CPH EXAM 2 |55 Questions with Verified Answers Public health - CORRECT ANSWER fulfillments of societies interest in assuring the conditions in which people can be healthy. organized community ... efforts aimed at the prevention of disease and the promotion of health public health vs. medical care - CORRECT ANSWER -in public health the patient is the community, in medical care the patient is individual -public health diagnoses the health of the community using public health sciences -goal of public health is prevention of disease and disability, in medical care its cure 3 core functions of public health - CORRECT ANSWER -assessment -policy development -assurance The 3 levels of prevention - CORRECT ANSWER -Primary Prevention -Secondary Prevention -Teritary Prevention Primary Prevention - CORRECT ANSWER prevents an illness or injury from occurring at all by preventing exposure to risk factors EX) vaccination, drunk driving laws, child safety lids secondary prevention - CORRECT ANSWER seeks to minimize the severity of the illness or the damage due to an injury causing even once the event has occurred EX) seat belts, mammograms, motorcycle helmet laws teritary prevention - CORRECT ANSWER seeks to minimize disability by providing medical care and rehabilitation services EX) PT/OT facilities, cancer centers, improved ambulance care, ICU Chain of Causation - CORRECT ANSWER -Host -Environment -Agent -Vector (cousin) EX) malaria, suicide Social Justice - CORRECT ANSWER suggests the minimal levels of income, basic housing, employment, education, and health care should be seen as fundamental rights (common goods) Market Justice - CORRECT ANSWER emphasizes individual responsibilities, minimal obligation to the common good and the fundamental freedom to all individuals to be left alone. (Individual Responsibility) Sources of Public Health Controvery - CORRECT ANSWER -Economic Impact -Individual Impact -Moral & religious concerns -Politics vs. science -Health Disparities Health Disparities - CORRECT ANSWER defined as inequalities that exist when members of certain population groups do not benefit from the same health status as other groups Common divides where we see health disparities - CORRECT ANSWER -SES -Race/Ethnicity -Gender -Geographical Location (Rural, Urban) -Age -Education Role of Local Health Departments - CORRECT ANSWER -Often have responsibilities for providing medical care for the poor -public health departments begins and ends with the local health departments What happens at local health departments? - CORRECT ANSWER -Collecting health statistics -screening and immunizations -health education services -communicable disease control programs -mental health services Role of State Health Departments - CORRECT ANSWER -the states have primary constitutional responsibility and authority for the protection of the health safety and general welfare of the population. -close enough to the people to maintain a sense of their needs and preferences, yet large enough to command the resources necessary to get the important jobs done What happens at the state health departments? - CORRECT ANSWER -coordinate activités of local public health agencies & providing funding -collect & analyze data -laboratory services -manage medicaid Role of Federal Government - CORRECT ANSWER -Regulate interstate commerce -Collect taxes Police Powers - CORRECT ANSWER -Prevent people from harming others -Defend the interests of competent persons (children, mentally handicapped) -To protect a person from harming themselves Role of the CDC (centers for disease control & prevention) - CORRECT ANSWER -Main assessment and epidemiological agency for the nation based in Atlanta, GA -Traditionally focused on infectious diseases- crisis focused -national center for health statistics -prevention and control Role of NIH - CORRECT ANSWER -Greatest medical research complex in the world -Bethesda, MD -Provides grants to universities and research centers throughout the US -27 institutes and centers -focus on curing human disease -strong congressional support John Snow - CORRECT ANSWER -Father of epidemiology -Cholera epidemics in London, mid 1850s -Population unsure of Source- Snow suspected water supply -"Natural Experiment" -Shoe leather epidemiology Epidemiology - CORRECT ANSWER -The diagnostic discipline of public health -Assessment -Investigates causes of diseases -identifies trends in disease occurrence -Evaluates effectiveness of medical and public health interventions -An observational science Patterns of Disease occurrence - CORRECT ANSWER -Who is getting the disease? -When did they get the disease? -Where is the disease occurring? from this information epidemiologists can infer why the disease is occurring Endemic - CORRECT ANSWER a disease that exists permanently in a particular region or population. EX) malaria is a constant worry in parts of africa Epidemic - CORRECT ANSWER an outbreak of disease that attacks many