch and glycogen, the body must begin by Select one: a. Hydrolyzing the starch to glucose and the glycogen to amino acids b. Hydrolyzing both starch and glycogen to glucose c. Converting both starch and glycogen to fatty acids d. Removing one glucose at a time with a condensation reaction Feedback The correct answer is: Hydrolyzing both starch and glycogen to glucose Question 10 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text The function of coenzyme A in the citric acid cycle is most like Select one: a. A frog that turns into a prince b. Throwing a baited hook into a lake and catching a fish c. A limousine driver dropping off a couple at the school prom d. A kid jumping up and down on a trampoline Feedback The correct answer is: A limousine driver dropping off a couple at the school prom Question 11 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text A steer must eat at least 100 pounds of grain to gain less than 10 pounds of muscle tissue. This illustrates Select one: a. The second law of thermodynamics b. That energy transformations are typically 100% efficient c. That some energy is destroyed in every energy conversion d. The first law of thermodynamics Feedback The correct answer is: The second law of thermodynamics Question 12 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text The transfer of a phosphate group to a molecule or compound is called Select one: a. Ionization b. Hydrogenation c. Carboxylation d. Phosphorylation Feedback The correct answer is: Phosphorylation Question 13 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Living systems Select one: a. Decrease their entropy while increasing the entropy of the universe b. Violate the second law of thermodynamics c. Are examples of a closed system d. Violate the first law of thermodynamics Feedback The correct answer is: Decrease their entropy while increasing the entropy of the universe Question 14 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text A redox reaction involves the transfer of Select one: a. Water b. Oxygen c. An electron d. Carbon dioxide Feedback The correct answer is: An electron Question 15 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text The conversion of CO2 and H2O into organic compounds using energy from light is called Select one: a. Fermentation b. Cellular respiration c. Glycolysis d. Photosynthesis Feedback The correct answer is: Photosynthesis Question 16 Incorrect 0.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Photosystem II Select one: a. Passes electrons to photosystem I b. Releases CO2 as a by-product c. Has P700 at its reaction center d. Does not have a reaction center Feedback The correct answer is: Passes electrons to photosystem I Question 17 Partially correct 0.75 points out of 3.00 Flag question Question text Match the following definitions with the correct term. Glycolysis followed by the reduction of pyruvate to ethyl alcohol, regenerating NAD+ and releasing carbon dioxide Answer 1 A cluster of several membrane proteins that function in chemiosmosis with adjacent electron transport chains, using the energy of a hydrogen ion concentration gradient to make ATP. Answer 2 Energy-coupling mechanism that uses energy of hydrogen ion gradients across membranes to drive cellular work. Answer 3 Glycolysis followed by the reduction of pyruvate to lactate, regenerating NAD+ Answer 4 Feedback The correct answer is: Glycolysis followed by the reduction of pyruvate to ethyl alcohol, regenerating NAD+ and releasing carbon dioxide – Alcohol fermentation, A cluster of several membrane proteins that function in chemiosmosis with adjacent electron transport chains, using the energy of a hydrogen ion concentration gradient to make ATP. – ATP synthase, Energy-coupling mechanism that uses energy of hydrogen ion gradients across membranes to drive cellular work. – Chemiosmosis, Glycolysis followed by the reduction of pyruvate to lactate, regenerating NAD+ – Lactic acid fermentation Question 18 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following is an example of a photoautotroph? Select one: a. Cyanobacteria in freshwater and marine ecosystems b. Grizzly bears in Alaska c. Mushrooms growing on the side of a dead tree d. Bacteria in our mouth Feedback The correct answer is: Cyanobacteria in freshwater and marine ecosystems Question 19 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements regarding the function of mitosis is false? Select one: a. Mitosis allows organisms to reproduce asexually b. Mitosis allows organisms to generate genetic diversity c. Mitosis allows organisms to grow d. Mitosis allows organisms to repair tissues Feedback The correct answer is: Mitosis allows organisms to generate genetic diversity Question 20 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements about nondisjunction is false? Select one: a. In mammals, extra copies of the Y chromosome are typically inactivated b. In general, a single Y chromosome is enough to produce maleness c. Women with a single X chromosome have Turner syndrome and are sterile d. Nondisjunction in meiosis can affect autosomes and sex chromosomes Feedback The correct answer is: In mammals, extra copies of the Y chromosome are typically inactivated Question 21 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Some protozoans have special organelles called contractile vacuoles that continually eliminate excess water from the cell. The presence of these organelles tells you that the environment Select one: a. Is isotonic to the protozoan b. Is hypotonic to the protozoan c. Contains a higher concentration of solutes than the protozoan d. Is hypertonic to the protozoan Feedback The correct answer is: Is hypotonic to the protozoan Question 22 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Photophosphorylation during photosynthesis differs from oxidative phosphorylation