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C787 nutrition WGU Review Questions and Answers Latest 2023,100% CORRECT

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C787 nutrition WGU Review Questions and Answers Latest 2023 1. When nutrition advocates became concerned that recommendations did not do enough to address prevention of chronic diet related disea... ses, what policy change were made? RDA's (Recommended Daily Allowances) expanded into several DRI (Daily Reference Intakes) 2. What is true of dietary reference intake? Food labeling must include information about them. They differ depending on age and gender 3. What is always found on a nutrition label in the US? Serving size 4. A healthful diet contains nutrient intake near what amount? Recommended daily allowance 5. What is an appropriate use of AMDR (Acceptable Macronutrient Dietary Range) when evaluating the appropriateness of a snack food? 50% calories from fat is too much. 6. What is meant by Tolerable Upper Intake Level? The highest level of daily consumption that current data has shown to cause no side effects in humans; ensures people do not take harmful amounts. 7. How is estimated average requirement commonly used? To guide recommendations and menu planning for communities in combinations with upper intake levels. 8. What is true of choose my plate .gov recommendations as presented by their setting place graphic? Half of the plate should be fruits and vegetables. 9. What is the nutritional benefit of fruits and vegetables? They provide nutrients that reduce the risk some type of cancer. 10. What is false regarding fruits and vegetables in the diet? Fruits and vegetables are rich in vitamin B12 11. What strategy might be avoided due to expense for patients looking to eat more healthfully on a budget? Buying frozen meals 12. Which statement is true about planning a balanced meal? Skim milk has roughly the same amount of calcium and protein as whole milk. 13. What is true about dietary recommendation for whole grain intake? Half of all whole grains consumed should be whole grain products. 14. Fritz is hosting a brunch and prepares for each of his friends Omelet with cheese Toasted English muffin 1t all fruit preserves ½ large grapefruit 1c whole milk How can his menu be improved to follow the dietary guidelines for Americans? Use egg whites for the omelets Replace cheese with vegetables in the omelets Replace English muffin with whole wheat English muffin Replace whole milk with fat free milk 15. What is true of recommendations concerning trans fat and added sugar intake? Trans fat and added sugar intake should be minimized. There is no DRI value. What is recommended daily amount of protein intake? 60g/ day. 17. Which list contains all examples of protein? Garbanzo beans (Chickpeas), egg, chicken breast, yogurt, cheese, ground beef, peanut butter, tofu 18. What is the best choice for a combination of plant-based foods to maximize healthy diet in a vegetarian diet? Legume+ whole grain 19. There is a current initiative for more transparent labeling of sugars on nutrition fact labels. In the coming years, which of these might be more obviously labeled sugars? Anything ending in-ose, honey 20. Which carbohydrate will cause a quick return to hunger? One with a higher glycemic index 21. Which is the reason that seafood can be considered a healthful diet? Some seafood is high in healthy omega 3 oils 22. What are generally considered sources of healthy fat? Fish, nuts, olive oil 23. What is not a common source of high levels of sodium? Spices and herbs 24. Which foods are relatively rich in iron? Dark leafy greens, legumes, red meat, nuts 25. What is the best vegetarian source of iron from the options provided? Beans 26. Which of these are protective against heart disease? Fiber, HDL cholesterol 27. Which are linked to increase heart disease risk? LDL, trans fat, saturated fats 28. Reducing heart disease/ stroke LDL levels below 120mg/dl Limit cholesterol intake to less than 30mg per day Saturated fats-less than 7% of total daily calories At least 30 minutes of activity in daily routine Sodium levels-below 1600mg per day Increase intake of fiber, especially insoluble fiber, although most will be soluble. Limit alcohol to 1-2 drinks per day. What is an appropriate dietary intervention to address a patient's low albumin level? High protein diet. 30. Select foods that would be inappropriate for a patient with kidney disease? Fried eggs, hot dogs, steak 31. What is the dash diet designed to address? Hypertension 32. Which factors are important in controlling hypertension? Sodium below 1600mg daily Daily exercise such as a half hour walk Maintaining a healthy weight-BMI below 25 33. Because obesity affects many organ systems and hormones impairing body functions, which is true It is now considered a disease by AMA 34. What BMI is considered obese, requiring counseling about a weight loss dietary plan? BMI> 30 BMI>25 is overweight, >40 is morbidly obese 35. What is the BMI calculation for a patient that measures 5'4" in height and 175lbs in weight? 30 BMI is square the height in inches (64*64=4096) then divide the weight in lbs by that number (175/4096= 0.043) then multiply by 703 to change to metric units 36. What describes a diet least likely to result in obesity? A diet with a variety of fruits, whole grains and vegetables. 37. Identify which heart disease risk factors are modifiable? Sedentary lifestyle BMI 32kg/m2 Diet high in trans fat 38. Which statement is true? Obese children and teenagers are at increased risk of coronary heart disease 39. You are working in a family medicine clinic with a 22 yr old patient. You note a BMI of 17. What counseling might you give this patient? "At this BMI you are at an increased risk of infertility, osteoporosis and premature death. Let's find solutions." 40. What health risks clearly increase along with BMI? Select all that apply. Heart Disease Type 2 diabetes, Premature death Osteoarthritis Sleep apnea 41. What is true regarding genetic influence on body weight? Body weights of parents are often predictive of children even when they do not raise him. 42. To maintain weight in the long term, patients should: Balance energy expenditure with energy intake; eat just enough calories for activity level. 