people at about the same time and may spread through one or several communities Pandemic - CORRECT ANSWER when an epidemic spreads throughout the world Incidence Rate - CORRECT ANSWER rate of new cases of a disease in a defined population over a define period of time (measures the probability that a healthy person will develop the disease during that time) Prevalence Rate - CORRECT ANSWER total number of cases in a defined population at a specific moment in time (defines the burden of disease typically collected via survey) Mortality Rate - CORRECT ANSWER number of deaths from a disease in a define population over a define period of time Different types of Epi studies - CORRECT ANSWER -Intervention Study -Cohort Study -Case-Control Study Intervention study - CORRECT ANSWER -closest thing to an experiment -start with two groups (experiment, control) -Randomized control trial is "Gold Standard" EX)Aspirin to prevent heart disease Cohort Study - CORRECT ANSWER -For situation when doing all intervention study would be unethical or too difficult -considered the next most accurate -choose a large number of healthy people Case-control study - CORRECT ANSWER -choose people who already have disease for case group -choose healthy control group of individuals as similar as possible to cases for control group -always a retrospective study -Advantage: faster and cheaper -Least accurate approach Sources of Error - CORRECT ANSWER -Random variation -confounding variables -Bias (selection bias, reporting bias or recall bias) p-value: probability - CORRECT ANSWER P<0.05 is usually taken to mean a result is statistically significant when p=0.05, there is still a 5% chance that the result is still wrong Different Types of Rates - CORRECT ANSWER -birth rates -mortality rates -crude rates -adjusted rates -group, specific rates -years of potential life lost (YPLL) Risk Reception - CORRECT ANSWER -For well known risk, can be calculated from historical data -for poorly understood risk,s must make many assumptions -involves psychological factors Leading cause of death in 1900s vs. today - CORRECT ANSWER 1900-Infectious Disease 2010-today- heart disease Means of Transmission - CORRECT ANSWER water food vectors (insects or animals) Air Formats (inanimate objects) Fecal oral transmission Body Fluid Times of Transmission - CORRECT ANSWER When are things contagious? symptomatic phase (common cold) pre-symptomatic phase (measles) carrier state (typhoid mary) Typhoid Mary - CORRECT ANSWER Mary Mallon, born in 1869 in Ireland and emigrated to the US in 1884. A health carrier of salmonella typhi her nickname, synonymous with the spread of disease, as many were infected due to her denial of being ill Chain of infection - CORRECT ANSWER -Pathogen -Reservoir -Means of transmissions -Susceptible Host Pathogen - CORRECT ANSWER infectious agent; bacterium or parasite that causes the disease Reservoir - CORRECT ANSWER The place where the pathogen lives and multiplies EX) rats for plague, bats for rabies Means of Transmission - CORRECT ANSWER how pathogen travels to new host EX) mosquito for malaria, flea for plague Susceptible Host - CORRECT ANSWER Not everyone is equally susceptible Interrupting chain of infection - CORRECT ANSWER Pathogen- kill w/ antibiotics Reservoir- Boil water, kill rodents Means of Transmission- hand washing, condom Susceptible Host- increase resistance of host by immunization Eradication of Disease? - CORRECT ANSWER Yes, if there is no non-human reservoir and a vaccine exists -small pox eradicated in 1977 -polio eradicated from Western Hemisphere -measles was next target Herd Immunity - CORRECT ANSWER the resistance to the spread of a contagious disease within a population that results if a sufficiently high proportion of individuals are immune to the disease, especially through vaccination Vaccines - CORRECT ANSWER -Rumors of vaccines causing autism (false) -Side effects do not exist for some vaccines (extremely rare, include fever and seizures) -Social Vs. Market Justice -Herd Immunity -Pharmaceutical companies reluctant to develop vaccines Tuskegee Study - CORRECT ANSWER a study to record the natural history of syphilis in hopes of justifying treatment programs for african americans. Assessment (core function) - CORRECT ANSWER -monitor environment and health status to identify and solve community environmental health problems -diagnose and investigate environmental health problems and health hazards in the community policy development (core function) - CORRECT ANSWER -inform, educate, and empower people about environmental health issues -community partnerships and actions to identify and solve environmental health problems -policies and plans that support individual and community environmental health efforts assurance (core function) - CORRECT ANSWER -enforce laws and regulations that protect environmental health and ensure safety ? [Show More]
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