during cellular respiration in that Select one: a. It involves an electron transport chain b. Regeneration of ATP is driven by a flow of protons through an ATP synthase c. The final electron acceptor is NADP+ and not oxygen d. Energy is stored in the form of a proton concentration difference Feedback The correct answer is: The final electron acceptor is NADP+ and not oxygen Question 23 Incorrect 0.00 points out of 3.00 Flag question Question text Match the following definitions with the correct term. One of the two identical parts of a duplicated chromosome in a eukaryotic cell Answer 1 A means of asexual reproduction in which a parent organism, often a single cell, divides into two genetically identical individuals of about equal size Answer 2 The creation of genetically unique offspring by the fusion of two haploid sex cells, forming a diploid zygote Answer 3 The creation of genetically identical offspring by a single parent, without the participation of sperm and egg Answer 4 The reproduction of a cell through duplication of the genome and division of the cytoplasm Answer 5 A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell and most visible during mitosis and meiosis Answer 6 Feedback The correct answer is: One of the two identical parts of a duplicated chromosome in a eukaryotic cell – Sister chromatids, A means of asexual reproduction in which a parent organism, often a single cell, divides into two genetically identical individuals of about equal size – Binary fission, The creation of genetically unique offspring by the fusion of two haploid sex cells, forming a diploid zygote– Sexual reproduction, The creation of genetically identical offspring by a single parent, without the participation of sperm and egg– Asexual reproduction, The reproduction of a cell through duplication of the genome and division of the cytoplasm – Cell division, A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell and most visible during mitosis and meiosis – Chromosomes Question 24 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following energy transfers is impossible in living systems? Select one: a. Light energy to chemical energy b. Chemical energy to kinetic energy c. Light energy to potential energy d. Heat to light energy Feedback The correct answer is: Heat to light energy Question 25 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements regarding Down syndrome is false? Select one: a. People with Down syndrome usually have a shorter life span than normal b. Down syndrome is least likely to be seen in the infants of mothers over 40 c. Down syndrome is the most common serious birth defect in the United States d. Trisomy 21 is the cause of Down syndrome Feedback The correct answer is: Down syndrome is least likely to be seen in the infants of mothers over 40 Question 26 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text As a result of the cascade of electrons down the electron transport chains of the light reactions, Select one: a. NADPH is reduced to NADP b. NADP is reduced to NADPH c. NADP is oxidized to NADPH d. NADPH is oxidized to NADP Feedback The correct answer is: NADP is reduced to NADPH Question 27 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following is a normal process of photosynthesis that could not occur if all reaction centers were inactivated by a toxin? Select one: a. Absorption of photons by chlorophyll b b. Donation of excited electrons by chlorophyll a to a primary electron acceptor c. Absorption of photons by carotenoids d. Donation of excited electrons by chlorophyll b to a primary electron acceptor Feedback The correct answer is: Donation of excited electrons by chlorophyll a to a primary electron acceptor Question 28 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text If ATP accumulates in a cell Select one: a. The rate of cellular respiration does not change b. Feedback inhibition speeds up cellular respiration c. Feedback inhibition slows down cellular respiration d. The cell receives a signal that there is a need for more energy Feedback The correct answer is: Feedback inhibition slows down cellular respiration Question 29 Partially correct 2.00 points out of 3.00 Flag question Question text Match the following definitions with the correct term. The particular site where a gene is found on a chromosome Answer 1 A cell containing a single set of chromosomes Answer 2 The production, by crossing over and/or independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis, of off-spring with allele combinations different from those in the parents Answer 3 A sex cell Answer 4 In an organism that reproduces sexually, a cell containing two homologous sets of chromosomes, one set inherited from each parent Answer 5 A display of micrographs of the metaphase chromosomes of a cell, arranged by size and centromere position; may be used to identify certain chromosomal abnormalities Answer 6 Feedback The correct answer is: The particular site where a gene is found on a chromosome – Locus, A cell containing a single set of chromosomes – Haploid, The production, by crossing over and/or independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis, of off-spring with allele combinations different from those in the parents – Genetic recombination, A sex cell – Gamete, In an organism that reproduces sexually, a cell containing two homologous sets of chromosomes, one set inherited from each parent – Diploid, A display of micrographs of the metaphase chromosomes of a cell, arranged by size and centromere position; may be used to identify certain chromosomal abnormalities – Karyotype Question 30 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements regarding cell division is false? Select one: a. Cell division can reproduce an entire organism b. Cell division is common in eukaryotes but rare in prokaryotes c. Cell division is