43. You can only draft five pieces of advice for weight loss. Which do you choose? Reduce processed foods Increase activity When you want food, ask yourself, "am I hungry?" Eat 5 small meals to maintain energy throughout the day, Limit sugary drinks. 44. Which person is most likely to lose weight and keep it off? One who sticks to their diet long term. 45. Which is true about weight loss? 10% reduction in total weight has consistently been shown to improve health and decrease risk. 46. Which is likely not an appropriate, sustainable weight goal? To lose 20 pounds in a month and be envied by friends 47. What is true of water intake and weight loss? There is evidence to support that drinking 48oz of water or more supports weight loss. 48. Which foods are likely appropriate for consistent inclusion on a weight reduction dietary plan? Baked fish Seasoned green vegetables Skinless chicken breast 49. Which are thought to societal factors in the obesity epidemic? Choose More desk based, low activity jobs. Increasing size of food portions at restaurants and at home. Increased consumption of processed foods. 50. Obesity messages to adolescents: Focus on a healthy diet, not weight loss diets. Reinforce healthy behavior Don't reward with food Watch consumption of media messages determine content, credibility, etc. 51. What is inappropriate advice to a family of a 14-year-old with anorexia? Serve separate meals to different family members. 52. What is true of physical activity, in conjunction with diet, to support weight loss? Patients should strive for 90 minutes of moderate physical activity at least 3 times a week. 53. What is a legal supplement body builder take in an effort to increase muscle mass and increase nitrogen retention? (an Ergogenic aid) Protein powder 54. What does the term anthropometrics refer to? Weight management assessment tools including weight, height, and waist size 55. How do you calculate physical activity level (PAL)? Total Energy Expenditure/Body Mass Rate 56. You are in the family medicine clinic and are working with a patient with a BMI of 52 and a sedentary lifestyle. He is wondering about bariatric surgery. Which pieces of advice are appropriate? "Increase your physical activity now, but do it gradually, to reduce strain on your heart and increase your likelihood of keeping with it." "Even after surgery, you will need to continue to exercise." "After surgery, you may lose weight rapidly." "You will need to take specific vitamin supplements after surgery." 57. What is true nutrition for infants? Human milk contains immune factors that infant formula does not. 58. Why is juice not recommended for infants? Contributes to dental decay Lacks fiber and may contribute to diarrhea It is a high calorie source of fluid 59. Which behavior may contribute to dental carries (cavities) in infancy? Sharing utensils 60. What parent behavior may put a child in a risk of developing poor relationship with food? Never involve children in meal planning Avoiding offering children choices 61. How does the CDC define overweight in children? BMI for the age over 85th percentile. 62. When teaching kindergarteners (5-6yrs old) about Choose My Plate, what would an appropriate educational strategy be? Teach them a rhyme with the concepts 63. When teaching 8-10-year olds about healthy meal planning, what would an appropriate educational strategy be? Have them write out a description of a healthy menu with different food groups 64. You are working in a pediatrics practice and have an appointment with an obese 9-year-old boy and his parents. What are some pieces of advice you might give the family? High levels of stress can cause poor eating habits Limit portion sizes and avoid frequent restaurant meals Encourage the child to help choose and prepare meals Encourage physical active play and not just desk-based study Provide and model choices of healthy plant-based snacks and colorful fruits and vegetables at meals 65. What are some strategies to avoid when teaching high school students about nutrition? Focus on how good nutrition will make them pretty Explain ways to skip or replace meals. 66. A healthy 17-year-old girl is reading a nutrition label and sees that a product contains 13%DV of calcium per serving. How many servings of this product would this girl need to have that day to get the recommended amount of calcium from that product alone? 10 Recommended DV of 130% for adolescents instead of 100% like adults. 67. A nurse is evaluating a 16-year-old boy with short stature (stunted linear growth), poor bone development, and cognitive development delays. What might be a dietary cause of this boy's condition? Malnutrition. 68. What nutrient do young adolescent have an increased need for relative to adults? Thiamine 69. What is appropriate advice to give a newly pregnant mother? Alcohol should be avoided during all trimesters of pregnancy 70. What is a possible effect of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on the fetus? Permanent developmental disability 71. What nutrient reduces the risk of neural tube defects? Folate/Folic acid 72. What are some good dietary sources of folate? Lentils, spinach, oats 73. How can a pregnant mother minimize the risk of preterm delivery? Abstain from tobacco and drugs prior to conception and through pregnancy Discontinue use of alcohol Maintain a healthy weight Maintain healthy diet to prevent gestational diabetes 74. What is false about breastfeeding? It is a reliable form of birth control 75. Why are adults over 70 years of age more vulnerable to inadequacy of one or more dietary nutrients? Different GI physiology interferes with absorption 76. What are some potential benefits of prebiotics and probiotics for an older adult? Decreased total cholesterol Control of IBS - yogurt/cultured products Support immune system function Rebuild bone density 77. How might you advise a patient about adapting to older adulthood? "To avoid obesity, remain active, and realize your overall caloric needs may decrease." 