Organizational Behavior > QUESTIONS & ANSWERS > C715 WGU, Exam Questions and answers, graded A+ (All)

C715 WGU, Exam Questions and answers, graded A+

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C715 WGU, Exam Questions and answers, graded A+ PERSONALITY - ✔✔-a complex set of characteristics that makes you unique HEREDITY - ✔✔-factors determined at conception MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE IN... DICATOR - ✔✔-the most widely used personality assessment in the world. includes scales on introversion/extroversion, sensing/intuition, thinking/feeling, and judging/perceiving THE BIG FIVE PERSONALITY MODEL - ✔✔-personality typing instrument which includes extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness to experience Machiavellianism - ✔✔-the degree to which an individual's pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes the end justifies the means NARCISSM - ✔✔-the tendency to be arrogant, have a grandiose sense of self-importance, require excessive admiration, and have a sense of entitlement SELF-MONITORING - ✔✔-A personality trait that measures an individual's ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors. PROACTIVE PERSONALITY - ✔✔-people identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs. VALUES - ✔✔-basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence TERMINAL VALUES - ✔✔-desirable end-states of existence; the goals a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime INSTRUMENTAL VALUES - ✔✔-preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one's terminal values POWER DISTANCE - ✔✔-a national culture attribute that describes the extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally PERCEPTION - ✔✔-a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment ATTRIBUTION THEORY - ✔✔-an attempt to determine whether an individual's behavior is internally or externally caused FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR - ✔✔-the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others SELF-SERVING BIAS - ✔✔-the tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors and put the blame for failures on external factors SELECTIVE PERCEPTION - ✔✔-the tendency to selectively interpret what one sees on the basis of one's interests, background, experience, and attitude HALO EFFECT - ✔✔-the tendency to draw a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic CONTRAST EFFECT - ✔✔-evaluation of a person's characteristics that is affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics STEREOTYPING - ✔✔-judging someone on the basis of one's perception of the group to which it belongs SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY - ✔✔-a situation in which a person inaccurately perceives a second person, and the resulting expectations cause the second person to behave in ways consistent with the original perception RATIONAL DECISION-MAKING MODEL - ✔✔-a decision-making model that describes how individuals should behave in order to maximize some outcomes BOUNDED RATIONALITY - ✔✔-a process of making decisions by constructing simplified models that the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity INTUITION DECISION-MAKING - ✔✔-an unconscious process distilled out of distilled experience ANCHORING BIAS - ✔✔-a tendency to fixate on initial information from which one then fails to adequately adjust for subsequent information CONFIRMATION BIAS - ✔✔-the tendency to seek out information that reaffirms past choices and to discount information that contradicts past judgments RISK ADVERSION - ✔✔-the tendency to prefer a sure gain of a moderate amount over a riskier outcome even if the riskier outcome might have a higher expected payoff MOTIVATION - ✔✔-the processes that account for an individuals intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward maintaining a goal HIERARCHY OF NEEDS - ✔✔-abram maslow's _________ (5) physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization- in which as each need is substantially satisfied, the next becomes dominant LOWER ORDER NEEDS - ✔✔-needs that are satisfied externally, such as physiological and safety needs SELF-ACTUALIZATION - ✔✔-the drive to become what a person is capable of becoming HIGHER-ORDER NEEDS - ✔✔-needs that are satisfied internally, such as social, esteem, and selfactualization THEORY X - ✔✔-the assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility, and must be coerced to perform THEORY Y - ✔✔-the assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction HYGIENE FACTORS - ✔✔-factors, such as company policy, and administration, supervision, and salarythat when adequate in a job, placates workers. When these factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied MCCLELLANDS THEORY OF NEEDS - ✔✔-a theory that states achievement, power and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation COGNITIVE EVALUATION THEORY - ✔✔-a version of self determination theory which holds that allocating extrinsic rewards for behavior that had been previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation if the rewards are seen as controlling SELF-CONCORDANCE - ✔✔-the degree to which peoples' reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with their interests or core values MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES (MBO) - ✔✔-a program that encompasses specific goals, participatively set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE - ✔✔-perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals INTERACTIONAL JUSTICE - ✔✔-the perceived degree to which an individual is treated with dignity, concern, and respect GROUP - ✔✔-2 or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives FORMAL GROUP - ✔✔-a designated work group defined by an organization's structure INFORMAL GROUP - ✔✔-a group that is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined: such a group appears in response to the need for social contact SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY - ✔✔-perspective that considers when and why individuals consider themselves members of groups FIVE STAGE GROUP DEVELOPMENT MODEL - ✔✔-the 5 distinct stages groups go through are: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning FORMING STAGE - ✔✔-first stage of group development characterized by a lot of uncertainty STORMING STAGE - ✔✔-second stage of group development characterized by intragroup conflict NORMING STAGE - ✔✔-third stage of group development characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness PERFORMING STAGE - ✔✔-fourth stage of group development during which the group is fully functional ADJOURNING STAGE - ✔✔-the final stage of group development for temporary groups; characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM MODEL - ✔✔-a set of phases that temporary groups go through that involve transitions between inertia and activity ROLE PERCEPTION - ✔✔-an individual's view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation ROLE EXPECTATIONS - ✔✔-how others believe a person should act in a given situation NORMS - ✔✔-acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group's members DEVIANT WORKPLACE BEHAVIOR - ✔✔-voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and, in so doing, threatens the well-being of the organization or its members. Antisocial behavior or workplace incivility SOCIAL LOAFING - ✔✔-the tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually CONFLICT - ✔✔-a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about INTERACTIONIST VIEW OF CONFLICT - ✔✔-the belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but also an absolute necessity for a group to perform effectively FUNCTIONAL CONFLICT - ✔✔-conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves performance DYSFUNCTIONAL CONFLICT - ✔✔-conflict that hinders group performance PROCESS CONFLICT - ✔✔-conflict over how the work gets done COMPETING - ✔✔-a desire to satisfy one's interests, regardless of the impact on the other party to the conflict COLLABORATING - ✔✔-a situation in which the parties to a conflict each desire to satisfy fully the concern of all parties AVOIDING - ✔✔-the desire to withdraw from or suppress a conflict ACCOMMODATING - ✔✔-the willingness of one party in a conflict to places the opponent's interest above his or her own COMPROMISING - ✔✔-a solution in which each party to a conflict is willing to give up something NEGOTIATION - ✔✔-a process in which 2 or more parties exc [Show More]

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