necessary for development to occur d. Cell division is the basis of both sexual and asexual reproduction Feedback The correct answer is: Cell division is common in eukaryotes but rare in prokaryotes Question 31 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text The enzymes of the citric acid cycle are located in the Select one: a. Matrix and inner mitochondrial membrane b. Nucleus c. Outer mitochondrial membrane d. Cytoplasm Feedback The correct answer is: Matrix and inner mitochondrial membrane Question 32 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements is false? Select one: a. An X chromosome is an autosome b. Gametes are haploid cells c. A zygote is a fertilized egg d. Two haploid cells fuse during fertilization Feedback The correct answer is: An X chromosome is an autosome Question 33 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Photosynthetic organisms derive their carbon from Select one: a. Hydrocarbons b. Carbon monoxide c. Carbon dioxide d. Methane Feedback The correct answer is: Carbon dioxide Question 34 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text A plant cell in a hypotonic solution Select one: a. Bursts because of an inflow of water b. Shrivels because of an outflow of water c. Wilts because of an outflow of water d. Becomes turgid because of an inflow of water Feedback The correct answer is: Becomes turgid because of an inflow of water Question 35 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Relaying a message from a membrane receptor to a molecule that performs a specific function within a cell is called Select one: a. Signal transduction b. Selective permeability c. Inhibition d. Competition Feedback The correct answer is: Signal transduction Question 36 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text A packet of light energy is called a Select one: a. Quantum b. Photon c. Pigment d. Phaser Feedback The correct answer is: Photon Question 37 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Humans use about ________ of their daily calories to maintain brain cells and power other life sustaining activities. Select one: a. 50% b. 75% c. 90% d. 25% Feedback The correct answer is: 75% Question 38 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following types of organisms commonly demonstrates polyploidy? Select one: a. Fish b. Mammals c. Flowering plants d. Reptiles Feedback The correct answer is: Flowering plants Question 39 Incorrect 0.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Autotrophs that utilize light as their energy source are Select one: a. Chemosynthetic autotrophs b. Fungi c. Heterotrophs d. Photoautotrophs Feedback The correct answer is: Photoautotrophs Question 40 Incorrect 0.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Pyruvate Select one: a. Is the end product of oxidative phosphorylation b. Is a six carbon molecule c. Forms at the end of glycolysis d. Is the molecule that starts the citric acid cycle Feedback The correct answer is: Forms at the end of glycolysis Question 41 Partially correct 1.50 points out of 3.00 Flag question Question text Match the following definitions with the correct term. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, an electron acceptor that, NADPH, temporarily stores energized electrons produced during the light reactions Answer 1 The second of two stages of photosynthesis; a cycle series of chemical reactions that occur in the stroma of a chloroplast, using the carbon in CO2 and the ATP and NADPH produced by the light reason to make energy-rich sugar molecule G3P Answer 2 The first of two stages in photosynthesis; the steps in which solar energy is absorbed and converted to chemical energy Answer 3 The incorporation of carbon from atmospheric CO2 into the carbon in organic compounds. Answer 4 A stack of membrane-bounded thylakoids in a chloroplast; sites where light energy is trapped by chlorophyll and converted to chemical energy during the light reactions of photosynthesis Answer 5 The entire spectrum of radiation ranging in wavelength from less than a nanometer to more than a kilometer Answer 6 Feedback The correct answer is: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, an electron acceptor that, NADPH, temporarily stores energized electrons produced during the light reactions – NADP+, The second of two stages of photosynthesis; a cycle series of chemical reactions that occur in the stroma of a chloroplast, using the carbon in CO2 and the ATP and NADPH produced by the light reason to make energy-rich sugar molecule G3P – Calvin cycle/Kreb’s Cycle, The first of two stages in photosynthesis; the steps in which solar energy is absorbed and converted to chemical energy – Light reactions, The incorporation of carbon from atmospheric CO2 into the carbon in organic compounds. – Carbon fixation, A stack of membrane-bounded thylakoids in a chloroplast; sites where light energy is trapped by chlorophyll and converted to chemical energy during the light reactions of photosynthesis – Grana, The entire spectrum of radiation ranging in wavelength from less than a nanometer to more than a kilometer– Electromagnetic spectrum Question 42 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text In a photosystem, clusters of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid pigments function most like Select one: a. A propeller on a motorboat b. A spring c. A windmill d. An antenna Feedback The correct answer is: An antenna Question 43 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following occurs during interphase? Select one: a. Separation of newly formed DNA to opposite ends of the cell b. Cell growth and duplication of the chromosomes c. Cytokinesis d. A reduction in the size of the nuclear membrane Feedback The correct answer is: Cell growth and duplication of the chromosomes Question 44 Partially correct 2.50 points