78. A patient is considering adding a dietary supplement and wants to know more. What should they do first? Discuss it with their healthcare provider 79. To which patient represented by a quote in a meeting with the nurse, should the nurse recommend a dietary supplement? "The doctor said my labs showed that I have iron-deficiency anemia. 80. The phrase "Not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease": Is required to appear on the label of all supplements. 81. Which vitamins can be flushed out in the urine stream if they are in moderate excess? B vitamins Vitamin C 82. Match the supplement with what it aims to improve. Ergogenic aid- athletic performance Nootropic- cognition Probiotic- digestive system Galactagogue- breastmilk production. 83. Supplements may or may not contain an active ingredient. What else may they contain? Extra ingredients that are unlisted and are similar to fillers in Rx drugs 84. How should you counsel a patient about providing information about the supplements they take to the healthcare team? "Supplements can interact with medicine and make the medicine's effect too strong. This can cause a life-threatening event." 85. Match the nutrient to its deficiency: Thiamine- beriberi Iodine- brain damage, intellectual impairment, goiter Vitamin A- blindness Vitamin D- rickets Why do many women take calcium supplements? To reduce the risk of osteoporosis 87. Vitamin k: Should be avoided while on warfarin (Coumadin) 88. What is unavailable in plant foods, and therefore may need to be consumed as a supplement to a vegetarian diet? Vitamin B12. 89. What nutrients are available in plant foods but may require special consideration in a vegetarian diet? Iron Vitamin D Protein (can be very difficult on a vegetarian diet) Calcium (must be a bioavailable form) 90. A limited ability to acquire nutritionally adequate foods in socially acceptable ways is called? Food insecurity What is true of food waste and overpopulation? They are contributing factors to global hunger 92. What are natural causes of famine? Pests, draught, and flood 93. What does the Economic Research Service do? Assists in providing research and analysis on food security issues in developing countries. 94. Food deserts are often characterized by their lack of: Availability and accessibility of healthful foods 95. What are characteristics of food deserts? Fast foods are more affordable in the area Markets in the area do not have fresh produce 96. What are some public health strategies to reduce food deserts? Implement urban farmer's market Supporting public policy to reduce costs of fresh foods 97. Financial limitations to adequate nutrition are a main focus of what diagnostic tool? Food Security Survey Module 98. A situation where a person who consumes many calories, but without adequate nutrients, can be considered? Undernutrition, which also includes the chronically hungry 99. What is the use of the Child Food Security Survey Module? Determine if a child is experiencing hunger at home. 100. What does "Household Food Security Status" refer to? An outcome measure to examine the public's ability to secure adequate food. 101. What is a term that means all people have access, at all times, to sufficient food for an active and a healthy life? Food security 102. What is true of the Food Security Survey Module? It measures sufficiency of food and very low food security requires intervention. 103. Low food security is characterized by? Reduced quality, variety, or desirability of diet 104. What was one effect of the National Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research Act of 1990? Development of standardized questionnaires for measuring household food security status. 105. The uneasy or painful sensation caused by the lack of food is known as.... Hunger 106. Which factor might be a cause of a patient's frequent ED visits for congestive heart failure? The patient goes without medication because they cannot afford them until they are paid. 107. What problems of factors can be associated with food insecurity? Poor nutrition Trouble obtaining food Obesity Lower cognitive and academic performance Poorer health status 108. What does SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) do? Help low income families who have trouble affording food acquire food. 109. What is the most appropriate referral to have home meals delivered by Meals on Wheels? Male, age 82, limited income, mobility issues and cannot drive. Which is the most appropriate referral to the Women, infants, and Children program? Female, age 22, speaks limited English, 6 months pregnant, low income, difficulty obtaining prenatal care. 111. What is not a primary consideration when addressing nutritional needs for a homeless patient? Is the food fair-trade certified? 112. What is a major barrier to nutritional education, and a strategy for overcoming that barrier? Illiteracy, screening for problems with written materials and providing verbal or picture-based instruction. 113. When working with a patient who speaks limited English, what should be avoided? Using text only to teach Using only traditional American food to teach. 114. What program teaches older adults how to shop, plan, and prepare nutritious meals, as well as conducting hypertension assessments? Elderly Nutrition Program 115. What is one way that programs seek to provide socialization to older adults? Providing meals in group settings 116. Matching: Senior farmer's market Nutrition Program: Allows older adults to acquire fruits and vegetables SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program): Helps low income families acquire food Special Supplementary Nutrition program- WIC: Recognizes medical and dietary risks to women and children 117. Which is an important consideration of the Meals on Wheels program? That the meals are appealing to the patient's taste 118. What is "food poisoning"? Can be caused by either primary infection by a microbe or production of toxins by microbes. 119. What is true of botulism? It is thought to be the most lethal bioterrorism agent. 