Psychology > A-Level Mark Scheme > OCR A LEVEL 2022 PSYCHOLOGY MARK SCHEME -H567-02 PAPER 2-H567/02: Psychological themes through core  (All)

OCR A LEVEL 2022 PSYCHOLOGY MARK SCHEME -H567-02 PAPER 2-H567/02: Psychological themes through core studies

Document Content and Description Below

Question Answer Mark Guidance 1 Outline the procedure used in Experiment 1 of Moray’s study into attention. Features of the procedure: • A short list of simple words was repeatedly pres... ented to one of the participant’s ears whilst they shadowed a prose message presented to the other ear. (The word list was faded in after shadowing had begun, and was equal in intensity to the shadowed message. At the end of the prose passage it was faded out so as to become inaudible as the prose finished.) • The rejected message (word list) was repeated 35 times. • The participant was then asked to report all he could of the content of the rejected message. • S/he was then given a recognition test using similar material, present in neither the list nor the passage, as a control. • The gap between the end of shadowing and the beginning of the recognition test was about 30 seconds. • Use of repeated measures design. 4 1 mark for reference to shadowed (prose) message in one ear 1 mark for reference to rejected (word list) message in other ear 1 mark for recall or recognition task 1 mark for any other relevant detail from the procedure 0 marks – no creditworthy response 2 (a) Briefly describe the sample used in Levine’s study into helping behaviour. Creditworthy features of sample: • 23 • Cities/countries • Over 16’s • Reference to 2 or more cities/countries/continents 2 1 mark for each creditworthy from the list (up to 2). 0 marks – no creditworthy response. H567/02 Mark Scheme June 2022 9 • Exclusions (or inclusions) - people who were physically disabled, very old, carrying heavy packages and so forth (those not fully capable or expected to help) were excluded. • Both men and women • All cities had pop of 230,000 NB Do not credit sampling techniques. 2 (b) Outline one way in which Levine’s study may show sampling bias. Possible answers: • Age biased – as young and very old people were not selected. • Researcher bias - there may have been an unconscious bias in who researchers approached giving an unrepresentative sample. • Culturally biased – too many individualistic cultures studied. • Culturally biased – cities were used to represent the whole country’s culture/rural areas and towns not used. • Culturally biased – sample too small to represent all 196 countries 2 2 marks for identifying a bias in the sample and for explaining its impact. 1 mark for identifying a bias in the sample or for a muddled explanation. 0 marks – no creditworthy response. 3 (a) Explain how Chaney et al’s study into Funhalers relates to the theme of ‘external influences on behaviour’. Example of a 3 mark answer 3 3 marks for a clear answer which; • recognises the influence comes from reinforcement • shows it is external to the children as it relies on incentive toys • shows the behaviour was adherence with an inhaler. H567/02 Mark Scheme June 2022 10 Chaney et al found that children could be influenced through the process of reinforcement (1). They changed their behaviour by using the inhaler more (1) when it was presented as a Funhaler with bells and whistles. The children using and no using the Funhaler clearly had different external influences (1). NB Reinforcement may be referred through use of the term reward(ing) or positive outcomes/consequences. 2 marks for an answer which addresses at least two of the above points. 1 mark for a partial or vague answer which addresses at least one of the above points. 0 marks – no creditworthy response. 3 (b) Outline one strength and one weakness of the method used in Lee et al’s study into lying and truth telling. The candidate is most likely to identify an experiment as the method, and may specifically identify a laboratory or quasi-experiment. Possible strengths: • high level of internal validity/control • ability to reliably establish cause and effect • objectivity • practical/ethical (quasi) Possible weaknesses: • lack of ecological validity/artificial (lab) • lack of construct validity NB Do credit responses where candidates identify selfreport or interviews as the method. Example of a 4 mark answer 4 (2 + 2) 2 marks for a clearly identified and relevant strength which is appropriately applied to the study. 1 mark for identifying a relevant strength either explicitly, or implicitly through application to the study. Plus 2 marks for a clearly identified and relevant weakness which is appropriately applied to the study. 1 mark for identifying a relevant weakness either explicitl, or implicitly through application to the study. 0 marks – no creditworthy response. H567/02 Mark Scheme June 2022 11 A strength Lee et al’s lab experiment is that it was highly controlled (1) so that extraneous variables such as the order in which stories were presented did not affect the DV (1). However, a weakness is the lack of construct validity (1) as for the purpose of measurement, children’s morality was measured by a simple rating scale (1). 3 (c) Explain one issue with validity that arose in Bandura et al’s study into aggressive role models. Possible answers: • Internal validity related to high levels of control in the study. • External validity related to generalisability of findings beyond the study. • Ecological validity related to the artificiality of the set up. • Population validity relating to the representativeness of the study. • Construct validity related to how broadly the DV was measured. Example of 1 mark answer Bandura’s study lacked construct validity. (1) Example of 2 mark answer The study was low in ecological validity (1) because aggression was tested in unnatural conditions in a laboratory (1). 3 3 marks for a clear response which identifies a relevant issue with validity, outlines how/why it arose in the study (context) and demonstrates an understanding of the type of validity in the process. 2 marks for a clear response with two of the above features or for a vague response with all three of the above features. 1 mark for identifying a relevant issue of validity or for some understanding of the concept of validity. 0 marks – no creditworthy response. H567/02 Mark Scheme June 2022 12 Example of 3 mark answer The study had an issue with population validity (1) as it only used a narrow age range of children (1) which means it is difficult to generalise the findings and suggest that all children learn aggression in this way (1). 4 (a) Outline one finding from Freud’s study of Little Hans. Possible answers: • Little Hans’ fear of horses was considered by Freud as a subconscious fear of his father. This because the dark around the mouth of a horse and the blinkers resembled the moustache and glasses worn by his father. He was fearful of his father because he was experiencing the Oedipus complex. • Hans’ fascination with his ‘widdler’ was because he was experiencing the Oedipus complex. • Hans’ daydream about giraffes was a representation of him trying to take his mother away from his father so he could have her to himself – another feature of the Oedipus complex. • Hans’ fantasy of becoming a father linked to his experiencing the Oedipus complex. • Hans’ fantasy about the plumber was interpreted as him now identifying with his father and the final family fantasy was interpreted as the resolution of the Oedipus Complex [Show More]

Last updated: 9 months ago

Preview 1 out of 27 pages

Add to cart

Instant download

document-preview

Buy this document to get the full access instantly

Instant Download Access after purchase

Add to cart

Instant download

Reviews( 0 )

$12.00

Add to cart

Instant download

Can't find what you want? Try our AI powered Search

OR

REQUEST DOCUMENT
50
0

Document information


Connected school, study & course


About the document


Uploaded On

Sep 11, 2023

Number of pages

27

Written in

Seller


seller-icon
QUIZ PRO

Member since 1 year

16 Documents Sold


Additional information

This document has been written for:

Uploaded

Sep 11, 2023

Downloads

 0

Views

 50


$12.00
What is Browsegrades

In Browsegrades, a student can earn by offering help to other student. Students can help other students with materials by upploading their notes and earn money.

We are here to help

We're available through e-mail, Twitter, Facebook, and live chat.
 FAQ
 Questions? Leave a message!

Follow us on
 Twitter

Copyright © Browsegrades · High quality services·