out of 3.00 Flag question Question text Match the following definitions with the correct term. A green pigment located within the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and other prokaryotes. Answer 1 An organism that cannot make its own organic food molecules and must obtain them by consuming other organisms or their organic products Answer 2 A pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of a leaf. Answer 3 The process by which plants, autotrophic protists, and some bacteria use light energy to make sugars and other organic food molecules from carbon dioxide and water Answer 4 An organism that makes its own food, thereby sustaining itself without eating other organisms or their molecules Answer 5 A flattened membranous sac inside a chloroplast Answer 6 Feedback The correct answer is: A green pigment located within the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and other prokaryotes. – Chlorophyll, An organism that cannot make its own organic food molecules and must obtain them by consuming other organisms or their organic products – Heterotrophs, A pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of a leaf. – Stomata, The process by which plants, autotrophic protists, and some bacteria use light energy to make sugars and other organic food molecules from carbon dioxide and water – Photosynthesis, An organism that makes its own food, thereby sustaining itself without eating other organisms or their molecules – Autotrophs, A flattened membranous sac inside a chloroplast – Thylakoids Question 45 Partially correct 1.50 points out of 3.00 Flag question Question text Match the following definitions with the correct term. energy available in molecules for release in a chemical reaction. Answer 1 an energy-requiring chemical reaction, which yields products with more potential energy than the reactants. Answer 2 an energy releasing chemical reaction in which the reactants contain more potential energy than the products. Answer 3 the energy of motion. Answer 4 the aerobic harvesting of energy from food molecules. Answer 5 the energy that matter possesses because of its location or arrangement. Answer 6 Feedback The correct answer is: energy available in molecules for release in a chemical reaction. – Chemical energy, an energy-requiring chemical reaction, which yields products with more potential energy than the reactants. – Endergonic reaction, an energy releasing chemical reaction in which the reactants contain more potential energy than the products. – Exergonic reaction, the energy of motion. – Kinetic energy, the aerobic harvesting of energy from food molecules. – Cellular respiration, the energy that matter possesses because of its location or arrangement. – Potential energy Question 46 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text It has been argued that cutting old-growth forests and replacing them with plantations of young trees would help to alleviate the threat of global greenhouse warming. What important fact does this argument ignore? Select one: a. Forests play too minor a role in global CO2 dynamics, which are affected far more by marine algae b. Young trees fix carbon at a lower rate per unit mass than old trees c. Most of the biomass of the cut trees would be added to the atmosphere as CO2 within a few years d. Most of the young trees would die within a few years Feedback The correct answer is: Most of the biomass of the cut trees would be added to the atmosphere as CO2 within a few years Question 47 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text If you consume 1 g of each of the following, which will yield the most ATP? Select one: a. Glucose b. Protein c. Starch d. Fat Feedback The correct answer is: Fat Question 48 Correct 3.00 points out of 3.00 Flag question Question text Match the following definitions with the correct term. An ordered sequence of events that extend from the time a eukaryotic cell is first formed from a dividing parent cell until its own division into two cells Answer 1 The period in the eukaryotic cell cycle when the cell is not actually dividing Answer 2 The division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells Answer 3 A football shaped structure formed of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movement of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis Answer 4 The division of a single nucleus into two genetically identical nuclei. Answer 5 The region of a duplicated chromosome where two sister chromatids are joined and where spindle microtubules attach during mitosis and meiosis. Answer 6 Feedback The correct answer is: An ordered sequence of events that extend from the time a eukaryotic cell is first formed from a dividing parent cell until its own division into two cells – Cell cycle, The period in the eukaryotic cell cycle when the cell is not actually dividing – Interphase, The division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells – Cytokinesis, A football shaped structure formed of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movement of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis – Mitotic spindle, The division of a single nucleus into two genetically identical nuclei. – Mitosis, The region of a duplicated chromosome where two sister chromatids are joined and where spindle microtubules attach during mitosis and meiosis. – Centromere Question 49 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text How do cells capture the energy released by cellular respiration? Select one: a. They produce glucose b. The energy is coupled to oxygen c. They produce ATP d. They store it in molecules of carbon dioxide Feedback The correct answer is: They produce ATP Question 50 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following processes can move a solute against its concentration gradient? Select one: a. Facilitated