120. Which infections are most commonly disseminated by ingestion? (Fecal-oral) Cholera Shigellosis 121. What is Food Systems Security? A system to focus on locating the source of bioterrorism incident and notifying affected facilities. 122. What foods have been common sources of food contamination in recent years? Bean sprouts Spinach Milk 123. Which home cooks have put themselves at increased risk of spreading microbial foodborne illness? Fred who didn't wash the spinach for the salad Francine who undercooked her chicken Filip who put a big handful of raw sprouts on his Thai noodles Frank, who defrosted his steak on the counter Flo, who stores her cooked and raw vegetables together 124. Food safety, matching: Campylobacter- undercooked poultry e-coli - foods contaminated with fecal matter (fecal-oral) mycotoxins— molds/fungus glycoalkaloids- potatoes exposed to light ciguatoxin- fish such as grouper monosodium glutamate- flavor enhancer which can cause chest pain, edema, facial numbness, headache 125. Enteritis and diarrhea are commonly caused by? E-coli Salmonella 126. Why should pregnant women eat cheese only if it has been pasteurized? Listeria in unpasteurized cheese increases the risk of spontaneous abortion and congenital infection of the newborn. 127. Foods that require freezing, preservation techniques, or immediate use are called: Perishable foods 128. True or False: pasteurized milk can be stored at room temperature? False 129. True or False: Contaminated drinking water should be boiled for at least five minutes? True 130. True or false: Irradiated food becomes radioactive? False 131. True or false: Dented cans should be discarded? True 132. True or false: Chicken should be cooked or frozen within four days of purchase? False (2 days) 133. What is the term for the chemical that gives rise to obesity? Obesogen: Bisphenol A is an example 134. What does the USDA organic seal indicate? That the food is 100% organic according to current standards That the food is not genetically engineered, and no synthetic fungicides or insecticides were used 135. A bottle of pasta sauce says, "Made with organic tomatoes, onions, and basil." What can you infer from this? The sauce contains at least 70% certified organic content [Show More]

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 Social Sciences> EXAM > absolute location - ANSWER The actual space a place occupies on Earth's surface acculturation - ANSWER The change that occurs within a culture when it adopts a practice from another culture agglomeration effects - ANSWER The cost advantages (external economies) for an individual company gained by locating near similar industries or companies agribusiness - ANSWER Commercial agriculture in which large corporations own and operate various steps in the production process with an emphasis on profit agricultural density - ANSWER The number of people living in rural areas per unit of agricultural land alliance - ANSWER An association among countries for the purpose of mutual defense or trade animism - ANSWER The belief that spirits (including ancestral) live within objects such as animals, rivers, rocks, trees, and mountains antecedent boundary - ANSWER A boundary placed before the cultural landscape was developed artifact - ANSWER Tangible pieces of material culture assimilation - ANSWER The process in which immigrants become totally integrated into the host culture backwash effect - ANSWER The negative impact to the peripheral region sometimes caused by increased flows of labor and capital into a nearby high-growth region bid rent curve - ANSWER The concept that the concentric circles in Burgess's concentric zone model are based on the amount people are willing to pay for land in each zone biotechnology - ANSWER The application of scientific techniques to modify and improve plants, animals, and microorganisms to enhance their value built environment - ANSWER The material culture of an environment carrying capacity - ANSWER The number of people an area can support on a sustained basis central business district (CBD) - ANSWER The business area found at the center of every older central city and urban area central place theory - ANSWER A theory developed by Walter Christaller that states that cities exist for economic reasons and that people gather in cities to share goods and ideas centrifugal force - ANSWER A strong, divisive force, such as religious differences or a weak communication systems, at work in a country centripetal force - ANSWER A strong, unifying force, such as a charismatic leader or nationalism, at work in a country chain migration - ANSWER The part of a migrant flow (usually relatives and friends) that follows former migrants to an area charter group - ANSWER The first group of settlers to establish a new and lasting culture and society is an area compact state - ANSWER A state that is basically round in shape, such as Poland or Bhutan) colonialism - ANSWER A system in which a country declares control over a territory or people outside its own boundaries, usually for economic purposes commodity chain - ANSWER A chain of activities from the manufacturing to the distribution of a product concentric zone model - ANSWER The model of urban land use developed by Burgess which demonstrates the invasion and succession processes that occur as the city grows and expands outward confederation - ANSWER A loose association of states organized for the purpose of retaining cohesion, such as the former republic of the USSR congregation - ANSWER An ethnic group's grouping together in a specific part of the city to support each other and minimize conflicts with those in the non-ethnic group consequent boundary - ANSWER A type of subsequent boundary that is drawn to accommodate existing linguistic, cultural, or religious boundaries conservation agriculture - ANSWER A modern method of farming that balances maximum crop yield with sustainable farming methods and protection of the environment creole - ANSWER A simplified mixture of two or more languages that is adopted in areas of cultural diversity crude birth rate (CBR) - ANSWER The number of babies born per 1000 people per year crude death rate (CDR) - ANSWER The number of deaths per 1000 people per year crude density - ANSWER The number of