The FDA, Food Safety and Inspection Service, and CDC jointly publish this reference document for regulatory agencies responsible for overseeing food safety in retail outlets: Food Code Food Law F... oodNet Food Regulations The correct answer is A. Every four years, these regulatory agencies release the Food Code. Which of the following financial terms represents current liabilities? Accrued expenses, depreciation Depreciation, retained earnings Retained earnings, accounts payable Accounts payable, accrued expenses The correct answer is D. A balance sheet provides a statement of an organization's assets (ie, current, fixed), liabilities (ie, current, long term), and owner's equity at a given time. Current liabilities (ie, accounts payable, accrued expenses, current mortgage payable) are debts that must be paid within 12 months. Depreciation is a fixed asset. Retained earnings are owner's equity. Anthocyanin in turnips may change to a blue-black or red-brown color if heated excessively in which type of pan? Cast iron Stainless steel Porcelain Aluminum The correct answer is A. Anthocyanin is a water-soluble red to blue pigment. Metals such as cast iron, tin, and sometimes aluminum will turn the anthocyanin pigment to various shades of blue. Therefore, use stainless steel or heat-safe glass for cooking anthocyanin vegetables and fruits and store them in stainless steel or glass containers. What are the estimated kilocalorie needs of a 4-month-old infant who weighs 14 pounds? 509 623 687 724 The correct answer is C. Energy needs are calculated as 108 kcal/kg for infants 6 months of age and younger. For a 14 pound (6.36 kg) infant, 687 kcal is the estimated caloric requirement. When cooking fish, it should reach an internal temperature of: 135°F for 15 seconds. 145°F for 15 seconds. 155°F for 15 seconds. 165°F for 15 seconds. The correct answer is B. The minimum internal temperature to ensure safety for consuming fish is 145°F. A foodservice operation has a 1.93 current ratio. This value indicates to creditors that the foodservice operation most likely will not be able to meet long-term financial obligations. not be able to generate profit in relation to sales. be able to control expenses. be able to pay bills when due. The correct answer is D. Current ratio is calculated by dividing current assets by current liabilities. The resulting number indicates an organization's ability to meet current financial obligations, and therefore, is a measure of bill-paying ability. Creditors use the current ratio to help determine if an organization has sufficient assets to repay debts over the next 12 months. Current ratios that are greater than 1 indicate the organization most likely will be able to pay bills when due and over the next 12 months. This emulsifier is manufactured by splitting a fatty acid off triacylglycerol molecules and is useful in frozen desserts, shortening, and margarine. Lecithin EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) Diglycerides Glycerol The correct answer is C. At high temperatures, triglycerides are capable of rearranging into monoglycerides and diglycerides. Diglycerides are emulsifiers that are used in the food industry to improve texture, stability, volume, softness, aeration, homogenization, and shelf life. In order for a manufacturer to label a food as "healthy," it must contain <3 g fat and <120 mg cholesterol. <480 mg sodium. >2 grams of protein. >3 grams of dietary fiber. The correct answer is B. In order for a manufacturer to label a food as "healthy," it must contain <3 g fat; <1g saturated fat; <480 mg sodium; and <60 mg cholesterol. Which additive would inhibit mold in soda pop? Sorbitol Sodium benzoate Caramel Propyl gallate The correct answer is B. Sodium benzoate is a preservative, bacteriostatic and fungistatic under acidic conditions. It is most widely used in acidic foods such as salad dressings (vinegar), carbonated drinks (carbonic acid), jams and fruit juices (citric acid), pickles (vinegar), and condiments. Which natural colorant might be added to pickles? Acetic acid Calcium chloride Turmeric Tragacanth gum The correct answer is C. Turmeric is added to pickles for flavor and color enhancement. Which agency enforces food safety in a restaurant? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention State or local regulatory authority Food and Drug Administration US Department of Agriculture The correct answer is B. State and local regulatory authorities inspect operations, enforce regulations, and investigate complaints and illnesses. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigates outbreaks of foodborne illness. The Food and Drug Administration issues the Model Food Code. The Department of Agriculture regulates food that crosses state boundaries or involves more than one state. Which pectic substance found in mature fruits loses its ability to form a gel? Pectic acid Pectinic acid Pectin Protopectin The correct answer is B. As fruit ripens, there is maximum protopectin present; thereafter, it breaks down to pectin, pectinic acid, and, finally, pectic acid, and the fruit softens as the adhesive between the cells breaks down. Fruit that is just underripe or just ripe contains the highest level of pectin that the fruit is going to reach; past that, the pectin levels will decrease. What is the minimum internal cooking temperature of shell eggs that are hot-held for service? 