diffusion b. Osmosis c. Active transport d. Passive transport Feedback The correct answer is: Active transport Question 51 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text The electrons lost from the reaction center of photosystem I are replaced by electrons from Select one: a. H2O b. The bottom of the electron transport chain c. CO2 d. The top of the electron transport chain Feedback The correct answer is: The bottom of the electron transport chain Question 52 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements about the ATP molecule is true? Select one: a. It releases energy when one phosphate group leaves ATP b. It contains five phosphate groups c. Extremely stable bonds link the second and third phosphate groups d. It contains the sugar glucose Feedback The correct answer is: It releases energy when one phosphate group leaves ATP Question 53 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Glucose molecules provide energy to power the swimming motion of sperm. In this example, the sperm are changing Select one: a. Chemical energy into potential energy b. Kinetic energy into thermal energy c. Chemical energy into kinetic energy d. Kinetic energy into potential energy Feedback The correct answer is: Chemical energy into kinetic energy Question 54 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text The addition of oxygen instead of carbon dioxide to RuBP results in Select one: a. Photophosphorylation b. Aerobic respiration c. Photorespiration d. Cellular respiration Feedback The correct answer is: Photorespiration Question 55 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements regarding glycolysis is false? Select one: a. Glycolysis is considered to be an ancient metabolic process because it does not require oxygen b. Glycolysis is considered to be an ancient metabolic system because it is the most efficient metabolic pathway for ATP synthesis c. Glycolysis is considered to be an ancient metabolic process because it is not located in a membrane bound organelle d. Glycolysis is considered to be an ancient metabolic system because it occurs universally Feedback The correct answer is: Glycolysis is considered to be an ancient metabolic system because it is the most efficient metabolic pathway for ATP synthesis Question 56 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Cancer is not usually inherited because Select one: a. The causes of cancer are not usually genetic b. The cancerous cells usually interfere with the ability to produce gametes c. People with cancer usually die before reproducing d. The chromosomal changes in cancer are usually confined to somatic cells Feedback The correct answer is: The chromosomal changes in cancer are usually confined to somatic cells Question 57 Incorrect 0.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following metabolic pathways is common in aerobic and anaerobic metabolism? Select one: a. Glycolysis b. The citric acid cycle c. Oxidative phosphorylation d. Electron transport chain Feedback The correct answer is: Glycolysis Question 58 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following features likely accounts for the difference between plant and animal cell cytokinesis? Select one: a. Animal cells lack the microfilaments required for forming a cleavage furrow b. Plant cells have cell walls c. Animal cells lack chloroplasts d. Plant cells have two sets of chromosomes; animal cells have one set of chromosomes Feedback The correct answer is: Plant cells have cell walls Question 59 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text The cholesterol associated with animal cell membranes Select one: a. Is attached to membrane proteins and extends into the watery environment surrounding the cell b. Is an abnormality resulting from a diet high in cholesterol c. Helps solidify the membranes when the room temperature is below freezing d. Helps to stabilize the cell membrane at body temperature Feedback The correct answer is: Helps to stabilize the cell membrane at body temperature Question 60 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements about the absorption of photons by pigment molecules is true? Select one: a. Excitation of the electrons is a very stable state b. It takes several minutes for the pigment electrons to become excited c. The release of energy by the excited electron can be as heat, light, or fluorescence d. Photons raise electrons in pigments to the ground state Feedback The correct answer is: The release of energy by the excited electron can be as heat, light, or fluorescence Question 61 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text When an enzyme catalyzes a reaction, Select one: a. It is used once and discarded b. It acts as a reactant c. It raises the activation energy of the reaction d. It lowers the activation energy of the reaction Feedback The correct answer is: It lowers the activation energy of the reaction Question 62 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements regarding cellular respiration is false? Select one: a. Cellular respiration releases heat b. Cellular respiration produces carbon dioxide c. Cellular respiration produces water d. Cellular respiration is a single chemical reaction with just one step Feedback The correct answer is: Cellular respiration is a single chemical reaction with just one step Question 63 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements regarding thermodynamics is false? Select one: a. An open system exchanges both energy and matter with its surroundings b. Thermodynamics is the study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter c. An automobile engine is a closed system because it does not exchange energy and matter with its surroundings d. A single cell or the planet Earth could be a thermodynamic system Feedback The correct answer is: An automobile