people per unit of land (also called arithmetic density) cultural barrier - ANSWER hindrances to cultural diffusion that occur in a society and keep cultural traits from spreading cultural diffusion - ANSWER The process in which culture is spread from one region to another cultural landscape - ANSWER The unique landscape made up of all parts of a culture-both material and nonmaterial culture - ANSWER The cluster of traits that make a group of people special and unique culture region - ANSWER A portion of the Earth's surface occupied by populations sharing recognizable and distinctive cultural characteristics culture hearth - ANSWER A place where innovations and new ideas originate and spread outward (diffuse) to other regions culture trait - ANSWER A single feature of a culture, such as religion or language decolonization - ANSWER The process by which former colonies gain their independence from the mother country deindustrialization - ANSWER The reduction in industrial activity that occurs when decreased profits and declining business cause a reduction in industrial employment demographic transition model - ANSWER A model that shows the link between population growth and economic development using four or five stages of economic development demography - ANSWER The study of the characteristics of a human population density - ANSWER The number of an item within a unit of area dependency ratio - ANSWER The ratio of people under age 15 and those 65 and older to those age 15 to 65 dependency theory - ANSWER A theory of economic development proposed by Andre Gunder Frank based on the periphery's dependence on the core desertification - ANSWER The transformation of agricultural lands into deserts because of overgrazing and soil erosion MDCs - ANSWER Countries such as the United States, Germany, and Australia who have the highest levels of economic development devolution - ANSWER The breakdown of central authority in a country distance decay - ANSWER The principle that says migrants try to minimize the friction of distance by moving to locations closer to them rather than father away distribution - ANSWER The array of items on the Earth's surface. All spatial distributions have density, dispersion, and some type of pattern domino theory - ANSWER The theory prevalent during the Cold War Era that once a country became communist, its neighbors were likely to soon become communist also doubling time - ANSWER The length of time it takes for a country's population to double in size if the growth rate stays the same dialect - ANSWER A speech variants of a language, which reflects the local region in which it is spoken ecumene - ANSWER The part of the Earth that is fit for humans to live edge city - ANSWER A new urban complex that consists of a large node of office buildings and commercial operations with more workers than residents elongated state - ANSWER A state that is long and narrow, such as Vietnam or Chile enclave - ANSWER A piece of territory completely surrounded by another territory of which it is not a part environmental determinism - ANSWER The theory that human behavior is controlled by the physical environment ethnic enclave - ANSWER A residential community where the residents either voluntarily live, or are forced to live, in a segregated (separated) fashion due to race, religion, or ethnicity ethnic island - ANSWER A small ethnic settlement centered in the middle of a larger group of the population ethnic religion - ANSWER A religion that is part of a particular ethnic or political group (Judaism, for example) ethnocentrism - ANSWER The belief that one's own ethnic group is superior to all others exclave - ANSWER An outlier, or piece of a territory, that is completely enclosed within the borders of another country exclusive economic zone (EEZ) - ANSWER An expanse of water up to 200 natural nautical miles off a country's coast that is designated for that country's natural resource exploration and exploitation export-processing zones (EPZs) - ANSWER Small areas of a country with exceptional investment and trading conditions that are created by its government to stimulate and attract foreign investors and business federal state - ANSWER A type of government that gives local political units such as states or provinces within a country a measure of power First Agricultural Revolution - ANSWER The domestication of plants and animals and the resulting start of a sedentary society (also called the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution) fixed cost - ANSWER The cost of land, plant, and machinery that is not variable folk culture - ANSWER A homogenous group of people with a strong family structure who follow a simple, traditional lifestyle of self-sufficiency and independence from the society's cultural mainstream Fordism - ANSWER The process (named after Henry Ford, its founder) of using assembly-line techniques and scientific management in manufacturing formal region - ANSWER A region with a high level of consistency in a certain culture of physical attribute fragmented state - ANSWER A state that has two or more areas of territory separated by another country gateway city - ANSWER A city that served as the control center for a former colonial power gentrification - ANSWER The process of renovating an older, run-down neighborhood near the center city by middle-class and high-income families gerrymandering - ANSWER The process of redrawing territorial district boundaries to favor a certain political party ghetto - ANSWER The concentration of a certain group of residents in a certain residential area against their will through legal means or social discrimination globalization - ANSWER The increasing interconnection of all regions in the world through politics, communication, transportation, marketing, manufacturing, and social and cultural processes GMO (genetically modified organisms) - ANSWER An organism that is created when scientists take one or more specific genes from one organism and introduce them into another organism thus creating a new version gravity model - ANSWER A law of spatial interaction that states that larger places attract people, ideas, and goods more