ARDMS OB/GYN Exam 117 Questions with Verified Answers Ovarian Follicle Cyst - CORRECT ANSWER An ovarian follicle increased over 2.5 cm Corpus Luteum Cyst - CORRECT ANSWER Progesterone producing ... ovarian cyst present during pregnancy Hemorrhagic Cyst - CORRECT ANSWER Cyst cause from bleeding Tubo-ovarian Abcess - CORRECT ANSWER Infected cyst located between the uterus and the ovary. Endometriosis/ Chocolate Cyst - CORRECT ANSWER Ectopic endometrial tissue located in the ovary. Cyst appears during the menstrual cycle. Cystadenoma - CORRECT ANSWER Most common benign cystic tumor of the ovary arising from epithelial tissue. Usually unilateral. Cystadenocarcinoma - CORRECT ANSWER Malignant epithelial cancer. Dermoid Cyst - CORRECT ANSWER Benign germ cell tumor containing bone, hair, cartilage, teeth and fatty material. Dysgerminoma - CORRECT ANSWER Malignant germ cell tumor. Dermoid Plug - CORRECT ANSWER The portion of a dermoid cyst that will cause shadowing on ultrsound. Brenner Tumor - CORRECT ANSWER Common benign tumor of the ovary. Usually seen in postmenopausal women. Theca Lutien Cyst - CORRECT ANSWER Cyst seen with high levels of HCG. Often seen with hydadiform mole. Ovarian Torsion - CORRECT ANSWER Complete or partial rotation of the ovarian pedicle on its axis. The right ovary is three times more likely to torse than the left. Ectopic Pregnancy - CORRECT ANSWER Gestational sac located anywhere outside of the fundus of the uterus. Heterotopic Pregnancy - CORRECT ANSWER Intrauterine pregnancy and correlating ectopic pregnancy in the same patient. Polycystic Ovarian Disease - CORRECT ANSWER Ovarian disease characterized by anovulation due to an endocrine imbalance. Stein-Leventhal Syndrome - CORRECT ANSWER Another name for polycystic ovarian disease. Hyperstimulated Ovaries - CORRECT ANSWER Overstimulated follicles increased in size due to infertility treatments. Thecoma - CORRECT ANSWER Benign ovarian tumor usually seen in postmenopausal women. Produces estrogen. Fibroma - CORRECT ANSWER Benign ovarian tumor comprised of muscle. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor - CORRECT ANSWER An androgen producing ovarian tumor that causes masculinization. Granulosa Tumor - CORRECT ANSWER Estrogen producing ovarian tumor. Krukenberg Tumor - CORRECT ANSWER Malignant tumor of the ovary that metastasized from the GI tract such as the stomach or colon. Fibromyoma - CORRECT ANSWER Uterine mass made of muscle. Adenomyosis - CORRECT ANSWER Ectopic endometrial tissue within the myoma. Causes enlargement of the uterus with abnormal contours. Uterine Polyps - CORRECT ANSWER Overgrowth of uterine tissue into the endometrial cavity. Endometritis - CORRECT ANSWER Infection of the endometrium seen after sexually transmitted disease. T-shaped Uterus - CORRECT ANSWER T-shaped endometrium. Associated with the use of DES medication for infertility. Uterine Adenocarcinoma - CORRECT ANSWER Uterine cancer usually seen in postmenopausal women. Causes abnormal bleeding. Threatened Abortion - CORRECT ANSWER First trimester bleeding with a closed cervix and normal GS position. Incomplete Abortion - CORRECT ANSWER Miscarriage with either fetal or placental components left behind. Complete Abortion - CORRECT ANSWER Full expostulation of fetus and placenta from the uterus before term. Septic Abortion - CORRECT ANSWER Miscarriage with either fetal or placental components left behind that causes infection in the mother. Inevitable Abortion - CORRECT ANSWER In the first trimester when the GS is seen to move close to the cervix and the cervix dilates. Incompetent Cervix - CORRECT ANSWER Cervix dilates too early for delivery. Measures less that 3cm in length. Placenta Previa - CORRECT ANSWER When the placenta grows so that it covers the cervix. Circumvallate Placenta - CORRECT ANSWER The placenta doubles back causing a ring-like shape. Hydatidiform Mole Placenta - CORRECT ANSWER Overgrowth of placental tissue that forms a mass. Placenta Hydrops - CORRECT ANSWER Enlarged placental thickness >4cm with cystic changes. Usually seen with hydrops fetalis. Abruptio Placentae - CORRECT ANSWER Abnormal detachment of the placenta from the uterine wall. Choriogangioangioma - CORRECT ANSWER Tumor made up of blood vessels. Trophoblastic Disease - CORRECT ANSWER Another name for molar pregnancy. 