engine is a closed system because it does not exchange energy and matter with its surroundings Question 64 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text The label on the box of breakfast cereal lists one serving as containing 200 Calories per serving. How many calories are actually in one serving? Select one: a. 20 b. 200,000 c. 2,000,000 d. 2,000 Feedback The correct answer is: 200,000 Question 65 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Prior to mitosis, each chromosome of a eukaryotic cell consists of a pair of identical structures called Select one: a. Sister chromosomes b. Nucleoli c. Sister chromatids d. Chromatin Feedback The correct answer is: Sister chromatids Question 66 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements regarding prokaryotes is false? Select one: a. Most prokaryotes reproduce by binary fission b. Prokaryotic chromosomes are more complex than those of eukaryotes c. Prokaryotic cells are generally smaller and simpler than eukaryotic cells d. In prokaryotes, daughter chromosomes are separated by an active movement away from each other and the growth of a new plasma membrane between them Feedback The correct answer is: Prokaryotic chromosomes are more complex than those of eukaryotes Question 67 Incorrect 0.00 points out of 3.00 Flag question Question text Match the following definitions with the correct term. the spontaneous movement of a substance down its concentration gradient from where it is more concentrated to where it is less concentrated. Answer 1 the diffusion of water against a selectively permeable membrane. Answer 2 a property of biological membranes that allows some substances to cross more easily than others and blocks the passage of other substances altogether. Answer 3 the movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration gradient, aided by specific transport proteins and requiring an input of energy. Answer 4 a region along which the density of a chemical substance increases or decreases. Answer 5 the diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane, with no expenditure of energy. Answer 6 Feedback The correct answer is: the spontaneous movement of a substance down its concentration gradient from where it is more concentrated to where it is less concentrated. – Diffusion, the diffusion of water against a selectively permeable membrane. – Osmosis, a property of biological membranes that allows some substances to cross more easily than others and blocks the passage of other substances altogether. – Selective permeability, the movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration gradient, aided by specific transport proteins and requiring an input of energy. – Active transport, a region along which the density of a chemical substance increases or decreases. – Concentration gradient, the diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane, with no expenditure of energy. – Passive transport Question 68 Incorrect 0.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements about the greenhouse effect is true? Select one: a. The greenhouse effect will decrease the average temperature of the planet b. The greenhouse effect is exacerbated by the use of fossil fuels c. The greenhouse effect is reduced by deforestation d. The greenhouse effect has no direct relationship with the Industrial Revolution of the 1800s Feedback The correct answer is: The greenhouse effect is exacerbated by the use of fossil fuels Question 69 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following has been a major source of ozone destruction over the past 50 years? Select one: a. Carbon dioxide b. Chemiosmosis c. Ethylene glycol d. Chlorofluorocarbons Feedback The correct answer is: Chlorofluorocarbons Question 70 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text A pair of sex chromosomes found in a human male is most like Select one: a. A pair of blue jeans b. A bride and groom c. A knife, fork, and spoon d. Identical twins Feedback The correct answer is: A bride and groom Question 71 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text When an organism such as a yeast lives by fermentation, it converts the pyruvate from glycolysis into a different compound, such as alcohol. Why doesn't it secrete the pyruvate directly? Select one: a. The conversion yields one NADH per pyruvate molecule b. The conversion yields 32 ATP per pyruvate molecule c. A buildup of pyruvate in the surrounding environment would be too toxic d. The conversion is needed to regenerate the molecules needed for glycolysis Feedback The correct answer is: The conversion is needed to regenerate the molecules needed for glycolysis Question 72 Partially correct 0.50 points out of 3.00 Flag question Question text Match the following definitions with the correct term. The aerobic harvesting of energy from food molecules Answer 1 The multistep chemical breakdown of a molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate Answer 2 The gain of electrons by a substance involved in redox reactions Answer 3 A series of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP Answer 4 The chemical cycle that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules begun in glycolysis by oxidizing acetyl CoA to carbon dioxide. Answer 5 The loss of electron from a substance involved in a redox reaction Answer 6 Feedback The correct answer is: The aerobic harvesting of energy from food molecules – Cellular respiration, The multistep chemical breakdown of a molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate – Glycolysis, The gain of electrons by a substance involved in redox reactions – Reduction, A series of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP – Electron transport chain, The chemical cycle that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules begun in glycolysis by oxidizing acetyl CoA to carbon dioxide. – Citric acid cycle, The loss of electron from a substance involved in a redox reaction – Oxidation Question 73 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text The genetic material is duplicated during Select one: a. The mitotic phase b. G1 c. G2 d. The S phase Feedback The correct answer is: The S phase Question 74 Incorrect 0.