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Human Growth and Development CPCE 100 Questions with Verified Answers,100% CORRECT

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Human Growth and Development CPCE 100 Questions with Verified Answers Freud's stages are psychosexual while Erik Erikson's stages are - CORRECT ANSWER psychosocial. In Freudian theory instinc... ts are emphasized. Erik Erikson is an ego psychologist. Ego psychologists - CORRECT ANSWER believe in man's powers of reasoning to control behavior. The only psychoanalyst who created a developmental theory which encompasses the entire life span was - CORRECT ANSWER Erik Erikson. The statement, "the ego is dependent on the id," would most likely reflect the work of - CORRECT ANSWER Sigmund Freud. Jean Piaget's theory has four stages. The correct order from stage 1 to stage 4 is - CORRECT ANSWER sensorimotor, preparations, concrete operations, formal operations. Some behavioral scientists have been critical of the Swiss child psychologist Jean Piaget's developmental research inasmuch as - CORRECT ANSWER his findings were often derived from observing his own children. A tall skinny pitcher of water is emptied into a small squatty pitcher. A child indicates that she feels the small pitcher has less water. The child has not yet mastered - CORRECT ANSWER conservation. In Piagetian literature, conservation would most likely refer to - CORRECT ANSWER volume or mass. A child masters conservation in the Piagetian stage known as - CORRECT ANSWER concrete operations—ages 7 to 11. _______ expanded on Piaget's conceptualization of moral development. - CORRECT ANSWER Lawrence Kohlberg According to Piaget, a child masters the concept of reversibility in the third stage, known as concrete operations or concrete op- erational thought. This notion suggests - CORRECT ANSWER one can undo an action, hence an object can return to its initial shape. During a thunderstorm, a 6-year-old child in Piaget's stage of preoperational thought (stage 2) says, "The rain is following me." This is an example of - CORRECT ANSWER egocentrism. Lawrence Kohlberg suggested - CORRECT ANSWER three levels of morality. The Heinz story is to Kohlberg's theory as - CORRECT ANSWER a typing test is to the level of typing skill mastered. The term identity crisis comes from the work of - CORRECT ANSWER Erikson. Kohlberg's three levels of morality are - CORRECT ANSWER pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional. Trust versus mistrust is - CORRECT ANSWER Erik Erikson's first stage of psychosocial development. A person who has successfully mastered Erikson's first seven stages would be ready to enter Erikson's final or eighth stage, - CORRECT ANSWER integrity versus despair. In Kohlberg's first or preconventional level, the individual's mor- al behavior is guided by - CORRECT ANSWER consequences. Kohlberg's second level of morality is known as conventional morality. This level is characterized by - CORRECT ANSWER a desire to live up to society's expectations and a desire to conform. Kohlberg's highest level of morality is termed postconventional morality. Here the individual - CORRECT ANSWER has self-imposed morals and ethics. According to Kohlberg, level 3, which is post-conventional or self-accepted moral principles, - CORRECT ANSWER is the highest level of morality. However, some people never reach this level. The zone of proximal development - CORRECT ANSWER was pioneered by Lev Vygotsky. Freud and Erikson - CORRECT ANSWER could be classified as maturationists. John Bowlby's name is most closely associated with - CORRECT ANSWER bonding and attachment. In which Eriksonian stage does the midlife crisis occur? - CORRECT ANSWER generativityversusstagnation The researcher who is well known for his work with maternal deprivation and isolation in rhesus monkeys is - CORRECT ANSWER Harry Harlow. The statement: "Males are better than females when performing mathematical calculations" is - CORRECT ANSWER true according to research by Maccoby and Jacklin. The Eriksonian stage that focuses heavily on sharing your life with another person is - CORRECT ANSWER intimacy versus isolation—ages 23 to 34. We often refer to individuals as conformists. Which of these individuals would most likely conform to his or her peers? - CORRECT ANSWER a 13-year-old male middle school student. In Harry Harlow's experiments with baby monkeys - CORRECT ANSWER the baby monkey was more likely to cling to a terry cloth mother surrogate than a wire surrogate mother. Freud postulated psychosexual stages - CORRECT ANSWER oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. In adolescence - CORRECT ANSWER males commit suicide more often than females, but fe- males attempt suicide more often. In the general population - CORRECT ANSWER suicide rates tend to increase with age. The fear of death - CORRECT ANSWER is greatest during middle age. In Freudian theory, attachment is a major factor - CORRECT ANSWER which evolves primarily during the oral