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BTEC IT Level 3 - Unit 1 Exam 698 Questions with Verified Answers,100% CORRECT

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BTEC IT Level 3 - Unit 1 Exam 698 Questions with Verified Answers What is a digital device? -CORRECT ANSWER Piece of physical equipment that uses digital data, such as by sending, receiving, sto... ring or processing it. What 9 types of digital devices are there? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Personal Computers 2. Mobile Devices 3. Servers 4. Entertainment Systems 5. Navigation Systems 6. Multifunctional Devices 7. Digital Cameras 8. Data capture and Collection Systems 9. Communication devices and systems What is a personal computer? -CORRECT ANSWER A general-purpose computing device small and cheap enough to be used by individuals. How are PCs able to perform common tasks? -CORRECT ANSWER By installing a new software application the computer becomes capable of performing a new function. What 3 things do PCs contain? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Individual processors 2. RAM 3. hard disk components with expansion ports. What additional capabilities can be upgraded on a PC? -CORRECT ANSWER Replacing hard disk, more storage or adding a graphics card to an expansion port, improves graphics processing power. Give 2 examples of a PC -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Desktop 2. laptop How are PCs used in workplace? -CORRECT ANSWER Word processing, desktop publishing, spreadsheets, database management systems, creative tasks (music, film editing). How are PCs used in personal lives? -CORRECT ANSWER Accessing Internet, surfing the web/email, gaming (requires expensive graphics card normally) What is a server? -CORRECT ANSWER A computer that manages access to different resources and services over a network. How do PCs connect to a server? -CORRECT ANSWER Via Ethernet cable and WiFi (forming a network) What is the difference between servers and PCs? -CORRECT ANSWER Contain larger storage capacity, higher processing power and larger amount of memory. Give 4 examples of servers? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Mail servers 2. web servers 3. print servers 4. file servers How do web servers work? -CORRECT ANSWER -Web server stores the web page and associated files. -Client computer makes request for a web page to server (by entering URL). -Web server locates correct files and sends back to client. Why are web servers used? -CORRECT ANSWER To manage access to web pages. Why are mail servers used? -CORRECT ANSWER To manage access to email How do mail servers work? -CORRECT ANSWER -When you write an email/press send on PC, goes to outgoing mail server. -This mail server then sends across a network to recipient's mail server and stores in their mailbox. -When recipient logs into their email client the mail server will forward email to their computer. Why are file servers used? -CORRECT ANSWER To store your files such as word processors and spreadsheets so they are accessible from any computer on the network. Why are print servers used? -CORRECT ANSWER To share access to a printer. How do print servers work? -CORRECT ANSWER By using a print server, you can send your files to print from any computer on the network. What is a mobile device? -CORRECT ANSWER A computing device that is designed to be portable as it is compact, light-weight and capable of running for extended periods on battery power. What key feature helps make mobile devices more compact and reduce power consumption? -CORRECT ANSWER System-on-a-Chip What is System-on-a-Chip? -CORRECT ANSWER The core components of the computer are integrated onto a single chip. (CPU, GPU and RAM) What is a disadvantage of System-on-a-Chip? -CORRECT ANSWER It is hard to upgrade a mobile device as all the components are integrated on the chip. What are 2 examples? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Tablets 2. smartphones What are uses for mobile device? -CORRECT ANSWER Accessing internet on the go, playing games, calendars, email access. What is a disadvantage of mobile devices? -CORRECT ANSWER -They all use touchscreen so are bad for word processing tasks. -Also have limited processing capabilities so are bad for graphic games/film editing. What is an entertainment system? -CORRECT ANSWER Computing devices that are designed to entertain (watching tv, listening to music, playing video games) Advantages of entertainment systems? -CORRECT ANSWER -Good hard disk storage for storing tv/films, music and games. -Built in internet connectivity capabilities (WiFi). -Access to streaming and online gaming services. 3 examples of entertainment systems -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Digital media players 2. mp3 players 3. video game consoles What is the use of digital media players? -CORRECT ANSWER Allows us to stream digital media (films, tv) over a network. What is the use of portable media players? -CORRECT ANSWER Portable media players download media to device and are played off hard disk. What is the use of MP3 players? -CORRECT ANSWER Used to access and listen to music on a small portable device. What are MP4 players? -CORRECT ANSWER They are the same as MP3 players but can watch videos as well. What is the use of video game consoles? -CORRECT ANSWER Allow you to play video games. Can even use internet to play games online with people globally. What are navigation systems? -CORRECT ANSWER A digital device that uses GPS (Global Positioning System) to provide a real-time map of our current location, allowing us to plan a route to be directed to a chosen destination. What features do some Navigation systems have? -CORRECT ANSWER -Identifying traffic, roadworks and accidents that may delay your journey. -Provides an accurate destination time. What is an example of navigation systems? -CORRECT ANSWER In car satnav What is the use of in car satnav? -CORRECT ANSWER Used instead of traditional maps to help direct you along the fastest route. Can be integrated directly into car's dashboard but is often standalone. (e.g. TomTom) Why has standalone satnavs been replaced? -CORRECT ANSWER As navigation systems are now being used in mobile devices for driving, walking, cycling. What is a multifunctional device? -CORRECT ANSWER A device that is capable of performing more than one specific function. (Also known as MFD and multifunctional peripherals) What are examples of a multifunctional device? -CORRECT ANSWER Multifunctional printers, touchscreens, force-feedback game controllers. What is a multifunctional printer? -CORRECT ANSWER A device that usually combines printing, scanning and faxing functions all into a single device. Where are multifunctional printers used? -CORRECT ANSWER They are popular for use in home offices for people who work from home and do not have the space or money for three separate devices. What are touch screens used for? -CORRECT ANSWER They are used on tablet devices to allow users to input without a separate keyboard or mouse. What are force-feedback game controllers? -CORRECT ANSWER They are used on games consoles to allow you to control the game and receive vibration output. Give an example of a vibration output on a games console? -CORRECT ANSWER rumbling in a car game when you go off track/fighting game when you're hit. What is a digital camera? -CORRECT ANSWER A device that is capable of taking photo and video and recording it as digital data. How does a digital camera store photos/videos as digital data? -CORRECT ANSWER By using a grid of photosensors that convert light into digital pixels that our computer can store, usually on a memory card. What is a megapixel? -CORRECT ANSWER Megapixels is the number of individual pixels of colour that are used to record an image. The more megapixels a camera has... -CORRECT ANSWER The higher the quality the image is. How many megapixels does a modern digital camera have? -CORRECT ANSWER 20 megapixels What doe most digital camera devices have? -CORRECT ANSWER They contain a built-in memory card slot to store the digital pictures and videos directly on the digital camera device. What is the benefit of having a removable memory card in a digital camera? -CORRECT ANSWER It allows you to then transfer them to another device so that they can be stored on a computer and displayed on screen. What are 2 examples of digital cameras? -CORRECT ANSWER Digital still cameras and digital video cameras. What is a use of a digital camera? -CORRECT ANSWER You can upload the pictures/videos and share them as well as edit the photos. What does photoshopping mean? -CORRECT ANSWER The use of a software program that we can use to remove blemishes or perform heavier changes to a photo. What is data capture and collection systems? -CORRECT ANSWER They input and store data through methods other than direct data entry (such as through a keyboard). The data is entered as a result of a related activity. What does data capture and collection systems allow? -CORRECT ANSWER The data to be entered into a computer system directly during the data capture stage and so greatly reduces the amount of human error issues that happen when manually entering data. What are 3 examples of data capture and collection systems? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Barcode scanners 2. Optical mark readers (OMR) 3.Magnetic ink character readers (MICR) Where are barcodes used? -CORRECT ANSWER On the back of products How do barcode scanners capture data? -CORRECT ANSWER They capture data by reading the width of dark and light bars. When the barcode is read it matches it to a database of products on the computer and returns information. Where is OMR used? -CORRECT ANSWER Used in shops for inputting lottery tickets How is OMR used in the lottery? -CORRECT ANSWER Pre-printed forms like lottery tickets are designed so that when marks are placed on it, the OMR device can detect what numbers you select from the mark's location on the form. What is MICR used for? -CORRECT ANSWER Verifying that cheques are legititmate How does MICR verify cheques? -CORRECT ANSWER The magnetised ink is used to write a code on the bottom of the cheque. The MICR device reads the magnetic field of the characters to read the code to ensure it is a legitimate cheque. What are communication devices and systems? -CORRECT ANSWER A device that is used to move data between two other devices, such as two computers What do communication devices allow? -CORRECT ANSWER They allow us to transmit data between devices over a network in various ways. What are 3 examples of communication devices and system? -CORRECT ANSWER Network interface cards (NIC), wireless dongles, routers What is the use of a Network interface card? -CORRECT ANSWER Allow data to be transferred to and from a networked computer by connecting an ethernet cable. Where are NICs used? -CORRECT ANSWER Desktop PCs. What is the use of wireless dongles? -CORRECT ANSWER Allows you to either transfer data to a router wirelessly as part of a local area network or connect to a mobile broadband network. Where are wireless dongles used? -CORRECT ANSWER Used in laptops. What is the use of a router? -CORRECT ANSWER Directs data to its correct destination over a large network. When is a router required? -CORRECT ANSWER Wherever two networks meet. What are the 6 uses of digital devices? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Education and Training 2. Personal 3. Social 4. Retail 5. Organisational Use 6. Creative Tasks What three categories are there in Education and Training? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Interactive Whiteboards 2. Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) 3. Online Learning What is the use of interactive whiteboards? -CORRECT ANSWER Used by teaches to support teaching in front of a class Why are interactive whiteboards multifunctional? -CORRECT ANSWER They display output on the screen and take input such as when used as a touchscreen to write notes and input commands. Why are interactive whiteboards beneficial? -CORRECT ANSWER The notes taken can be saved to a central location that can be accessed by students to use outside of school. Where are Virtual Learning Environments used? -CORRECT ANSWER Used in schools What is a VLE? -CORRECT ANSWER Like a website that allows teachers to upload resources to the site so that they can share them with students. What benefit is a VLE to a student? -CORRECT ANSWER They can access their learning at home so can prepare for exams/homework. What benefit is a VLE to a teacher? -CORRECT ANSWER They can mark the work submitted by students and so students can access feedback whenever. Where is online learning used? -CORRECT ANSWER Can access the sites through PC or mobile devices What does online learning do? -CORRECT ANSWER Allows you to access visual content like videos, animation and audio explanations. What type of digital camera is used in online learning? -CORRECT ANSWER A webcam (videos can be shared online through different sites) What three categories are there for Personal use of digital devices? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Entertainment 2. Online shopping and banking 3. Home applicances Where do we use entertainment systems? -CORRECT ANSWER To watch film and TV, listen to music and play video games. What are the advantages of streaming films online? -CORRECT ANSWER No longer store files on computers saving space on hard disk. Accessing media content is now cheaper. What are digital media players used for? -CORRECT ANSWER To access streaming on television set. What are video game consoles used for? -CORRECT ANSWER Allows us to play games online with others without needing to be in the same location. What is a disadvantage of entertainment systems? -CORRECT ANSWER Piracy now occurs where content (films, music etc.) is illegally transferred over the internet for free. What does online shopping allow us? -CORRECT ANSWER Allows us to purchase anything and being able to get it delivered the same day. What does online banking allow us? -CORRECT ANSWER Allows us to manage our finances such as checking our bank statements and transferring money. What is the benefits of online banking and shopping? -CORRECT ANSWER -You can do it from your home. -Saves time and money -Helpful for people who live in remote locations/ people with disabilities who would find it difficult to get to the high street. What is a use of home appliances? -CORRECT ANSWER Controlling the central heating system through your smartphone allowing us to turn the heating on or off without being at home. What is the advantages of home appliances? -CORRECT ANSWER Can help reduce costs and conserve energy. What categories are there for social uses of digital devices? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Social Networking 2. Instant Messaging 3. VOIP What does social networking allow us to do? -CORRECT ANSWER -Allows us to create a 'network of friends' where people are able to see our posts. -You can also message people directly through messaging services on the sites. -You can create or join groups and talk about similar interests. What are the disadvantages of social networking? -CORRECT ANSWER -Can be very distracting and time-consuming which can affect productivity in the work place. -Has also reduced the amount of face-to-face interactions. What does instant messaging allows us to do? -CORRECT ANSWER Allows us to hold real-time text-based conversations with others. What is an advantage of instant messaging? -CORRECT ANSWER Messaging is cheaper and allows us to group message. Instant messaging is proprietary meaning... -CORRECT ANSWER You need the person you are messaging with to have the same Instant Messaging app. What is VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol)? -CORRECT ANSWER A type of software that allows you to have a real time voice and video conversations. What is an example of VoIP? -CORRECT ANSWER Skype Why has VoIP become more popular? -CORRECT ANSWER It gives the ability to have video along with voice and the ability to hold group conversations and being cheaper. What categories are there for retail use of digital devices? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. EPOS 2. Stock Management 3. Retail Website What is EPOS? -CORRECT ANSWER Electronic Point of Sale is a computerised checkout till. What does EPOS use? -CORRECT ANSWER It uses digital devices to record sales as well as to take payment for the sales. What are examples of EPOS? -CORRECT ANSWER Barcode readers, MICR, Contactless payment What is the advantages of EPOS? -CORRECT ANSWER -Sales process is quicker and more efficient. -Reduction in staff error What is stock management? -CORRECT ANSWER A database management system that run on servers will connect to the EPOS system. What happens when a product is sold (stock management)? -CORRECT ANSWER The information is sent through to the server and the database will be updated with new reduced stock level. How can we automatically order stock from our homes? -CORRECT ANSWER A stock management server can be connected via the internet to the servers at the warehouse. Why do we need less administrative staff if stock managment systems are in place? -CORRECT ANSWER Stock management automates most of the processes that monitor stock and make orders. Having less administrative staff means... -CORRECT ANSWER -Business saves money. -Reduces human error. Why do shops have online retail websites? -CORRECT ANSWER To sell and advertise their products over the internet. What do a business need to run an online website? -CORRECT ANSWER A web server to host the site. PC to develop the site. What is the benefit of retail websites? -CORRECT ANSWER -Cheaper than buying a store. -Can sell products to a world wide audience. Make sales 24/7. What 3 categories come under organisational use? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Administration 2. Video conferencing 3. Design & Manufacturing Why would an organisation use spreadsheets and accounting software? -CORRECT ANSWER To manage their finances (tracking sales/expenditure/ calculating tax). Why do organisations use word processors, desktop publishers and presentation software? -CORRECT ANSWER To produce documents they require for their business operation.(producing sales report/ presentations/ brochures) How has digital devices made a business more productive? -CORRECT ANSWER Less time is spent correcting human error. What does video conferencing software packages allow you to do? -CORRECT ANSWER Allow you to have voice and video conversation (VoIP). What is video conferencing designed to have? -CORRECT ANSWER To have multiple people take part in meetings. What added features does video conferencing have? -CORRECT ANSWER Able to display a presentation. Share documents How does video conferencing benefit businesses? -CORRECT ANSWER -Saves time and money as employees don't need to travel to the same location. -Helps support employees working from home. Where is CAD software used? -CORRECT ANSWER Used in construction industry for architectural drawings and manufacturing of parts. Where is CAM controlled machinery used? -CORRECT ANSWER Produce the objects designed with CAD software. How has design and manufacturing helped businesses? -CORRECT ANSWER Made them more efficient. What is a benefit of CAD? -CORRECT ANSWER -Designs can be modified easily if changes are required. -Designs can be sent over email. What is a benefit of CAM? -CORRECT ANSWER -Machinery can work 24/7. -Reduces human error as task is produced to the same standard each time. What 3 categories come under creative tasks? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. 3D Graphics 2. Photo/video editing 3.Graphic design Why are 3D models being used in movies? -CORRECT ANSWER It is quicker and changes can be easily made. What has 3D graphics done to video games? -CORRECT ANSWER Added a new level of realism to video games. What does digital cameras allow you to do? -CORRECT ANSWER Edit the photos (fixing the lighting or removing objects, red blemishes) What is a disadvantage of photo editing? -CORRECT ANSWER People in magazines are heavily edited sets expectations to younger generations. What types of graphics and documents use graphic design? -CORRECT ANSWER Logos, leaflets, magazines, books and comics. What do we use desktop publishing software for? -CORRECT ANSWER Designing the layout and typesetting (e.g. books) What are advantages of graphic design? -CORRECT ANSWER -More efficient than manually typesetting. -You can send data to printers quickly. What is a peripheral device? -CORRECT ANSWER A hardware device that isn't required for the computer to perform its primary function. What are input devices used for? -CORRECT ANSWER To enter information into a computer system? What 8 input devices are there? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Keyboard 2. Mouse 3. Microphone 4. Webcam 5. Game controller 6. Sensor 7. Scanner 8. Graphics tablet What is a keyboard? -CORRECT ANSWER Made up of a panel of keys, this device is used to input alphanumeric characters, symbols and simple commands into a computer. What is a mouse? -CORRECT ANSWER A pointing device that allows a user to control a cursor on the screen in order to select objects that are displayed. What is a microphone? -CORRECT ANSWER An audio input device that allows a user to enter sounds into the computer system. What is a webcam? -CORRECT ANSWER A device used to input digital video or still pictures into a computer system. What is a game controller? -CORRECT ANSWER Used to control video games, this can come in a gamepad form or in the form of a joystick. What is a sensor? -CORRECT ANSWER An input device that takes readings from the environment such as temperate or light. What is a scanner? -CORRECT ANSWER A device that converts documents into digital data so that they can be viewed and edited on a computer system. What is a graphics tablet? -CORRECT ANSWER A flat board and a pointing device, known as a stylus, that allows a user to enter data much like they're using a pen & paper. What are output devices? -CORRECT ANSWER Output devices are used to send data from a digital device to a user or another device. What 6 output devices are there? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Monitor 2. Projector 3. Printer 4. Plotter 5. Speakers 6. Actuator What is a monitor? -CORRECT ANSWER A device that outputs a visual display of the user interface of any software that is currently being used on the computer. What is a projector? -CORRECT ANSWER This projects a visual display of the user interface onto a wall or screen. What is a printer? -CORRECT ANSWER A device that is used to produce physical copies of the documents & images produced using a computer system. What is a plotter? -CORRECT ANSWER A type of printer that is designed to print out vector graphic images. It typically prints to a very high quality on very large paper. What are speakers? -CORRECT ANSWER A device that is designed to produce audio output by converting the digital audio signal from a computer into an analogue signal. What is an actuator? -CORRECT ANSWER An output device that produces motion. We use it to control or move things. What 5 storage devices are there? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Hard disk drives 2. Solid state drives 3. USB flash drives 4. SD cards 5. Optical disks What form of storage is HDDs? -CORRECT ANSWER Magnetic How is the data stored on HDDs? -CORRECT ANSWER Stores the data as a magnetised area that represents a 1 and a demagnetised area that represents a 0. What are the advantages of HDDs? -CORRECT ANSWER -Offer a big storage capacity at relatively low cost. (terabyte for less than £50) -A reliable storage method as they have long life span. What are the disadvantages of HDDs? -CORRECT ANSWER -Relatively slow read/write speed compared to SDDs. -Have a number of moving parts so can easily be damaged(risky as portable device) -They are also heavier than alternatives. What form of storage are Solid State Drives? -CORRECT ANSWER Flash memory How do SSDs store data? -CORRECT ANSWER -The semiconductor chips can be switched on and off. -On represents a 1 an doff represents a 0. What happens when you turn off the computer with a SSD. -CORRECT ANSWER It will remember the data. What are the advantages of SSDs? -CORRECT ANSWER -Have very fast read/write speeds (faster to turn on computer, load programs and save files) -Consume less power than HDDs (useful for laptops) -No moving parts, less likely to be damaged. What are the disadvantages of SDDs? -CORRECT ANSWER -More expensive than HDDs. (terabyte cost over £200) -Lower storage capacity than HDDs due to high cost -Have a finite number of writes before they no longer work. What form of storage are USB flash drives? -CORRECT ANSWER Flash memory What are the advantages of USBs? -CORRECT ANSWER -Portable due to small size, light-weight and easy connectivity. -Durable and reliable as have no moving parts. -USB connector built in to device so highly compatible with devices. What are disadvantages with USBs? -CORRECT ANSWER -Can be easily lost -Have a finite amount of writes -Compared with HDD/SDD have low storage capacity. What does SD card stand for? -CORRECT ANSWER Secure Digital Card Where are SD cards used? -CORRECT ANSWER In digital cameras What are the advantages of SD cards? -CORRECT ANSWER -Extremely small and portable -Easy to transfer data between devices. -Reliable storage device, less likely to be damaged by knocks. What are the disadvantages of SD cards? -CORRECT ANSWER -Low storage capacity -A lot of variety which can cause compatibility issues. What form of storage is Optical Disks? -CORRECT ANSWER Optical storage How does optical storage work? -CORRECT ANSWER -Uses a laser to mark the disks in a pattern. -Light is bounced of the disk. -Marked areas are pit and represent 0s. -Non-marked areas are lands and represent a 1. What are the advantages of Optical disks? -CORRECT ANSWER -Most PCs have optical disk drives and so is compatible. -Highly portable (used for distributing software/films) What are the disadvantages of Optical disks? -CORRECT ANSWER -Small storage capacity (700mb/blu-ray 50GB) -Easily damaged -Work for a finite number of writes. What does manual data processing involve? -CORRECT ANSWER An individual enters data into the computer. Where would you use manual data processing? -CORRECT ANSWER -Customer booking systems -Marking exams -Customer satisfaction survey What are