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text The energy required to initiate an exergonic reaction is called Select one: a. Endergonic energy b. Exergonic energy c. Input energy d. The activation energy Feedback The correct answer is: The activation energy Question 75 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements about the energy yields from cellular respiration is true? Select one: a. Cellular respiration converts all of the energy in glucose into high-energy ATP bonds b. Cellular respiration converts the kinetic energy of glucose into chemical energy c. Cellular respiration is more efficient at harnessing energy from glucose than car engines are at harnessing energy from gasoline d. The heat produced during cellular respiration is only a tiny fraction of the chemical energy available in a glucose molecule Feedback The correct answer is: Cellular respiration is more efficient at harnessing energy from glucose than car engines are at harnessing energy from gasoline Question 76 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Mature human nerve cells and muscle cells Select one: a. Cease dividing after a predetermined number of cell generations b. Become cancerous more easily than other cell types c. Continue to divide throughout their lifetime d. Are permanently in a state of nondivision Feedback The correct answer is: Are permanently in a state of nondivision Question 77 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Kinetic energy differs from chemical energy in that Select one: a. Chemical energy is a particular form of kinetic energy b. Kinetic energy is stored energy that has the potential to do work, and chemical energy is the energy of movement c. Kinetic energy is the energy of a moving object, whereas chemical energy is the potential energy of molecules d. Kinetic energy can be converted into various forms of energy, whereas chemical energy can only be converted into heat Feedback The correct answer is: Kinetic energy is the energy of a moving object, whereas chemical energy is the potential energy of molecules Question 78 Incorrect 0.00 points out of 3.00 Flag question Question text Match the following definitions with the correct term. The production of ATP by chemiosmosis during the light reactions of photosynthesis Answer 1 A metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen, releases CO2, and decreases photosynthetic output Answer 2 A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming a three-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate Answer 3 A plant that uses an adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions in which carbon dioxide entering open stomata during the night is converted to organic acids, which release CO2 for the Calvin cycle during the day, when stomata are closed. Answer 4 A plant that prefaces the Calvin cycle with reactions that incorporate CO2 into four-carbon compounds, the end product of which supplies CO2 for the Calvin cycle Answer 5 The warming of Earth due to the atmospheric accumulation of CO2 and certain other gases, which absorb infrared radiation and reradiate some of it back toward Earth Answer 6 Feedback The correct answer is: The production of ATP by chemiosmosis during the light reactions of photosynthesis – Photophosphorylation, A metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen, releases CO2, and decreases photosynthetic output – Photorespiration, A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming a three-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate – C3 Plants, A plant that uses an adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions in which carbon dioxide entering open stomata during the night is converted to organic acids, which release CO2 for the Calvin cycle during the day, when stomata are closed. – CAM plants, A plant that prefaces the Calvin cycle with reactions that incorporate CO2 into four-carbon compounds, the end product of which supplies CO2 for the Calvin cycle – C4 Plants, The warming of Earth due to the atmospheric accumulation of CO2 and certain other gases, which absorb infrared radiation and reradiate some of it back toward Earth – Greenhouse effect Question 79 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text The functioning of an electron transport chain is analogous to Select one: a. A Slinky toy going down a flight of stairs b. A person leaping from the top to the bottom of a flight of stairs in one jump c. A canoe going over a waterfall d. A person climbing a flight of stairs one step at a time Feedback The correct answer is: A Slinky toy going down a flight of stairs Question 80 Correct 1.00 points out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements concerning the role of redox reactions in photosynthesis and cellular respiration is true? Select one: a. In photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is oxidized to form sugar, while in respiration, sugar is reduced to form carbon dioxide b. Photosynthesis involves only reductions, while respiration involves only oxidations c. In photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is reduced to form sugar, while in respiration, sugar is oxidized to form carbon dioxide d. Photosynthesis involves only oxidations, while respiration involves only reductions Feedback The correct answer is: In photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is reduced to form sugar, while in respiration, sugar is oxidized to form carbon dioxide [Show More]