strongly that smaller places Green Revolution - ANSWER The development and transfer from the developed world to the developing world, of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through new and improved technology, pesticides, and fertilizers, for the purpose of alleviating world hunger GDP - ANSWER The approximate value of all final goods and services produced in a country per year gross national product (GNP) - ANSWER The gross domestic product (GDP) plus the value of income from abroad such as earnings from a US company based abroad heartland-rimland theory - ANSWER Halford Mackinder's theory that the country that dominated the landmass of Eurasia (heartland) would eventually rule the world (rimland) hierarchial diffusion - ANSWER The adoption of an official language by the ruler or administration, a language diffused downward into the society human capital theory of migration - ANSWER The migration theory that states that educated workers often migrate from poor countries to wealthy countries seeking better-paying jobs imperialism - ANSWER The use of military threat, cultural domination, and economic sanctions to gain control of a country and its resources Industrial Revolution - ANSWER The movement from homebased cottage industries to factory industries with several workers under one roof that the use of machines facilitates in England in the late 1700s intensive subsistence agriculture - ANSWER A form of agriculture heavily depends on heavy inputs of fertilized and human labor on a small piece of land for substantial crop yield internally displaced person - ANSWER A person who is forced out of the home region due to war, political or social unrest, environmental problems, etc., but who does not cross any international boundary intervening opportunity - ANSWER The idea that migrants will choose a location closer rather than farther if all other factors are roughly the same irredentism - ANSWER The destabilizing situation that arises when an ethnic group supports and seeks to unite with its ethnic population in another country language family - ANSWER A group of languages that are related and derived from a single, earlier language latitude - ANSWER The degrees north or south from the equator for a location on the surface of the Earth. Measured in parallels. least cost theory - ANSWER A theory, developed by Alfred Weber, that states that three main expenses-labor, transportation, and agglomeration-must be minimized when locating an industry LDCs - ANSWER Countries located on the edge of the world core that are seeking improved conditions for their residents through economic growth lingua franca - ANSWER A language that is not part of the culture of the country but is one that is informally agreed upon as the language of business and trade locational interdependence theory - ANSWER A theory developed by Harold Hotelling that suggests that competitors in their effort to maximize sales, will try and limit each other's territory by locating close to each other in the middle of their combined customer base longitude - ANSWER The distance east or west from the Prime Meridian, measured in degrees, minutes, and seconds using lines of identical longitude, called meridians long-lots system of land survey - ANSWER A land survey method used by French and Spanish charter groups in North America in which long lots of land extended outward from river frontage material culture - ANSWER The artifacts (tangible things) of a culture such as tools, weapons, and furniture mediterranean agriculture - ANSWER A form of specialized agriculture in which crops grown in a Mediterranean climate of warm year-round temperatures and sunny summers (grapes, olives, figs, dates, citrus fruits, etc.) are grown megacity - ANSWER A metropolitan area with a total population of over 10 million people according to the United Nations megalopolis - ANSWER A group of supercities that have merged together into one large urban area metes-and-bounds land survey system - ANSWER A land survey system used in North America where natural boundaries such as rivers, trees, and large rocks were used to mark land boundaries (All)

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absolute location - ANSWER The actual space a place occupies on Earth's surface acculturation - ANSWER The change that occurs within a culture when it adopts a practice from another culture agglomeration effects - ANSWER The cost advantages (external economies) for an individual company gained by locating near similar industries or companies agribusiness - ANSWER Commercial agriculture in which large corporations own and operate various steps in the production process with an emphasis on profit agricultural density - ANSWER The number of people living in rural areas per unit of agricultural land alliance - ANSWER An association among countries for the purpose of mutual defense or trade animism - ANSWER The belief that spirits (including ancestral) live within objects such as animals, rivers, rocks, trees, and mountains antecedent boundary - ANSWER A boundary placed before the cultural landscape was developed artifact - ANSWER Tangible pieces of material culture assimilation - ANSWER The process in which immigrants become totally integrated into the host culture backwash effect - ANSWER The negative impact to the peripheral region sometimes caused by increased flows of labor and capital into a nearby high-growth region bid rent curve - ANSWER The concept that the concentric circles in Burgess's concentric zone model are based on the amount people are willing to pay for land in each zone biotechnology - ANSWER The application of scientific techniques to modify and improve plants, animals, and microorganisms to enhance their value built environment - ANSWER The material culture of an environment carrying capacity - ANSWER The number of people an area can support on a sustained basis central business district (CBD) - ANSWER The business area found at the center of every older central city and urban area central place theory - ANSWER A theory developed by Walter Christaller that states that cities exist for economic reasons and that people gather