examples of automatic data processing? -CORRECT ANSWER -Optical mark readers -Barcode readers -Smart readers What are 2 disadvantages of Manual Data Processing? -CORRECT ANSWER 1.Human Error 2.Time-consuming What are 2 advantages of manual data processing? -CORRECT ANSWER 1.Complex Data (Harder for automated system) 2.Reduced training What are 2 advantages of automatic data processing? -CORRECT ANSWER 1.Accuracy 2.Time&cost What are 2 disadvantages of automatic data processing? -CORRECT ANSWER 1.Inflexible (only some data can be entered) 2.Requires staff training What is a trackball? -CORRECT ANSWER This device is made up of a ball that sits within a holder that can be rotated in order to move the cursor on the screen. What is a Braille keyboard? -CORRECT ANSWER They use braille characters on each key of the keyboard. What is a braille embosser? -CORRECT ANSWER This is a printer that will output using braille cells as opposed to standard ink text. What are screen magnifiers? -CORRECT ANSWER This usually attaches to an existing monitor and magnifies the display output to make it easier to see. What are eye typers? -CORRECT ANSWER This uses a camera mounted on the computer that tracks the user's eye movement to detect where they are looking in order to enter data with an onscreen keyboard. Clicks can be recorded by blinking slowly. What 5 accessibility device should be used for someone with a visual impairment? -CORRECT ANSWER 1.Braille Keyboard 2.Large Key Keyboard 3.Touchscreens 4.Braille Embossers 5.Screen Magnifiers What 2 accessibility device should be used for someone with limited mobility? -CORRECT ANSWER 1.Trackballs 2.Eye Typers What 4 types of operating systems are there? -CORRECT ANSWER 1.Real-time 2.Single-user, single-task 3.Single-user, multi-tasking 4.Multi-user What is a Real-time OS? -CORRECT ANSWER Monitors external events and processes data as soon as it enters the computer system. Where is a RTOS used? -CORRECT ANSWER -Traffic lights -air traffic control systems What is a single-user, single-task OS? -CORRECT ANSWER Can only be used by one person at a time, using a single application. What are 2 examples of single-user, single-task OS? -CORRECT ANSWER 1.Old mobile phones (not smartphones) 2.Personal digital assistants What is a single-user, multi-tasking OS? -CORRECT ANSWER Designed for only a single user at a time, however it can run multiple applications simultaneously. What are 3 examples of a single-user, multi-tasking OS? -CORRECT ANSWER 1.Windows 10 2.Mac OSX 3. Android Where is a single-user, multi-tasking OS used? -CORRECT ANSWER -smartphones -tablets -personal computers What is a multi-user OS? -CORRECT ANSWER Allows many different users to make use of a computer system and its resources at the same time. Where would a multi-user OS be used? -CORRECT ANSWER -Powerful servers -Supercomputers What are the 5 roles of operating systems? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Networking 2. Security 3. Memory Management 4. Multi-tasking 5. Device Drivers What is an example of Networking in the OS? -CORRECT ANSWER TCP/IP is built into all major operating systems.. What is TCP/IP? -CORRECT ANSWER TCP/IP are the protocols that are fundamental in allowing us to transmit data over a network like the Internet. What features does networking have? -CORRECT ANSWER -utility programs (managing and maintaining the network) What is the role of security in the OS? -CORRECT ANSWER Comes with pre-installed range of tools to help protect your computer from threats. What is the role of memory management in the OS? -CORRECT ANSWER To assign memory to each of your applications running in order to allow them to run. What is paging? -CORRECT ANSWER This is where the operating system assigns applications to "virtual memory". What is virtual memory? -CORRECT ANSWER Virtual memory is a portion of the hard disk that is used as an extension of your main memory. This portion of the hard disk is known as the "pagefile". What is the role of multi-tasking in the OS? -CORRECT ANSWER When you open a new software application it needs to assign resources, like processing time and memory. Why is multi-tasking more complexed in an OS? -CORRECT ANSWER Processors only perform a single task at a time. The OS assigns small amounts of the processor time to each application so it appears that they are running simultaneously. Why would your computer slow down? -CORRECT ANSWER As you only have a limited amount of memory and processing power, so, if too many apps are opened it will slow down. What is a device driver? -CORRECT ANSWER A small software program that controls the devices you connect to your computer. What 4 user interfaces are there? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Graphical user interface 2. Command line interface 3. Menu-based interface 4. Adapted interface What is a graphical user interface? -CORRECT ANSWER Designed around graphical icons and images. We use a pointer, such as a mouse cursor, to navigate and interact with the computer using windows, icons & menus. What are 2 examples of a GUI? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Windows 10 2. Mac OSX What are 3 advantages for GUI? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Easy to use (for beginners) 2.Don't need to learn complexed commands 3.Easy to move data between different software applications What are 2 disadvantages of GUI? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Uses a lot of processing power/main memory to run. 2. Can be slow to perform tasks for experienced users. What is the command line? -CORRECT ANSWER A plain background with a simple text prompt that would allow you to enter in commands to perform actions. What are the 2 advantages of the command line? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Easy to use for experienced users as they know the commands. 2. Requires less memory and processing power in order to run. What are 2 disadvantages of the command line? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Need to know the commands to operate it. 2. Requires training to use it. What is a menu-based interface? -CORRECT ANSWER Presents the user with a menu that contains a list of options. The user navigates through various submenus by choosing the relevant option in order to perform the function they want. What are 2 examples of menu-based interfaces? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. ATM machines 2.Self service machines What are 2 advantages of menu-based interfaces? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Easy-to-use interface 2. Easily adapted to different users What are 2 disadvantages of menu-based interfaces? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Can be frustrating as can take a long time to navigate. 2. Options are limited, complexed actions cant be taken. What is an adapted interface? -CORRECT ANSWER It will alter its presentation, layout & even options in order to better support the user or the technology it is running on. What is an example of an adapted interface? -CORRECT ANSWER Windows 10 What is an advantage of an adapted interface? -CORRECT ANSWER Fits the needs of the user effectively (can aid those with disabilities) What is an disadvantage of an adapted interface? -CORRECT ANSWER Needs user needs in order to adapt it which can be time-consuming. What are 3 operating system factors? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Hardware 2. Malware 3. Virtual Memory What happens if your OS runs out of RAM/CPU -CORRECT ANSWER It will start to reduce in performance and can lead to freezing and crashing as the computer struggles to effectively share the available resources. What is an issue of hardware? -CORRECT ANSWER Over time your hard disk becomes fragmented. This means that the data that makes up your files & applications are split in different locations across your hard disk. How does a fragmented disk affect the OS performance? -CORRECT ANSWER When you ask for it to load an application or a file the operating system will find it harder to locate all the data required for those applications & files and so will slow down the loading time. What can malicious software do? -CORRECT ANSWER Can affect the performance of the operating system. How does malware affect the OS? -CORRECT ANSWER By corrupting data, affecting network traffic and disabling or taking over various functions of the operating system. What can malware do to the system? -CORRECT ANSWER Can cause your system to slow down significantly and cause it to crash. It can damage your system so it can't work without a reinstalled OS. What does virtual memory lead to? -CORRECT ANSWER Reduced performance as not as efficient as main memory. What is thrashing? -CORRECT ANSWER Operating system is having to constantly switch data between main memory and virtual memory. What issue of virtual memory is caused by the page file? -CORRECT ANSWER When the page file is too small it can't support the main memory. What are 6 factors that can affect the performance of utility software? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Disk defragmenter 2. Backup 3. Disk/registry cleaner 4. Software updates 5. Anti-virus 6. Firewalls What is disk defragmentation? -CORRECT ANSWER The disk defragmenter will analyse the hard disk and regroup data so that data relating to the same application or file are in the same location of the hard disk. What will cause disk defragmentation a long time to clean? -CORRECT ANSWER If you do not regularly run the disk defragmenter and your hard disk becomes heavily fragmented. What should you not do when the disk defragmenter is being used? -CORRECT ANSWER Shouldn't use the computer. What slows down the defragmenter? -CORRECT ANSWER -Applications running -Background programs -A large hard disk with data being stored When would we use backup? -CORRECT ANSWER If the data on our hard disk is damaged (such as by a virus) we often use a backup to recover the lost data. What does the backup utility software do? -CORRECT ANSWER can help simplify and automate the backup process to make it easier to recover. When would backups take longer? -CORRECT ANSWER -If there is more to back up. -Defragmented hard drive can slow down performance. -Viruses and malware What are disadvantages of backing up to the cloud? -CORRECT ANSWER Requires a long time to upload the backup. What are the disadvantages of backing up to an external disk? -CORRECT ANSWER Can be slower depending on the connection used. What does a disk cleaner utility do? -CORRECT ANSWER They identify data that can be removed to save hard disk space that can be used for newer data. What does a registry cleaner do? -CORRECT ANSWER Removes old redundant registry entries, such as from deleted software programs. How do disk/registry cleaners improve performance? -CORRECT ANSWER Reduces read/write times What will slow down disk/registry cleaners? -CORRECT ANSWER -If you have more to clean up -Applications running -Heavily fragmented hard drive Why do you need to update the software? -CORRECT ANSWER To keep them secure, to access the latest features & to remove any bugs. What are problems with manually updating software? -CORRECT ANSWER Time consuming What happens if you don't schedule updates regularly? -CORRECT ANSWER There will be a lot of updates to download which will take a long time and cause poor internet performance while they're downloading. What do automatic software updates require? -CORRECT ANSWER Fast internet connection What does anti-virus do? -CORRECT ANSWER Detect any suspicious programs and remove them before they can cause problems. How does anti-virus detect malware? -CORRECT ANSWER scanning newly added files and software, as well as through regularly scheduled scans of the storage devices connected to your system. What will take anti-virus longer? -CORRECT ANSWER -size of storage device -amount of data being used -how defragmented hard disk is -applications running -existing malware What is a firewall? -CORRECT ANSWER monitors the traffic coming into and out of your computer system (via its ports) over a network to look for anything suspicious. How do firewalls prevent harm? -CORRECT ANSWER Blocks off any suspicious data What 4 types of productivity software is there? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Word processing 2. Spreadsheet 3. Database 4. Presentation What 4 types of graphic/multimedia software is there? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. CAD 2. Graphics editing 3. Desktop publishing 4. Video editing What 3 types of personal software is there? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Home finance 2. Educational 3. Entertainment What 4 types of communication software is there? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Email 2. Web browsing 3. VoIP 4. Instant messaging What 3 factors should be considered when choosing application software? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Compatibility 2. Use 3. User experience What is compatability? -CORRECT ANSWER Whether it works with your current hardware & software. What is use? -CORRECT ANSWER Whether it has the required functionality. What is user experience? -CORRECT ANSWER Whether the users are able to use the software comfortably. What are the 5 image file types? -CORRECT ANSWER 1.BMP 2. GIF 3. SVG 4.PNG 5.JPG What is the colour depth of BMP? -CORRECT ANSWER 24 bit colour depth What is the file size of BMP? -CORRECT ANSWER Large How many bits of uncompressed data per pixel is BMP? -CORRECT ANSWER 24 bits of uncompressed data per pixel Who uses BMP? -CORRECT ANSWER Professional photographers Is GIF compressed or uncompressed? -CORRECT ANSWER Compressed How much bit colour depth does GIF have? -CORRECT ANSWER 8 bit colour depth What is the file size of GIF? -CORRECT ANSWER Small What type of decompression is GIF? -CORRECT ANSWER Lossless What colour can GIF make? -CORRECT ANSWER Can make a single colour transparent What are GIF used for? -CORRECT ANSWER Logos What type of image is a SVG? -CORRECT ANSWER A vector image What is different about a SVG image? -CORRECT ANSWER It stores images as shapes and images rather than pixels. What are uses of SVG images? -CORRECT ANSWER -Images on web -Simple -Logos What is a benefit of SVG images? -CORRECT ANSWER Images can be resized without being pixelated What quality/file size is PNG? -CORRECT ANSWER Low quality and file size What type of decompression is PNG? -CORRECT ANSWER Lossless How many bit colour depth does PNG have? -CORRECT ANSWER 32 bits What is the breakdown of the 32 bit colour depth of PNG? -CORRECT ANSWER -24 bit colour depth -8 bit transparency Can PNG be compressed or decompressed? -CORRECT ANSWER Compressed What is the use of PNG images? -CORRECT ANSWER Complexed web images Is JPG compressed or decompressed? -CORRECT ANSWER Compressed What is the bit colour depth of JPG? -CORRECT ANSWER 24 bit colour depth What file size does JPG have? -CORRECT ANSWER small What type of compression is JPG -CORRECT ANSWER lossy Why does JPG have poorer quality? -CORRECT ANSWER As it can't decompress back to the original state Where is JPG used? -CORRECT ANSWER -Web -Email -Cloud storage What 4 video types are there? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. MP4 2. AVI 3. MKV 4. MOV What are 3 advantages of MP4? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Compatible with wide variety of media players 2. Very good for streaming 3. High quality What is a disadvantage of MP4? -CORRECT ANSWER Limited compression What is an example of MP4? -CORRECT ANSWER Youtube What are 3 advantages of MOV? -CORRECT ANSWER 1.Can convert to MP4 without recoding 2. Very good for streaming over internet 3. Good quality to file size What are the 2 disadvantages of MOV? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Not good quality 2. Compatibility is poor (Apple proprietary) What are 3 advantages of AVI? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Highest quality output 2. Large file size 3. Widely compatible What are 3 disadvantages of AVI? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Limited compression features 2. Poor for sharing online 3. Not good for streaming What 6 advantages are there for MKV? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. More flexible compression features 2. high quality videos 3. Can output ultra HD video 4. Good for streaming 5. Good for compression 6. Greater CODEC compatibility What is a disadvantage for MKV? -CORRECT ANSWER Poor compatibility for media players. What 3 types of word processing is there? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. DOCX 2. DOC 3. RTF What 3 types of spreadsheets are there? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. XLSX 2. XLS 3. CSV What 3 types of presentations are there? -CORRECT ANSWER 1.PPT PPTX 3.PDF What 2 types of database are there? -CORRECT ANSWER 1.ACCDB 2. MDB What is an open source software license? -CORRECT ANSWER Gives users both permission to use the software and access to view & modify the source code. What is a proprietary software license? -CORRECT ANSWER Gives the end user permission to use the software but retains intellectual property right. What are 4 advantages of open source software? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. It is simpler (free to use) 2. Easy to modify (source code available) 3. Fast update cycle (software developed/maintained by large company- fix bugs) 4.Better compatibility What are 4 disadvantage s of open source software? -CORRECT ANSWER 1.Development can be abandoned (author has no responsibility) 2.Maintaining updates can be difficult 3. No professional support 4. Can lead to malicious users What are 4 advantages of proprietary software? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Support for updates, patches, bug fixes 2. Updates are simpler to maintain/install 3.Software is well supported by the company 4. Greater usability (more time spent on the development) What are 4 disadvantages of proprietary software? -CORRECT ANSWER 1.Licensing is more restrictive/complicated (often expensive) 2.Source code is not available to be viewed and modified (software can't be adapted) 3. Reliant on developer for updates 4. Uses proprietary standards (more difficult to switch to different software as transferring the data can be difficult) What are emerging technologies? -CORRECT ANSWER technologies that are just starting to make an impact in the wider world. What are 3 examples of personal uses of emerging technologies? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Smartwatches 2. Smart speakers 3. Self-driving cars What are 2 advantages of personal uses of emerging technologies? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Convenience 2. Accessibility What are 2 disadvantages of personal uses of emerging technologies? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Cost 2. Over-reliance What are 3 examples of organisational uses of emerging technologies? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Augmented reality (Superimposing a computer image on a real-world view) 2. Internet of Things 3. 3D printing What are 2 advantages of organisational uses of emerging technologies? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Productivity 2. Reduced errors What are 2 disadvantages of organisational uses of emerging technologies? -CORRECT ANSWER 1.Cost 2.Staff training What 10 factors affect the choice of IT system? -CORRECT ANSWER 1.User experience 2.User needs 3.Specification 4.Compatibility 5.Connectivity 6.Cost 7.Efficiency 8.Implementation 9.Productivity 10.Security What is user needs? -CORRECT ANSWER What actual tasks the user wants to perform using the IT system. What is specification? -CORRECT ANSWER The list of components required of a computer system in order to allow users to run the software they need and perform their tasks. What is compatibility? -CORRECT ANSWER Whether the IT system can communicate with other devices you are using with it. What is connectivity? -CORRECT ANSWER How a device can connect to a network, such as a LAN or the Internet. What is cost? -CORRECT ANSWER How much purchasing and running a device will cost you or your business. What is efficiency? -CORRECT ANSWER How effectively tasks can be completed by the digital technology with as little wastage of resources. What is implementation? -CORRECT ANSWER The time involved with putting a new system into effect. What is productivity? -CORRECT ANSWER How quickly tasks can be completed when making use of an IT system. What is security? -CORRECT ANSWER How safe a device is from security threats, such as hackers & viruses. What 4 factors come under user experience? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Ease of use 2. Performance 3. Availability 4. Accessibility What is ease of use? -CORRECT ANSWER How simple and intuitive the device is to navigate and perform tasks on. What is performance? -CORRECT ANSWER How powerful the device is, such as processing, memory, graphics & storage. What is availability? -CORRECT ANSWER How often the device can be used, such as whether the device can be always on. What is accessibility? -CORRECT ANSWER How available the device is to be used by someone with a disability. What 3 factors come under implementation? -CORRECT ANSWER 1.Timescales 2.Testing 3.Migration What is timescales? -CORRECT ANSWER The time it takes for the new system to be delivered. What is testing? -CORRECT ANSWER Ensuring the new system works correctly and our software is compatible & stable. What is migration? -CORRECT ANSWER The process of transferring data, software & files from the old system to the new one. What are 6 wired methods of connecting devices? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. USB 2. SATA 3. VGA 4. HDMI 5. Ethernet cable 6. Fibre optic Why is USB used? -CORRECT ANSWER use it to connect peripheral devices of all kinds to our computer. What are 4 advantages of USB? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Excellent data transfer speed 2. Able to connect multiple peripherals to a single USB port. 3. Provides power to device while connected 4. Highly compatible as every computer system has a USB port. What is a disadvantage of USB? -CORRECT ANSWER Relatively short range What is SATA? -CORRECT ANSWER method of connecting storage devices to a computer What are 2 advantages to SATA? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Extremely fast connection type 2. All internal storage devices will have a SATA connector. What are 2 disadvantages of SATA? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. A SATA cable has a shorter range 2. Doesn't supply power to a device What does USB stand for? -CORRECT ANSWER Universal Serial Bus What does SATA stand for? -CORRECT ANSWER Serial ATA What does VGA stand for? -CORRECT ANSWER Visual Graphics Array What is VGA used for? -CORRECT ANSWER A connector used for display devices such as monitors and projectors. What are 2 advantages of VGA? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Highly compatible with older technologies 2. Has locking mechanisms (cable stays secure) What are 3 disadvantages of VGA? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Transmits analogue data (signal degrades) 2. Can't handle the same quality resolution as other digital methods 3. Can't transfer an audio signal and video signal at the same time (need to separate cables) What is HDMI? -CORRECT ANSWER Method of connecting display devices What are 2 advantages of HDMI? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Extremely high bandwidth (18Gbps) (outputs very high-quality display) 2. audio signal can be transmitted along with video signal What is a disadvantage of HDMI? -CORRECT ANSWER No locking mechanism - cables can fall out of device What is an ethernet cable? -CORRECT ANSWER A form of UTP/STP cable that is used to transmit data between IT systems. What are 3 advantages of an ethernet cable? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. very reliable connection method 2. very good range compared to other cables 3. most computers have an ethernet cable port. Where are ethernet cables used? -CORRECT ANSWER In Local Area Networks What is 3 disadvantages of an ethernet cable? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. limited mobility (need physical wire) 2. rarely find an ethernet port in mobile devices and becoming less common in laptops 3. can't transfer data over long distances (not useful for large networks) What is fibre optic? -CORRECT ANSWER A connection method where data is transferred through the use of pulses of light Where is fibre optic used? -CORRECT ANSWER In telephone lines What is 3 advantages of fibre optic? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. good transfer speed (100Gbps) 2. excellent range (transfers data over 100km) 3. very secure connection method What is a disadvantage of fibre optic? -CORRECT ANSWER It is very expensive (equipment to tune the network makes it costly) What is infrared? -CORRECT ANSWER A technology that transmits data through infrared light. What are 4 wireless methods of connecting devices? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Infrared 2. Bluetooth 3. WiFi 4. Mobile Broadband Where is infrared used? -CORRECT ANSWER Remote controls What is an advantage of infrared? -CORRECT ANSWER Low susceptibility to interference (connects devices one-to-one) What are 3 disadvantages of infrared? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. can only transmit data over very short distances (max. 5m) 2. requires line of sight (hard if obstacles are in the way) 3. data transmission speed is very slow (max. 4Mbps) What is bluetooth? -CORRECT ANSWER uses microwaves to transmit data. What is an example of bluetooth? -CORRECT ANSWER for connecting peripheral devices, such as mice & keyboards, to your computer without any cables. What is 3 advantages of bluetooth? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. easy to connect devices with 2. low susceptibility to interference 3. low power consumption (uses low power signal) What is 2 disadvantages of bluetooth? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. relatively slow data transfer speed (max. 25Mbps) 2. Poor security (automatic connections allows others to transfer data to your device) Why do we use WiFi? -CORRECT ANSWER to connect to a wireless access point in order to gain access to the internet as well as to connect wirelessly to a local area network. What is WiFi? -CORRECT ANSWER transmits data between computer systems. What are 3 advantages of WiFi? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Fast data transfer speeds (max. 2.5Gbps) 2. Relatively large range (70m) 3. Low-cost installation What are 2 disadvantages of WiFi? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Complexed to set up (requires you to correctly configure a wireless access point) 2. if poorly configured, such as not setting a complex WiFi key, then it can be very vulnerable to hackers. What is mobile broadband? -CORRECT ANSWER 3G/4G internet we access wirelessly through a cellular connection. Where is mobile broadband used? -CORRECT ANSWER used to access the internet while on the go, such as while commuting to work, via a mobile device. What is 2 advantages of mobile broadband? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Internet access is available almost everywhere 2. Easy method to connect to internet ( requires no additional setup or configuration in order to access it) What is 2 disadvantages of mobile broadband? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. very expensive compared to other methods (£20+ for just 4GB a month) 2. Slower data transfer speeds (4G = 12Mbps) What is a network? -CORRECT ANSWER A network is where two or more computers are linked together in order to transmit data. What 4 types of networks are there? -CORRECT ANSWER 1.Personal Area Network 2.Local Area Network 3. Wide Area Network 4.Virtual Private Network What is a PAN? -CORRECT ANSWER Allows us to connect our digital devices together, such as our personal computer and mobile devices. Why is PAN used? -CORRECT ANSWER Used to connect devices within the range of a single person. What is 3 advantages of PAN? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. reduces the need for cabling (less trip hazards) 2. Automatic sync of data between devices (prevents mistakes) 3. only connect over a small area makes the secure for transmitting data. What is a Local Area Network? -CORRECT ANSWER A network that spans a relatively small geographical area, usually a single building or site. What does LAN allow us to do? -CORRECT ANSWER allows us to connect all of the computers in our home/business together to share data. What are 3 advantages of LAN? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Peripherals can be shared within a business between multiple computers (saves money) 2. Files can be stored in a central location (users can access from anywhere connected to the LAN) 3. Computers can be centrally managed (more efficient) - backing up computers What is a Wide Area Network? -CORRECT ANSWER a network that spans a large geographical area, such as an entire country or the whole world. What are 3 advantages of a WAN? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Confidential data can be shared between different offices (high security level) 2. Files can be accessed from different business locations 3. uses private leased lines rather than broadband internet connections to transmit data (faster data transfer) What is Virtual Private Network? -CORRECT ANSWER a private network that runs across a public network How does VPN work? -CORRECT ANSWER by encrypting the data that is being transmitted over the internet. Why is VPN used? -CORRECT ANSWER used by businesses in order to allow employees to access their work's network securely What is 3 advantages of VPN? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. People gain secure access to their works LAN wherever. 2. Much cheaper than a WAN 3. If used on public/unsecured network the data transmitted is still secure as it is encrypted (unreadable to anyone who intercepts it) What are the 10 factors affecting the choice of a network? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. User experience 2. User needs 3. Specification 4. Connectivity 5. Cost 6. Efficiency 7. Compatibility 8. Implementation 9.Productivity 10. Security What 4 different types of data transmissions? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Email 2. Voice & video calls over the Internet 3. Web pages 4. Secure payment systems What 3 protocols come under email data transmissions? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. SMTP 2. POP3 3. IMAP What is SMTP? -CORRECT ANSWER -transmits data from your email client to your outgoing mail server. -transmit data between email servers (move from your outgoing mail server to the recipient's mail server). What does SMTP stand for? -CORRECT ANSWER Simple Mail Transfer Protocol What does POP3 stand for? -CORRECT ANSWER Post Office Protocol (3rd version) What is POP3? -CORRECT ANSWER used to download emails from your mail server to your email client. What is the disadvantage of POP3? -CORRECT ANSWER you won't be able to access your emails on multiple devices What does IMAP stand for? -CORRECT ANSWER Internet Message Access Protocol What is IMAP? -CORRECT ANSWER An alternative to POP3 for retrieving emails from your mail server. What is the difference between IMAP and POP3? -CORRECT ANSWER Instead of downloading your emails, they are synced between your client and your server. What is a benefit of IMAP over POP3? -CORRECT ANSWER You will be able to access the same emails on multiple devices What 3 protocols are there for Voice & Video Calls over the Internet data transmissions? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. SIP 2. RTP 3. RTCP What does SIP stand for? -CORRECT ANSWER Session Initiation Protocol What is SIP? -CORRECT ANSWER A signalling protocol that establishes the connection between sender & receive How does SIP work? -CORRECT ANSWER -SIP signalling packet is sent from the person to the recipient. -SIP packet is received, recipients VoIP phone starts to ring. What does RTP stand for? -CORRECT ANSWER Real-time Transport Protocol What does RTP do? -CORRECT ANSWER Transmits the data packets along the connection. (works with SIP) What is a disadvantage of RTP? -CORRECT ANSWER Gives no guarantee for delivery, taking no responsibility for recovering lost packets. What does RTCP stand for? -CORRECT ANSWER RTP Control Protocol What does RTCP do? -CORRECT ANSWER sends control packets that provide feedback on the quality of the data delivery. What 3 protocols come under web pages data transmissions? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. HTTP 2. HTTPS 3. FTP What does HTTP stand for? -CORRECT ANSWER HyperText Transfer Protocol What does HTTP do? -CORRECT ANSWER establishes a connection between the client and server and then transfers web pages to the client. What does HTTPS stand for? -CORRECT ANSWER HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure What is HTTPS? -CORRECT ANSWER a version of HTTP that transmits data in a secure encrypted format using either TLS or SSL technologies. What does FTP stand for? -CORRECT ANSWER File Transfer Protocol What is FTP? -CORRECT ANSWER the protocol used when transferring files between computers over the internet When is FTP used? -CORRECT ANSWER when uploading web pages to a web server so they can be accessed by users browsing the web. What is the first connection that FTP can establish (client to computer)? -CORRECT ANSWER Control connection Once the control connection is established what is the second connection established? -CORRECT ANSWER Data connection What is the control connection used for? -CORRECT ANSWER to administrate the connections and to send commands What is the data connection used for? -CORRECT ANSWER to transfer files between the client and the server. What is the 2 protocols used for secure payment systems data transmissions? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. SET 2. 3D Secure What does SET stand for? -CORRECT ANSWER Secure Electronic Transaction What is SET? -CORRECT ANSWER a communications protocol that was initially supported by MasterCard & VISA for secure payments. With 3D secure what two pieces of information is sent to the retailers bank to complete the transaction? -CORRECT ANSWER -Card details -Bank authentication What is 3D secure? -CORRECT ANSWER uses SSL encryption to ensure data is secure. What are 2 security issues associated with transmitting data over a network? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Sniffing 2. Spoofing What are packet sniffers? -CORRECT ANSWER legitimate programs used commonly by network technicians to diagnose problems with a network. What does a packet sniffer do? -CORRECT ANSWER instructs your computer to inspect all data being transmitted over a network. How can packet sniffers be used maliciously? -CORRECT ANSWER might be used to gain passwords or credit cards numbers that have been transmitted over the network. What connections are vulnerable to packet sniffers? -CORRECT ANSWER Public WiFi connections What connections aren't vulnerable to packet sniffers? -CORRECT ANSWER Mobile broadband connections (4G) What is spoofing? -CORRECT ANSWER where you get your computer to pretend to be another computer How can an attacker spoof the network? -CORRECT ANSWER By using fake credentials and presenting them to the network they can fool the system into giving access to services meant for another device. What can attacker do if they get into the network? -CORRECT ANSWER will be able to access private and confidential data or even alter or delete that data. How can spoofing be used to perform a Denial of Service attack? -CORRECT ANSWER They can then send masses of data to overload the network making it unusable to the business. What are 2 security prevention methods? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Firewalls 2. Encryption What doe firewalls do? -CORRECT ANSWER help prevent unauthorised access to data by monitoring traffic and blocking anything suspicious. Where do hardware firewalls sit? -CORRECT ANSWER sits between your local area network and the internet What does a hardware firewall do? -CORRECT ANSWER monitors the traffic coming into the network from outside and will use defined rules to filter the traffic to prevent anything unwanted. Where are software firewalls? -CORRECT ANSWER installed on the individual devices connected to the network. What does a software firewall do? -CORRECT ANSWER an monitor traffic going both into and out of the computer, filtering any unwanted traffic. What does encryption do? -CORRECT ANSWER data is converted into an encoded form so as to prevent unauthorised access What are 2 methods of encrypting data across a network securely? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. SSL 2. TLS What will SSL do? -CORRECT ANSWER will encrypt the data to secure it so that it cannot be accessed by anyone who doesn't have the encryption key. What does SSL rely on? -CORRECT ANSWER SSL certificates (or digital certificates) What does SSL certificates (or digital certificates) do? -CORRECT ANSWER authenticate a user and allows them to use the public key infrastructure to encrypt data transfer What is the bandwidth of a network? -CORRECT ANSWER the amount of data that can be transferred from one computer to another in a given period of time. What is the latency of a network? -CORRECT ANSWER a measure of the time it takes for a data packet to transfer over a network. What bandwidth/latency does online gaming need? -CORRECT ANSWER -low latency due to the quick response time needed, -doesn't need a large bandwidth. What bandwidth/latency does online streaming need? -CORRECT ANSWER -large bandwidth due to the amount of data that is transferred -doesn't need low latency What is compression used for? -CORRECT ANSWER reduce the size of files. What 2 types of compression are there? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Lossy 2. Lossless What is lossy compression? -CORRECT ANSWER permanently deletes certain bits of data to reduce file size Where is lossy used? -CORRECT ANSWER video, audio & image compression. What is lossless compression? -CORRECT ANSWER uses algorithms to pack the data into less space. Where is lossless compression used? -CORRECT ANSWER document compression What are Hardware CODECs used for? -CORRECT ANSWER used to encode analogue data into digital data. It will then decode the digital data into an analogue form. What are Software CODECs used for? -CORRECT ANSWER used with audio and video to compress the data so that it used transmitted over a network. What is disadvantage to CODECs? -CORRECT ANSWER can be compatibility issues due to the variety of CODECs available. What is an advantage of lossy? -CORRECT ANSWER file sizes are reduced much more than lossless compression (quicker upload/download times) What are 3 disadvantages of lossy? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. reduced quality, cannot be restored to original high quality 2. person receiving file may not have same CODEC installed 3. sometimes file cannot be compressed further and so file can increase the file size. What is an advantage of lossless? -CORRECT ANSWER files can be decompressed back to original quality What is 3 disadvantages of lossless? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. can be seen as malware by anti-virus software and block files (recipients can't access file) 2. decompressing files can take a long processing time and memory (computer slows down) 3. sometimes file cannot be compressed further and so file can increase the file size. Where is data stored in cloud storage? -CORRECT ANSWER stored remotely on servers What is 2 uses of cloud storage in our personal lives? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. for portable data storage uses syncing files across multiple devices 2. sharing files with others. What is 2 uses of cloud storage in our professional lives? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. remote data backups 2. remote working What is cloud computing? -CORRECT ANSWER accessing the resources (processing, storage, etc) of a server over the internet. What is cloud computing used for in our personal lives? -CORRECT ANSWER for accessing software applications across multiple devices at a low cost. What is cloud computing used for in our professional lives? -CORRECT ANSWER for accessing software with low maintenance needs and to support cloud computing. What is the 2 benefits of using cloud storage/computing to individuals? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. software can be accessed flexibly 2. data can be synced between multiple devices and theft of equipment won't lose your data. What is the disadvantage of using cloud storage/computing to individuals? -CORRECT ANSWER can be security concerns and it requires a stable, fast internet connection What is the 3 benefits of using cloud storage/computing to businesses? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. reduced upfront costs 2. access can be flexible to your business needs 3. less IT staff are required for maintenance. What is the 2 disadvantages of using cloud storage/computing to businesses? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. security can be a concern 2. productivity is damaged if the network/internet goes down. Why are VPNs used in businesses? -CORRECT ANSWER to allow a user to connect to their work LAN while working remotely. What do remote desktop technologies allow a user? -CORRECT ANSWER to access their work desktop from outside the business offices. What 5 factors are there to consider when choosing an online system? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. security 2. cost 3. ease of use 4. features 5. connectivity What are social media websites? -CORRECT ANSWER allow you to visit (or Like) pages dedicated to topics of interest. What are blogs/microblogs? -CORRECT ANSWER websites where you can write posts about news and opinion on a topic of interest. What are vlogs? -CORRECT ANSWER Share an opinion on a topic of interest through videos What are wikis? -CORRECT ANSWER a website where the content is created by a community of users who share a common interest. What are chatrooms? -CORRECT ANSWER websites that allow for online communities to communicate via short text messages on a shared topic of interest. What does instant messaging allow you to do? -CORRECT ANSWER allows you to have a text-based, real-time conversation between two people, or a small group. What are podcasts? -CORRECT ANSWER audio or video files that are shared over the internet to share information on a particular topic. What are forums? -CORRECT ANSWER websites where users can post messages which can then be responded to by other forum users to take part in a discussion. What are 5 factors that are implications of online communities (personal use)? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. User experience 2. Meeting needs 3. Cost 4. Privacy 5. Security What are 8 factors that are implications of online communities (organisations)? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Employee and customer experience 2. Customer needs 3. Cost 4. Implementation 5. Replacement or integration with current systems 6. Productivity 7.Working practices 8. Security What is malicious software? -CORRECT ANSWER a computer program that is designed to harm or gain unauthorised access to a computer system. What are the 4 types of malware? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Viruses 2. Worms 3. Trojans 4. Spyware What are viruses? -CORRECT ANSWER a program that copies and inserts itself into programs running on your computer system (spreads when programs/data is attached and passed to another system) What are worms? -CORRECT ANSWER a program that copies and inserts itself into programs running on your computer system (spread through a network and find security holes in systems to gain access) What are trojans? -CORRECT ANSWER a harmful program that masquerades as a legitimate software application (spreads by users downloading it thinking its a program) What is spyware? -CORRECT ANSWER a malicious program that monitors user activity for the purpose of stealing personal information What impact does malware have on individuals/organisations? -CORRECT ANSWER can be used to corrupt/delete data on IT systems (have to spend time recovering data from backups) What is a hacker? -CORRECT ANSWER someone who gains unauthorised access to a computer system. What are "white hat hackers"? -CORRECT ANSWER they test systems for security flaws by attempting to gain access to help check the security procedures of an organisation. What is the impact of hackers on individuals/organisations? -CORRECT ANSWER Unauthorised access can be used to steal financial/personal/business information. The data can also be used for blackmail. What is phishing? -CORRECT ANSWER where emails are sent purporting to be a reputable company but in fact have been sent by a malicious user for the purpose of gaining personal or financial information. What is the impact of phishing on individuals/businesses? -CORRECT ANSWER The personal/financial information obtained can be used for stealing money/identity fraud/hacking into the business What is accidental damage? -CORRECT ANSWER where IT systems or data are harmed through human error, such as dropping a device or accidentally overwriting important files What 7 techniques are there for protecting data? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. File permissions 2. Access levels 3. Backup & recovery procedures 4. Passwords 5. Physical Access Controls 6. Digital certificates 7. Protocols What does file permissions do? -CORRECT ANSWER you can set who can access the files and what they can do with them. What 3 file permissions can you set? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Read only 2. Write only 3. Full control What is read only? -CORRECT ANSWER files can be opened and viewed, but not edited. What is read/write? -CORRECT ANSWER files can be opened, viewed and edited. What is full control? -CORRECT ANSWER files can be opened, viewed, edited, modified & deleted. What are access levels? -CORRECT ANSWER control what software, data and services a user can access What is the highest access level? -CORRECT ANSWER administrator access What is administrator access? -CORRECT ANSWER a user can access all folders with full control, alter the permissions of other users and can install and delete software. What can the lowest access level do? -CORRECT ANSWER a user can only access a limited number of files and the software they need to do their job. What are backups? -CORRECT ANSWER involves taking a copy of the data and storing it in a secondary location. What three types of backups are there? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Full backups 2. Incremental backup 3. Differential backup What is a full backup? -CORRECT ANSWER a complete backup of all your data. What is an incremental backup? -CORRECT ANSWER a backup of only the data that has changed since the previous backup. What is a differential backup? -CORRECT ANSWER A mixture of a full backup and an incremental backup What does physical access controls do? -CORRECT ANSWER prevents unauthorised users from gaining access to our IT systems. What are 4 examples of physical access controls? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Access cards 2. Keypad access control 3. Biometric access control 4. Electronic locks What are access cards? -CORRECT ANSWER Cards that must be scanned to unlock rooms. What are keypad access controls? -CORRECT ANSWER A system that requires a passcode to gain entry to a room. What are biometric access controls? -CORRECT ANSWER A system that scans biometric data to gain access to a room. What are electronic locks? -CORRECT ANSWER to lock and unlock doors electronically when sent signals from the above access control systems. What are digital certificates? -CORRECT ANSWER used to authenticate a user as the owner of a public key so they can use public key encryption. What is the 2 important contents to a digital certificate? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. digital signature 2. public key What is a digital signature? -CORRECT ANSWER verifies the sender's identity What is the public key? -CORRECT ANSWER used to encrypt data when sending it to the website What are protocols? -CORRECT ANSWER a set of rules that defines a method for transmitting data between different devices over a network. What are the 2 security protocols? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. SSL 2. TLS What do the security protocols allow us to do? -CORRECT ANSWER send data securely over the internet using encryption. What are the 4 tools used for protecting data? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Anti-virus 2. Firewalls 3. Encryption 4. Legislation & Codes of practice What are 3 common features you see in anti-virus software? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. scheduled scans (can be set automatically) 2. fulls scan on entire hard-disk 3. scanning of all fires opened (known as real-time protection) What are 3 disadvantages of anti-virus software? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. needs to be regularly maintained/updated (new viruses found) 2. doesn't offer total protection (new malware programs being written) 3. can slow down PC/network performance (takes up hard disk space, memory, processing power) What are 3 common features of a firewall? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. content filtering (used for security/productivity purposes) 2. controlling which programs can access the LAN/internet 3. Intruder detection/prevention (identifies/stops hackers from gaining access to network or computer system) What is 3 disadvantages of firewalls? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. diminishes performance of the network 2. productivity can be impaired (things may be blocked by firewall when needed) 3. cannot prevent internal attack from within the network. What 2 types of data do we encrypt? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. stored data 2. transmitted data What is stored data? -CORRECT ANSWER uses the same key to both encrypt and decrypt the data. (symmetric encryption) What is transmitted data? -CORRECT ANSWER uses different keys to encrypt and decrypt the data. (asymmetric data) What are 2 implications of stored data? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. if you lose the encryption key you won't ever be able to decrypt the data 2. sharing of the encryption key can compromise security (key can be intercepted) What is an implication of transmitted data? -CORRECT ANSWER If working in large quantities data the data can have a real impact on processing power What 2 legislation have been implemented to protect data and IT systems from harm? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Data protection act (1998) 2. Computer misuse act (1990) What is the data protection act (1998) -CORRECT ANSWER protects how individuals data can be used and handled. What is the computer misuse act (1990)? -CORRECT ANSWER protects against the wilful harm & damage of IT systems & data. What are 7 feature of online services? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Retail 2. Financial services 3. Education & training 4. News & information 5. Entertainment & leisure 6. Productivity 7. Booking systems What is 3 advantages to online retail services? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. wider range of choice 2. easier to find what you want 3. can do their shopping when they want What are 2 disadvantages of online retail services? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. concerns over payment being taken without product being delivered 2. lack of regulation with products provided online What are 2 advantages of online financial systems? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. can manage your finances wherever 24/7 2. users have total awareness of financial situation What are 2 disadvantages of online financial services? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. security concerns over hackers and malware (stealing financial information) 2. websites for financial services may be based in countries that aren't properly governed (services aren't genuine) What are 2 advantages of online eduction & training services? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. people can access wider range of courses 2. people can learn whenever they want What are 2 disadvantages of online eduction & training services? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. many online course qualifications aren't accredited 2. you have to be self-motivated to complete the work What are 2 advantages of online news & information services? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. much easier to keep informed and up-to-date about current events 2. easy to plan events and trips (can access travel and weather information) What are 2 disadvantages of online news & information services? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. hard to know what is real news as some can be fake 2. can be released before affected parties are informed What are 3 advantages of online entertainment & leisure systems? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. can access a huge variety of entertainment 2. access to streaming services whenever 3. online gaming allows you to connect with people all over the world. What are 2 disadvantages of online entertainment & leisure systems? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. children can access inappropriate content more easily 2. lives can be more distracted and dominated by the service. What are 2 advantages of online productivity services? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. employees can work more flexibly (can work from home) 2. working collaboratively is easier What are 2 disadvantages of online productivity services? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. if companies internet/network connection goes down can damage productivity (can't access online services) 2. has made us constantly contactable (work can come into our home life) What are 3 advantages to online booking systems? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. can compare prices (find best one) 2. need less administrative staff to handle bookings (saves money) 3. don't need to travel to a shop to book anything (quicker and easier) What are 2 disadvantages to online booking systems? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. requires electronic payment (can lead to bank fraud) 2. may not be legitimate What are 3 uses of online services? -CORRECT ANSWER 1.transactional data 2. targeted marketing 3. collaborative working What is a transacation? -CORRECT ANSWER an act of buying or selling something, so transactional data is the data collected from a sale or purchase. What are 3 advantages of transactional data? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. organisation can keep track of all purchases. (they can see trends) 2.customers/organisations can track the delivery process 3. organisations can identify what customers are interested in (can target the adverts that are best suited for them) What are 2 disadvantages of transactional data? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. transactional data stored online can be hacked 2. can lead to concerns over privacy (people don't like how there is personalisation from previous transactions) What is targeted marketing? -CORRECT ANSWER advertising products to the customers who are most likely to purchase the product. What are 3 advantages to targeted marketing? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. web pages can be customised to show products to people based on previous purchases. 2. search engine advertising uses search terms to display similar products 3. social media sites use your profile data to target advertising that you might like What are 2 disadvantages of targeted marketing? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. can lead to impulse buying 2. can lead to concerns over privacy (people don't like how there is personalisation from previous transactions) What is collaborative working? -CORRECT ANSWER where multiple individuals can work together in real-time over the internet. What are 3 advantages of collaborative working? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. employees work together (more productive) 2. employees use technology to share work (can work from home) 3. meetings held without wasting time/money on travel What are 3 disadvantages of collaborative working? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. need to be restrictions in place with sharing things online (prevent overwriting) 2. security can be a concern (data can be accessed by hackers) 3. increased reliance on business' internet connection What are 8 features of IT systems? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. stock control 2. data logging 3. data analysis 4. general office tasks 5. creative tasks 6. advertising 7. manufacturing 8. security How does stock management use IT system? -CORRECT ANSWER monitors and controls their stock and can allow the implementation of automated and JIT stock control. What is 'just in time'? -CORRECT ANSWER where products are only ordered as they are needed. What are 3 advantages of stock control? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. stock levels are recorded more accurately 2. reordering can be done automatically (more efficient) 3. less stock needed (saves money/storage space) What are 2 disadvantages of stock control? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. can be very expensive to implement (require staff training) 2. not always accurate (due to theft) How does data logging use IT system? -CORRECT ANSWER through the use of sensors to monitor a process and automatically log the data. What are 2 advantages of data logging? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. using sensors allows for logging without human intervention (greater accuracy) 2. data can be logged more frequently (better tracking for trends and patterns) What are 2 disadvantages of data logging? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. most data logging sensors rely on wireless connectivity (interference can miss reading) 2. if sensors haven't been calibrated properly recordings wont be accurate How does data analysis use IT system? -CORRECT ANSWER to spot patterns and trends and make future predictions. What are 2 advantages of data analysis? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. can help spot trends/patterns (improve efficiency) 2. data can be outputted into different formats simply (easier to interpret data) What are 2 disadvantages of data analysis? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. if incorrect data is provided than incorrect analysis is performed. 2. to be analyses data has to be stored (exposed to threats from malicious users) How does general office tasks use IT system? -CORRECT ANSWER to produce documents, writeup notes, manage finances, communicate and schedule appointments. What are 2 advantages of general office tasks? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. completed more efficiently 2. require less specific skills (allows staff to perform a wider range of roles) What are 2 disadvantages of general office tasks? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. employees need greater ICT skills (costly, stress to staff with no experience) 2. need to maintain IT support staff to help employees (expensive) How does creative tasks use IT system? -CORRECT ANSWER for things like CAD, graphics design and music/film editing. What are 2 advantages of creative tasks? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. easier to edit creative work 2. can be easily distributed electronically (emails) What are 2 disadvantages of creative tasks? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. requires huge hard disk storage capacities 2. increase in illegally sharing of original creative work online (copyright piracy) How does advertising use IT system? -CORRECT ANSWER through the use of online advertising, print advertising & video adverts. What are 2 advantages of advertising? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. can advertise directly to the people who will be interested (more efficient) 2. successful viral campaigns allow businesses to reach large audiences What is a disadvantage of advertising? -CORRECT ANSWER Has lead to the growth of spam emails (can lead to phishing and private information being revealed) How does manufacturing use IT system? -CORRECT ANSWER for Computer-Aided Manufacturing of products like car parts and clothing. What are 2 advantages of manufacturing? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. performs the task to the same standard each time (better quality) 2. the machines don't need to take a break (saves money/more efficient) What are 2 disadvantages of manufacturing? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. people can lose their jobs (being replaced with computers) 2. initial costs for machinery are high How does security use IT system? -CORRECT ANSWER such as door/window and motion sensors connected to an alarm, security cameras & RFID sensors to detect theft. What are 2 advantages of security? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. requires less security staff as computers automate the checks 2. make business and homes more secure (protect from threat/theft) What are 2 disadvantages? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. privacy concerns over increased security 2. can provide a false sense of security (people not taking security checks seriously) What are the 10 major impact and implications for organisations using IT system -CORRECT ANSWER 1. User experience 2. Employee & customer needs 3. Cost 4. Implementation 5. Replacement or integration 6. Productivity 7. Working practices 8. Staff training needs 9. User support 10. Security What is primary data? -CORRECT ANSWER data that has been gathered through original research done by the organisation or individual. What are 3 benefits of primary data? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. more up-to-date (more valid) 2. more relevant (you have collected it yourself) 3. more reliable (you know the quality of the data) What is secondary data? -CORRECT ANSWER data that has been gathered by someone other than the user of the data. What are 3 benefits of secondary? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. much cheaper (don't need to pay fo data gathering process, already done for you) 2. quicker to obtain (data already done) 3. removes bias For data to be reliable what 2 criteria must it fit? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Completeness 2. Accuracy What is completeness? -CORRECT ANSWER all of the data that is required for what you are investigating is included. What is accuracy? -CORRECT ANSWER the data is consistent, in that the collection of data can be repeated with matching results What 2 things should you avoid when performing surveys? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. avoid using jargon (can confuse respondents) 2. avoid bias in language (may skew their answers) What are 4 data collection methods? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. surveys 2. questionnaires 3. focus groups 4. interviews What is a questionnaire? -CORRECT ANSWER involve a set of questions, normally in a closed question format, used to gain information for statistical analysis, or personal information from respondents. What are 3 advantages of questionnaires? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. good for gathering information from large group in short space of time (more data to analyse/findings more reliable) 2. everyone answers same question (removes bias/better consistency of data) 3. can be anonymous (more honest results) What are 3 disadvantages of questionnaires? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. poorly worded questions can lead to bias in results (inaccurate results) 2. difficult to get in-depth answers and follow up questions can't be asked based on the responses. 3. response rates are very poor (easy to ignore the questionnaire) What are focus groups? -CORRECT ANSWER involves a group of people being asked questions on a particular topic. What are 3 disadvantages of focus groups? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. respondents can influence each other 2. data produced is qualitative (difficult to analyse) 3. may be difficult to assemble a group of people together at the same time. What is an interview? -CORRECT ANSWER A one-to-one meeting where an interviewer asks questions to a single respondent in order to gather information What are 2 advantages of interviews? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. very good for drawing out detailed responses through follow-up questions (provides clarity) 2. greater honesty in responses (can develop more of an understanding with respondent) What are 2 disadvantages of interviews? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. take a long time to gather information from wide range of people (isn't cost effective where large number of responses are required) 2. data is qualitative (difficult to analyse) Why is it important to ensure data accuracy? -CORRECT ANSWER as computers don't have the common sense to spot errors and so if bad data is entered bad results are outputted (GIGO). What does GIGO stand for? -CORRECT ANSWER Garbage in, garbage out What 2 ways can we ensure data accuracy? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. validation 2. verification What is validation? -CORRECT ANSWER a check to ensure data is sensible and reasonable What is verification? -CORRECT ANSWER a check to ensure data matches the original source. How can we extract and sort data that is organised into a database. -CORRECT ANSWER by using queries How can extracting be performed? -CORRECT ANSWER by choosing specific fields and using filters to select data that meet specific criteria. How can sorting organise data? -CORRECT ANSWER by retrieving any field in ascending or descending order. What is numerical modelling? -CORRECT ANSWER where mathematical calculations are used to simulate a real-life system. What is data modelling? -CORRECT ANSWER a process used to plan the structure of a database to ensure that data is stored in the most organised and efficient manner. What 2 formats can data be presented in? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. tabular 2. graphical What is tabular presentation? -CORRECT ANSWER a text presentation of data within a table When is tabular presentation used? -CORRECT ANSWER where precise data and detail is required. What is graphical presentation? -CORRECT ANSWER where data is presented using a chart or some other form of diagram. When is graphical presentation used? -CORRECT ANSWER used where ease of interpretation and spotting trends is required. What are 7 data collection user interfaces? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. ease of use 2. accessibility 3. error reduction 4. intuitiveness 5. functionality 6. performance 7. compatibility How can error reduction be achieved in a user interface? -CORRECT ANSWER can be achieved through validation/verification checks, input masks and warning messages. How can an intuitive interface be easy to use? -CORRECT ANSWER can be achieved by making it easy to use and keeping the interface similar to paper forms or previous systems. What does functionality in a user interface allow? -CORRECT ANSWER allows users to be able to perform the required tasks they need from the system. What are 6 moral and ethical factors of the use of IT? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Environmental 2. Unequal access 3. Online behaviour 4. Globalisation 5. Freedom of speech 6. Acceptable use What 3 moral and ethical factors does the environment have on the use of IT? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. increase in landfill trash (technotrash) 2. consumes materials, power, chemicals & water to produce technology 3. use more power to run technology systems What 2 moral and ethical factors does unequal access have on the use of IT? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. many poorer people have very limited access/no access 2. they aren't able to use technology for things like education What 2 moral and ethical factors does online behaviour have on the use of IT? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. acting poorly online can affect employment/lead to legal problems 2. cyber bullying can affect the victims. What is the rules for good online behaviour known as? -CORRECT ANSWER netiquette What 3 moral and ethical factors does globalisation have on the use of IT? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. the world is becoming more interconnected/integrated 2. lead to outsourcing (affects employment) 3. affects cultures, spread diseases and increases pollution What 2 moral and ethical factors does freedom of speech have on the use of IT? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. freely expresses views and opinions 2. offensive opinions are often censored to prevent causing offence What 2 moral and ethical factors does acceptable use have on the use of IT? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. use policies to govern how employees use their IT systems 2. covers what sites you visit/language you use/sharing copyright material (can lead to termination of contract if breached) What 6 moral and ethical factors are also protected by legislation? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Health & safety 2. Copyright 3. Computer misuse 4. Protection of data 5. Privacy 6. Accessibility What are three issues of health & safety caused by IT systems? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. RSI 2. Eyes strain 3. Tripping What is the cause of RSI? -CORRECT ANSWER Repeated movement & overuse. Such as typing at a keyboard. How can you prevent RSI? -CORRECT ANSWER Wrist rests, adjustable equipment to allow good seating position, regular breaks. What is the cause of eye strain? -CORRECT ANSWER Staring at a monitor for long periods, particularly in dim or very bright light. How can you prevent eye strain? -CORRECT ANSWER Regular breaks, good lighting, good quality monitors. What is tripping? -CORRECT ANSWER Loose trailing cabling across the room where people walk. How can you prevent tripping? -CORRECT ANSWER Tie loose cables back, use cable ducting or run cabling through the walls/ceiling. How has IT systems impacted on copyright? -CORRECT ANSWER have made it extremely easy to share and download copyright material without the permission of the copyright holder. How does copyright impact an individual/business? -CORRECT ANSWER you cost them money by using their material for free. What is 5 data & user protection legislation? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Computer misuse act 2. Data protection act 3. Copyright, designs & patents act 4. The health and safety regulations 5. Consumer rights act When was the computer misuse act brought in and why? -CORRECT ANSWER -1990 -protect users against the theft and damage of the information they store using IT systems. What is the first offence covered by the computer misuse act? -CORRECT ANSWER unauthorised access to computer material (hacking/up to 2 years in prison/large fine) What is the second offence covered by the computer misuse act? -CORRECT ANSWER unauthorised access with intent to commit or facilitate the commission of further offences (using data from hacking to blackmail/up to 5 years in prison/large fine) What is the third offence covered by the computer misuse act? -CORRECT ANSWER unauthorised acts with intent to impair the operation of a computer (altering data found/spreading a virus/up to 10 years/large fine) What is the police and justice act -CORRECT ANSWER -2006 -extended the computer misuse act What was the modification of offence 1 of the computer misuse act? -CORRECT ANSWER the punishment was increased to 2 years rather than 6 months What was the added offence to the computer misuse act? -CORRECT ANSWER 3a. making, supplying or obtaining anything that can be used in computer misuse offences. (creating malware program to gain access to system/harm data/2 years in prison/large fine) When was the data protection act introduced and why? -CORRECT ANSWER -1998 -to protect the privacy of individuals by ensuring that their personal information is processed in an ethical manner. What are the 8 principles of the data protection act? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. personal data shall be processed fairly and lawfully 2. Personal data shall be obtained for limited, specifically stated purposes 3. Personal data shall be adequate, relevant and not excessive. 4. Personal data shall be accurate and, where necessary, kept up to date. 5. Personal data shall be kept for no longer than is absolutely necessary. 6. Personal data shall be processed according to peoples data protection rights. 7. Personal data shall be kept safe and secure. 8. Personal data shall not be transferred outside the European Economic Area without adequate protection. Who is the ICO? -CORRECT ANSWER The Information Commissioners Office is an independent body who is responsible for investigating possible data protection violations. (fine of up to £500,000) When was the copyright, designs & patents act introduced and why? -CORRECT ANSWER -1988 -to protect the creators of original works by giving them the right to control how these original works are used. What is the punishment for copyright infringement? -CORRECT ANSWER - limited to paying damages to the copyright holder -handing over any profits -up to max of 10 years When was the copyright regulations implemented and why? -CORRECT ANSWER -1992 -to extend the Copyright, Designs & Patents Act. What does the copyright regulations do? -CORRECT ANSWER makes it illegal for both individuals and organisations to distribute, download & copy software without the copyright holders permission. When was the health and safety regulations implemented and why? -CORRECT ANSWER -1992 -ensures that display equipment must comply with health and safety regulations to ensure users are not harmed in some way What are 5 key elements of the health and safety regulations? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. businesses must perform a risk assessment for workstations used by employees 2. employees must receive breaks from screens 3. employees have a right to yearly eye test 4. employees using computers must receive information on health and safety risk related to their workstation 5. employees using computers must receive training on health and safety risk related to their workstation What happens if you don't comply with health and safety regulations? -CORRECT ANSWER punished through a fine (severe)/also lead to imprisonment When was the consumer rights act implemented and why? -CORRECT ANSWER -2015 - to consolidate all existing consumer rights legislation into a single act What does the consumer right give consumers? -CORRECT ANSWER gives consumers the right to repair, replacement or refunds should digital content be faulty. What is 2 accessibility legislation? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Disability discrimination act 2. Equality act When was the disability discrimination act introduced and why? -CORRECT ANSWER -1995 -a piece of legislation designed to prevent businesses & government from discriminating against the disabled. What 3 key areas are included in the disability discrimination act? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. treating someone with a disability less favourably than someone without that disability. 2. Failing to make reasonable adjustments to allow access to goods, services, facilities. 3. Subjecting someone to harassment for a reason relating to the person's disability. What amendments were added to the disability discrimination act in 2005? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. protecting people with HIV, Multiple Sclerosis and Cancer from discrimination 2. mental illnesses no longer needed to be "clinically well-recognised" 3. job advertisements are not allowed to publish a discriminatory advertisement. When was the equality act introduced and why? -CORRECT ANSWER -2010 -replaced the Disability Discrimination Act, along with 115 other pieces of legislation, including the Sex Discrimination Act, Equal Pay Act and Race Relations Act. What 3 discriminations does the equality act have? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Associated discrimination 2. Indirect discrimination 3. Perceived discrimination What is associated discrimination? -CORRECT ANSWER discriminating against someone as their family member is disabled. What is indirect discrimination? -CORRECT ANSWER something that applies equally to all employees but more negatively affects someone with a disability. What is perceived discrimination? -CORRECT ANSWER involves discriminating against someone because you think they have a disability, when in fact they haven't. What are 3 accessibility guidelines? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. British standards institute codes of practice 2. Open accessibility framework 3. Web content accessibility guidelines What are the 5 web accessibility codes of practice? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Define the purpose of the web product 2. Define the target audiences for the web product 3. Choose the delivery platforms to support 4. Define the relationship the product will have with its target audiences 5. Analyse the needs of the target audiences for the web product What is the British standards institute? -CORRECT ANSWER an organisation who define national standards for best practice in a number of areas. What is the open accessibility framework? -CORRECT ANSWER a guideline for ensuring any IT system is accessible, whether it is desktop, mobile or web-based. What are the 3 creation stages in the Open Accessibility Framework? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Define accessible (width of door/large font sizes) 2. Stock elements (building materials that are accessible) 3. Development authoring tools (providing physical tools /ICT for development that support accessibility.) What are the 3 use stages in the Open Accessibility Framework? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Platform support (locating buildings in accessible places) 2. The APP itself (accessible infrastructure/accessible applications) 3. Assistive technology (wheelchairs/screen readers) What is the web content accessibility guidelines? -CORRECT ANSWER guidelines for making web applications accessible. What are the 4 categories of the web content accessibility guidelines? -CORRECT ANSWER 1. Perceivable (having text alternatives) 2. Operable (user interface/components are operable) 3. Understandable (making information/interface understandable) 4. Robust (compatibility with user-agents/ assistive technologies) [Show More]

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