Last updated: 1 month ago

Preview 1 out of 112 pages

Add to cart

Instant download

document-preview

Buy this document to get the full access instantly

Instant Download Access after purchase

Add to cart

Instant download

Also available in bundle (1)

BIO 201 Exam 1, 2, 3 & 4 {2020} – Straigterline

BIO 201 Exam 1 {2020} – Straigterline BIO 201 Exam 2 {2020} – Straigterline BIO 201 Exam 3 {2020} – Straigterline BIO 201 Exam 4 {2020} – Straigterline

By Martin Freeman 3 years ago

$28.5

4  

Reviews( 0 )

$15.00

Add to cart

Instant download

Can't find what you want? Try our AI powered Search

OR

REQUEST DOCUMENT
63
0

Document information


Connected school, study & course


About the document


Uploaded On

Jan 26, 2021

Number of pages

112

Written in

Seller


seller-icon
Martin Freeman

Member since 4 years

485 Documents Sold


Additional information

This document has been written for:

Uploaded

Jan 26, 2021

Downloads

 0

Views

 63

More From Martin Freeman

View all Martin Freeman's documents »

$15.00
What is Browsegrades

In Browsegrades, a student can earn by offering help to other student. Students can help other students with materials by upploading their notes and earn money.

We are here to help

We're available through e-mail, Twitter, Facebook, and live chat.
 FAQ
 Questions? Leave a message!

Follow us on
 Twitter

Copyright © Browsegrades · High quality services·