2 Vessels Cord - CORRECT ANSWER Umbilical cord containing only one artery. Associated with trisomy 18 and 21. Cord Previa - CORRECT ANSWER Umbilical cord covering the cervical os. Cord Prolapse - CORRECT ANSWER Umbilical cord presents first during delivery and is seen within the cervix. Nuchal Cord - CORRECT ANSWER More than one umbilical cord loop around the fetal neck. Velamentous Cord Insertion - CORRECT ANSWER Umbilical cord inserts into the side of the placenta. Choriod Plexus Cyst - CORRECT ANSWER Normal cyst in the choriod plexus until the 26th week. Encephalocele - CORRECT ANSWER Bony defect in the skull with the brain tissue protruding. Agenesis of Corpus Callosum - CORRECT ANSWER Dilation of the posterior horns of the lateral ventricles (tear drop). Upward displacement of the CSP and the 3rd ventricle. Hydrocephalus - CORRECT ANSWER Excess fluid in the lateral ventricles measuring greater than 10 mm. Dangling choriod plexus. Hydraencephaly - CORRECT ANSWER Excess fluid fills the head. Falx is absent or incomplete. Cystic Hygroma - CORRECT ANSWER Bilateral cysts at the back of the head. Seen with turners syndrome. Only present in females. Arnold Chiari Type II Malformation - CORRECT ANSWER Group of cranial abnormalities associated with spina bifida. Absent cisterna magna, banana sign, and lemon sign. Micrognathia - CORRECT ANSWER Small chin. Hyperglossia - CORRECT ANSWER Large tongue. Anencephaly - CORRECT ANSWER Absence of a large part of the brain or skull. Holoprosencephaly - CORRECT ANSWER Failure of the forebrain to divide into hemispheres. Semilobar Holoprosencephaly - CORRECT ANSWER A partial fissure between two hemispheres of the brain. Associated with facial anomalies. Lobar Holoprosencephaly - CORRECT ANSWER A fissure exists between the two hemispheres of the brain without communication. Alobar Holoprosencephaly - CORRECT ANSWER One large ventricle. No fissure present. Associated with severe facial anomalies. Cleft Lip - CORRECT ANSWER Fissure or gap in the lip caused by abnormal development. Proboscis - CORRECT ANSWER Abnormality of the nose. Iniencephaly - CORRECT ANSWER Extreme extension of the neck so that the back of the skull and the top of the shoulders are touching. Ectopia Cordis - CORRECT ANSWER Fetal heart located outside the thorax. Associated with pentalogy of cantrell. Atrial Septal Defect - CORRECT ANSWER Abnormal opening of the wall between the atria in the fetal heart. Ventricular Septal Defect - CORRECT ANSWER Abnormal opening of the wall between the ventricles in the fetal heart. Endocardial Cushion Defect - CORRECT ANSWER Abnormality in the walls between all four heart chambers. Associated with down syndrome. Ebstein Anomaly - CORRECT ANSWER Atrial displacement of the septal and posterior tricuspid valves leaflets. Moderator Band - CORRECT ANSWER Thickened papillary muscle in the fetal heart. Usually seen in the right ventricle. Associated with down syndrome. Transposition of Great Vessels - CORRECT ANSWER Switching of the aorta and the pulmonary artery. Dextrocardia - CORRECT ANSWER Axis of the heart is switched so the right atrium is closest to the spine. Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome - CORRECT ANSWER Small left atrium and left ventricle. Extralobar Lung Sequesteration - CORRECT ANSWER One segment of the lung is sepreated from the other lung tissue and has it's own blood supply from the aorta. Diaphragmatic Hernia - CORRECT ANSWER Deviation in the diaphragm allowing abdominal contents into the thorax. Hydrothorax - CORRECT ANSWER Fluid in the thorax cavity Double Bubble Sign - CORRECT ANSWER Normal abdomen and dilated duodenum caused by duodenal atresia. Associated with down syndrome. Omphalocele - CORRECT ANSWER Mass within the umbilical cord covered by the umbilical membrane. Seen with trisomys 21 and 18. Gastroschisis - CORRECT ANSWER Mass protruding from the stomach not covered