age. When comparing girls to boys, it could be noted that - CORRECT ANSWER girls grow up to smile more, girls are using more feeling words by age 2 and girls are better able to read people without verbal cues at any age. The Freudian developmental stage which "least" emphasizes sexuality is - CORRECT ANSWER latency. In terms of parenting young children - CORRECT ANSWER boys are punished more than girls. When developmental theorists speak of nature or nurture they really mean - CORRECT ANSWER how much heredity or environment interact to influence development. Stage theorists assume - CORRECT ANSWER qualitative changes between stages occur. Development - CORRECT ANSWER is a continuous process which begins at conception. Development is cephalocaudal, which means - CORRECT ANSWER head to foot. Heredity assumes - CORRECT ANSWER the normal person has 23 pairs of chromosomes, that heredity characteristics are transmitted by chromosomes and genes composed of DNA hold a genetic code. Piaget's final stage is known as the formal operational stage. In this stage - CORRECT ANSWER abstract thinking emerges and problems can be solved using deduction. Kohlberg lists _______ stages of moral development which fall into _______ levels. - CORRECT ANSWER 6,3 A person who lives by his or her individual conscience and universal ethical principles - CORRECT ANSWER has, according to Kohlberg, reached the highest stage of moral development and is in the post-conventional level of self-accepted moral principles. Freud's Oedipus Complex - CORRECT ANSWER is the stage in which fantasies of sexual relations with the opposite-sex parent occurs and occurs during the phallic stage. In girls the Oedipus complex may be referred to as - CORRECT ANSWER the Electra complex. The correct order of the Freudian psychosexual stages is: - CORRECT ANSWER oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. Gibson researched the matter of depth perception in children by utilizing - CORRECT ANSWER a visual cliff. Theorists who believe that development merely consists of quantitative changes are referred to as - CORRECT ANSWER empiricists. An empiricist view of development would be - CORRECT ANSWER behavioristic. In the famous experiment by Harlow, frightened monkeys raised via cloth and wire mothers - CORRECT ANSWER ran over and clung to the cloth and wire surrogate mothers. A theorist who views developmental changes as quantitative is said to be an empiricist. The antithesis of this position holds that developmental strides are qualitative. What is the name given to this position? - CORRECT ANSWER organicism. In Piaget's developmental theory, reflexes play the greatest role in the - CORRECT ANSWER sensorimotor stage. A mother hides a toy behind her back and a young child does not believe the toy exists anymore. The child has not mastered - CORRECT ANSWER object permanence and representational thought. The schema of permanency and constancy of objects occurs in the - CORRECT ANSWER sensorimotor stage birth to 2 years. John Bowlby has asserted that - CORRECT ANSWER conduct disorders and other forms of psychopathology can result from inadequate attachment and bonding in early childhood. The Harlow experiments utilizing monkeys demonstrated that animals placed in isolation during the first few months of life - CORRECT ANSWER appeared to be abnormal and autistic. According to the Freudians, if a child is severely traumatized, he or she may _______ a given psychosexual stage. - CORRECT ANSWER become fixated at An expert who has reviewed the literature on TV and violence would conclude that - CORRECT ANSWER watching violence tends to make children more aggressive. A counselor who utilizes the term instinctual technically means - CORRECT ANSWER behavior that manifests itself in all normal members of a given species. The word ethology, which is often associated with the work of Konrad Lorenz, refers to - CORRECT ANSWER the study of animals' behavior in their natural environment. A child who focuses exclusively on a clown's red nose but ignores his or her other features would be illustrating the Piagetian con- cept of - CORRECT ANSWER centration. Piaget felt - CORRECT ANSWER teachers should lecture less, as children in concrete operations learn best via their own actions and experimentation. Piaget's preoperational stage - CORRECT ANSWER includes the acquisition of a symbolic schema. Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson agreed that - CORRECT ANSWER each developmental stage needed to be resolved before an individual could move on to the next stage. The tendency for adult females in the United States to wear high heels is best explained by - CORRECT ANSWER sex role socialization. The sequence of object loss, which goes from protest to despair to detachment, best describes the work of - CORRECT ANSWER Bowlby. A counselor who is seeing a 15-year-old boy who is not doing well in public speaking class would need to keep in mind that - CORRECT ANSWER girls possess better verbal skills than boys and boys possess better visual-perceptual skills. Two brothers begin screaming at each other during a family counseling session. The term that best describes the phenomenon is - CORRECT ANSWER sibling rivalry. A preschool child's concept of causality is said to be animistic. This means the child attributes human characteristics to inanimate objects. Thus, the child may fantasize that an automobile or a rock is talking to him. This concept is best related to - CORRECT ANSWER Piaget's pre-operational period, age 2 to 7 years. Elementary school counseling and guidance services - CORRECT ANSWER are a fairly new development which did not begin to gain momentum until the 1960s. Research related to elementary school counselors indicates that - CORRECT ANSWER these counselors are effective, do make a difference in children's lives, and more counselors should be employed. According to the Yale research by Daniel J. Levinson - CORRECT ANSWER Eighty percent of the men in the study experienced moderate to severe midlife crises and an "age 30 crisis" occurs in men when they feel it will soon be too late to make later changes. Erikson's middle age stage (ages 35-60) is known as generativity versus stagnation. Generativity refers to - CORRECT ANSWER the ability to do creative work or raise a family, the opposite of stagnation and the productive ability to create a career, family, and leisure time. A person who can look back on his or her life with few regrets feels - CORRECT ANSWER ego-integrity in Erikson's integrity versus despair stage. Sensorimotor is to Piaget as oral is to Freud, and as _______ is to Erikson. - CORRECT ANSWER trust versus mistrust Which theorist was most concerned with maternal deprivation? - CORRECT ANSWER H.Harlow When development comes to a halt, counselors say that the client - CORRECT ANSWER suffers from fixation. Kohlberg proposed three levels of morality. Freud, on the other hand, felt morality developed from the - CORRECT ANSWER superego. Which theorist would be most likely to say that aggression is an inborn tendency? - CORRECT ANSWER KonradLorenz The statement, "Bad behavior is punished, good behavior is not," is most closely associated with - CORRECT ANSWER Kohlberg's pre-moral stage at the pre-conventional level. A critical period - CORRECT ANSWER makes imprinting possible and signifies a special time when a behavior must be learned or the behavior won't be learned at all. Imprinting is an instinct in which a newborn will follow a moving object. The primary work in this area was done by - CORRECT ANSWER Konrad Lorenz. Marital satisfaction - CORRECT ANSWER often decreases with parenthood and is lowest prior to a child leaving home. Maslow, a humanistic psychologist, is famous for his "hierarchy of needs," which postulates - CORRECT ANSWER lower-order physiological and safety needs and higher-order needs, such as self-actualization. To research the dilemma of self-actualization, Maslow - CORRECT ANSWER interviewed the best people he could find who escaped "the psychology of the average." Piaget is - CORRECT ANSWER a structuralist who believes stage changes are qualitative. _______ factors cause Down syndrome, which produces mental retardation. - CORRECT ANSWER Genetic Piaget referred to the act of taking in new information as assimi- lation. This results in accommodation, which is a modification of the child's cognitive structures (schemas) to deal with the new information. In Piagetian nomenclature, the balance between assimilation and accommodation is called - CORRECT ANSWER equilibration. There are behavioral, structural, and maturational theories of development. The maturational viewpoint utilizes the plant growth analogy, in which the mind is seen as being driven by instincts while the environment provides nourishment, thus placing limits on development. Counselors who are maturationists - CORRECT ANSWER allow clients to work through early conflicts. Ritualistic behaviors, which are common to all members of a species, are known as - CORRECT ANSWER fixed-action patterns elicited by sign stimuli. Robert Kegan speaks of a "holding environment" in counseling in which - CORRECT ANSWER the client can make meaning in the face of a crisis and can find new direction. Most experts in the field of counseling agree that - CORRECT ANSWER no one theory completely explains developmental processes; thus, counselors ought to be familiar with all the major theories. Equilibrationis - CORRECT ANSWER the balance between what one takes in (assimilation) and that which is changed (accommodation). A counselor is working with a family who just lost everything in a fire. The counselor will ideally focus on - CORRECT ANSWER Maslow's lower-order needs, such as physiological and safety needs. The anal retentive personality is - CORRECT ANSWER stingy. From a Freudian perspective, a client who has a problem with alcoholism and excessive smoking would be - CORRECT ANSWER considered an oral character. [Show More]

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