in cities to share goods and ideas centrifugal force - ANSWER A strong, divisive force, such as religious differences or a weak communication systems, at work in a country centripetal force - ANSWER A strong, unifying force, such as a charismatic leader or nationalism, at work in a country chain migration - ANSWER The part of a migrant flow (usually relatives and friends) that follows former migrants to an area charter group - ANSWER The first group of settlers to establish a new and lasting culture and society is an area compact state - ANSWER A state that is basically round in shape, such as Poland or Bhutan) colonialism - ANSWER A system in which a country declares control over a territory or people outside its own boundaries, usually for economic purposes commodity chain - ANSWER A chain of activities from the manufacturing to the distribution of a product concentric zone model - ANSWER The model of urban land use developed by Burgess which demonstrates the invasion and succession processes that occur as the city grows and expands outward confederation - ANSWER A loose association of states organized for the purpose of retaining cohesion, such as the former republic of the USSR congregation - ANSWER An ethnic group's grouping together in a specific part of the city to support each other and minimize conflicts with those in the non-ethnic group consequent boundary - ANSWER A type of subsequent boundary that is drawn to accommodate existing linguistic, cultural, or religious boundaries conservation agriculture - ANSWER A modern method of farming that balances maximum crop yield with sustainable farming methods and protection of the environment creole - ANSWER A simplified mixture of two or more languages that is adopted in areas of cultural diversity crude birth rate (CBR) - ANSWER The number of babies born per 1000 people per year crude death rate (CDR) - ANSWER The number of deaths per 1000 people per year crude density - ANSWER The number of people per unit of land (also called arithmetic density) cultural barrier - ANSWER hindrances to cultural diffusion that occur in a society and keep cultural traits from spreading cultural diffusion - ANSWER The process in which culture is spread from one region to another cultural landscape - ANSWER The unique landscape made up of all parts of a culture-both material and nonmaterial culture - ANSWER The cluster of traits that make a group of people special and unique culture region - ANSWER A portion of the Earth's surface occupied by populations sharing recognizable and distinctive cultural characteristics culture hearth - ANSWER A place where innovations and new ideas originate and spread outward (diffuse) to other regions culture trait - ANSWER A single feature of a culture, such as religion or language decolonization - ANSWER The process by which former colonies gain their independence from the mother country deindustrialization - ANSWER The reduction in industrial activity that occurs when decreased profits and declining business cause a reduction in industrial employment demographic transition model - ANSWER A model that shows the link between population growth and economic development using four or five stages of economic development demography - ANSWER The study of the characteristics of a human population density - ANSWER The number of an item within a unit of area dependency ratio - ANSWER The ratio of people under age 15 and those 65 and older to those age 15 to 65 dependency theory - ANSWER A theory of economic development proposed by Andre Gunder Frank based on the periphery's dependence on the core desertification - ANSWER The transformation of agricultural lands into deserts because of overgrazing and soil erosion MDCs - ANSWER Countries such as the United States, Germany, and Australia who have the highest levels of economic development devolution - ANSWER The breakdown of central authority in a country distance decay - ANSWER The principle that says migrants try to minimize the friction of distance by moving to locations closer to them rather than father away distribution - ANSWER The array of items on the Earth's surface. All spatial distributions have density, dispersion, and some type of pattern domino theory - ANSWER The theory prevalent during the Cold War Era that once a country became communist, its neighbors were likely to soon become communist also doubling time - ANSWER The length of time it takes for a country's population to double in size if the growth rate stays the same dialect - ANSWER A speech variants of a language, which reflects the local region in which it is spoken ecumene - ANSWER The part of the Earth that is fit for humans to live edge city - ANSWER A new urban complex that consists of a large node of office buildings and commercial operations with more workers than residents elongated state - ANSWER A state that is long and narrow, such as Vietnam or Chile enclave - ANSWER A piece of territory completely surrounded by another territory of which it is not a part environmental determinism - ANSWER The theory that human behavior is controlled by the physical environment ethnic enclave - ANSWER A residential community where the residents either voluntarily live, or are forced to live, in a segregated (separated) fashion due to race, religion, or ethnicity ethnic island - ANSWER A small ethnic settlement centered in the middle of a larger group of the population ethnic religion - ANSWER A religion that is part of a particular ethnic or political group (Judaism, for example) ethnocentrism - ANSWER The belief that one's own ethnic group is superior to all others exclave - ANSWER An outlier, or piece of a territory, that is completely enclosed within the borders of another country exclusive economic zone (EEZ) - ANSWER An expanse of water up to 200 natural nautical miles off a country's coast that is designated for that country's natural resource exploration and exploitation export-processing zones (EPZs) - ANSWER Small areas of a country with exceptional investment and trading conditions that are created by its government to stimulate and attract foreign investors and business federal state - ANSWER A