by a membrane. Seen with trisomys 21 and 18. Esophageal Atresia - CORRECT ANSWER Blockage of the esophagus leading to polyhydraminos and an absent stomach on sonogram. Meconium Peritonitis - CORRECT ANSWER Rupture of the fetal bowl leading to meconium leaking into the surrounding areas. Hirschsuprung's Disease - CORRECT ANSWER Disease characterized by a lack of nerves in the fetal bowl. Infantile Polycystic Kidney - CORRECT ANSWER AKA Potter 1. Bilateral renal microcysts. Is a recessive disease. Mulitcystic Dysplastic Kindney - CORRECT ANSWER AKA Potter 2. Unilateral renal cyst of varriable size. Hydronephrosis - CORRECT ANSWER Excess fluid in the kidneys. Posterior Urethral Valve Obstruction - CORRECT ANSWER Urethra is block causing enlarged bladder and hydronephrosis. Only seen in male fetus. Bladder Extrophy - CORRECT ANSWER Urinary bladder is located outside the fetal body. Spina Bifida Occulta - CORRECT ANSWER Splaying of the lamina in the vertebrae with no tissue outside the spine. Spina Bifida Apperta - CORRECT ANSWER Splaying of the lamina in the vertebrae with spinal tissue or meninges protruding outward. Meningocele - CORRECT ANSWER An abnormality associated with spina bifida where the meninges only protrude outside the body. Myelomeningocele - CORRECT ANSWER An abnormality associated with spina bifida where the spinal cord and nerves develop outside the body. Lumbar-Sacral Teratoma - CORRECT ANSWER A benign cystic tumor arising out of the lower back. Achondrogenesis - CORRECT ANSWER Failure of the fetus to produce cartilage. Osteogenesis Imperfecta - CORRECT ANSWER Abnormal bone formation characterized by many fractures especially in the fetal ribs. Rhizomelia - CORRECT ANSWER Shortening of the distal limbs. Micromelia - CORRECT ANSWER Shortening of the limbs. Campomelia - CORRECT ANSWER Bowing of the long bones. Mesomelia - CORRECT ANSWER Shortening of the proximal limbs. Sirenomeila - CORRECT ANSWER Fusion of the lower legs. Polydactyly - CORRECT ANSWER More than the normal amount of digits. Syndactyly - CORRECT ANSWER Fusion of digits. Talipes Equinovarius - CORRECT ANSWER Club foot. Clinodactyly - CORRECT ANSWER Clenched hand and curved digits. Gestational Diabetes - CORRECT ANSWER Increases risk of heart anomalies, caudal regression, and macrosomia. Twin to Twin Transfusion Syndrome - CORRECT ANSWER Syndrome in which one twin receives the blood and nutrients from the other twin causing the regression of one. Acardiac-Acephalic Twin - CORRECT ANSWER Syndrome in which one twin has no heart and no head. Amniotic Band Syndrome - CORRECT ANSWER Syndrome in which the amniotic membrane breaks free and attaches in places to the fetus. Causes amputations. Trisomy 13 - CORRECT ANSWER Patau's syndrome. Associated with holoprosencephaly, IUGR, polyhydraminos, micrognathia, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and proboscis. Trisomy 18 - CORRECT ANSWER Edwards Syndrome. Associated with clenched hand, polyhydraminos, choriod plexus cyst, diaphragmatic hernia, omphalocele. Trisomy 21 - CORRECT ANSWER Down syndrome. Associated with abnormal nuchal fold, abnormal nuchal translucency, cushion defect, club foot, cleft lip, sandal toe, moderator band, and abnormal nasal bone. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome - CORRECT ANSWER Syndrome caused by maternal alcohol intake. Associated with IUGR, microcephaly, microphthalmos. Beckwith-Weideman Syndrome - CORRECT ANSWER Syndrome associated with omphalocele, macroglossia, and giantism. Pentalogy of Cantrell - CORRECT ANSWER Group of anomalies including omphalocele, ectopia cordis and 2 vessels cord. Meckel Gruber Syndrome - CORRECT ANSWER Group of anomalies including encephalocele, polycystic kindey, cleft lip, and polydactyly. Treacher Collins Syndrome - CORRECT ANSWER Associated with micrognathia. VACTEL - CORRECT ANSWER Vacters syndromes. Vertebral, anal, cardial, trachea atresia, esophageal atresia, and limb. Toxoplasmosis - CORRECT ANSWER Toxin carried by cats that causes intracranial calcifications in the fetus. [Show More]
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