type of government that gives local political units such as states or provinces within a country a measure of power First Agricultural Revolution - ANSWER The domestication of plants and animals and the resulting start of a sedentary society (also called the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution) fixed cost - ANSWER The cost of land, plant, and machinery that is not variable folk culture - ANSWER A homogenous group of people with a strong family structure who follow a simple, traditional lifestyle of self-sufficiency and independence from the society's cultural mainstream Fordism - ANSWER The process (named after Henry Ford, its founder) of using assembly-line techniques and scientific management in manufacturing formal region - ANSWER A region with a high level of consistency in a certain culture of physical attribute fragmented state - ANSWER A state that has two or more areas of territory separated by another country gateway city - ANSWER A city that served as the control center for a former colonial power gentrification - ANSWER The process of renovating an older, run-down neighborhood near the center city by middle-class and high-income families gerrymandering - ANSWER The process of redrawing territorial district boundaries to favor a certain political party ghetto - ANSWER The concentration of a certain group of residents in a certain residential area against their will through legal means or social discrimination globalization - ANSWER The increasing interconnection of all regions in the world through politics, communication, transportation, marketing, manufacturing, and social and cultural processes GMO (genetically modified organisms) - ANSWER An organism that is created when scientists take one or more specific genes from one organism and introduce them into another organism thus creating a new version gravity model - ANSWER A law of spatial interaction that states that larger places attract people, ideas, and goods more strongly that smaller places Green Revolution - ANSWER The development and transfer from the developed world to the developing world, of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through new and improved technology, pesticides, and fertilizers, for the purpose of alleviating world hunger GDP - ANSWER The approximate value of all final goods and services produced in a country per year gross national product (GNP) - ANSWER The gross domestic product (GDP) plus the value of income from abroad such as earnings from a US company based abroad heartland-rimland theory - ANSWER Halford Mackinder's theory that the country that dominated the landmass of Eurasia (heartland) would eventually rule the world (rimland) hierarchial diffusion - ANSWER The adoption of an official language by the ruler or administration, a language diffused downward into the society human capital theory of migration - ANSWER The migration theory that states that educated workers often migrate from poor countries to wealthy countries seeking better-paying jobs imperialism - ANSWER The use of military threat, cultural domination, and economic sanctions to gain control of a country and its resources Industrial Revolution - ANSWER The movement from homebased cottage industries to factory industries with several workers under one roof that the use of machines facilitates in England in the late 1700s intensive subsistence agriculture - ANSWER A form of agriculture heavily depends on heavy inputs of fertilized and human labor on a small piece of land for substantial crop yield internally displaced person - ANSWER A person who is forced out of the home region due to war, political or social unrest, environmental problems, etc., but who does not cross any international boundary intervening opportunity - ANSWER The idea that migrants will choose a location closer rather than farther if all other factors are roughly the same irredentism - ANSWER The destabilizing situation that arises when an ethnic group supports and seeks to unite with its ethnic population in another country language family - ANSWER A group of languages that are related and derived from a single, earlier language latitude - ANSWER The degrees north or south from the equator for a location on the surface of the Earth. Measured in parallels. least cost theory - ANSWER A theory, developed by Alfred Weber, that states that three main expenses-labor, transportation, and agglomeration-must be minimized when locating an industry LDCs - ANSWER Countries located on the edge of the world core that are seeking improved conditions for their residents through economic growth lingua franca - ANSWER A language that is not part of the culture of the country but is one that is informally agreed upon as the language of business and trade locational interdependence theory - ANSWER A theory developed by Harold Hotelling that suggests that competitors in their effort to maximize sales, will try and limit each other's territory by locating close to each other in the middle of their combined customer base longitude - ANSWER The distance east or west from the Prime Meridian, measured in degrees, minutes, and seconds using lines of identical longitude, called meridians long-lots system of land survey - ANSWER A land survey method used by French and Spanish charter groups in North America in which long lots of land extended outward from river frontage material culture - ANSWER The artifacts (tangible things) of a culture such as tools, weapons, and furniture mediterranean agriculture - ANSWER A form of specialized agriculture in which crops grown in a Mediterranean climate of warm year-round temperatures and sunny summers (grapes, olives, figs, dates, citrus fruits, etc.) are grown megacity - ANSWER A metropolitan area with a total population of over 10 million people according to the United Nations megalopolis - ANSWER A group of supercities that have merged together into one large urban area metes-and-bounds land survey system - ANSWER A land survey system used in North America where natural boundaries such as rivers, trees, and large rocks were used to mark land boundaries

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