165°F 155°F 145°F 135°F The correct answer is B. Shell eggs that will be served immediately are cooked to 145°F, but shell eggs hot-held for service are cooked to 155°F. Which additive might be useful as a sequestrant to maintain whiteness of canned potatoes? Disodium inosinate Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) Guar gum Dipotassium phosphate The correct answer is B. A class of food additives known as sequestrants can be added to food to react with trace metals in foods, forming tightly bound complexes (sequestered), thereby preventing the decomposition of the food. The sodium and calcium salts of EDTA are common sequestrants in many kinds of foods and beverages. To comply with Joint Commission certification standards, who should perform documentation of nutrition screening? Registered dietitian nutritionists on staff at the hospital Registered dietitian nutritionists or nutrition and dietetic technicians registered Staff selected at discretion of the hospital Food and nutrition services department managers The correct answer is C. The hospital determines who will conduct the screening and document results to meet standard DSCT.5 EP.4.a of the Joint Commission Standards. Fruits and vegetables that have not been blanched prior to freezing are more susceptible to which kind of deterioration? Fermentation Browning Biological spoilage Freezer burn The correct answer is B. Blanching slows or stops the enzyme action. Enzymes help vegetables grow and mature. After maturation, however, the enzymes cause loss of quality, flavor, color, texture, and nutrients. For a food to be labeled "healthy," what must be true for each serving? It provides at least 25% DRV for vitamins A and C. It contains no more than 75 mg cholesterol. It contains no more than 140 mg sodium. It meets standards for low-fat and saturated-fat foods. The correct answer is D. Per food labeling guidelines, a food cannot be labeled as "healthy" unless it meets the standards for low fat and saturated fat of less than 3 g of fat per serving. Which food would be most likely to contain propyl gallate? Gelatin dessert Nonfat dry milk Frozen pork sausage Canned tomatoes The correct answer is C. Propyl gallate is an antioxidant that is added to foods containing oils and fats to prevent oxidation. Oxidation is most likely to occur in products that contain fat, including sausage. Which of the following does the Braden Scale measure? Risk factors that may lead to undernutrition Medical conditions that affect the ability to feed oneself Risk assessment for pressure ulcers Appetite stimulants in the patient or client's environment The correct answer is C. The Braden scale, an assessment tool for predicting the risk of pressure ulcers, is based on the total scores of the six criteria—sensory perception, moisture, activity, mobility, nutrition, and friction. The primary safeguard of foodservice quality is adherence to_____. menus purchase orders specifications HACCP standards The correct answer is C. A specification is a concise description of the quality, size, and weight or count factors desired for a particular item. The purchasing agent, the purveyors of the company, and the company's receiving clerk should each have a set of the established specifications. A purchase specification is a concise description of the quality, size, and weight or count factors desired for a particular item. Management establishes standard purchase specifications based on a thorough study of the menu needs and merchandising and pricing policies. The purchasing agent, the purveyors of the company, and the company's receiving clerk should each have a set of the established specifications. Interpersonal communication models encourage dietetics practitioners to respond in certain ways. Which of the following approaches best describes the preferred response? Evaluative rather than descriptive Fixed rather than flexible Neutral rather than emphatic Problem-oriented rather than manipulative The correct answer is C. Dietetics practitioners do not want to project judgmental cues or communicate unintentional roadblocks. This may interfere with relationship building. A neutral approach would, therefore, be preferred. Which of the following elements is part of the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) framework for health care quality? Institution-focused Equitable Responsive to change Focused on choosing a process to improve The correct answer is B. The IOM defines health care quality as care that is patient-centered, equitable (no disparities), timely, safe, effective, and efficient. Selection of a process that needs improvement is a component of a quality improvement program. ________________ describes the linking together of free fatty acids during frying, which makes the oil more viscous and prone to foaming. Polymerization Smoke point Flashing Hydrolytic rancidity The correct answer is A. Polymerization increases oil viscosity, decreases oil quality, and leaves a sticky film on fryers, manufacturing equipment, and front-of-house surfaces. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends breastfed infants receive vitamin D supplementation of 200 IU per day. 400 IU per day. 600 IU per day. 1000 IU per day. The correct answer is B. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends supplementing breastfed infants with 400 IU vitamin D per day beginning soon after birth, as they generally do not get enough. Infants taking in less than 1 liter of infant formula per day should also be supplemented. American Academy of Pediatrics. Vitamin D Supplementation in Infants. March 2010. Available at: https://www.aap.org/en-us/about-the-aap/aap-press-room/pages/Vitamin-D-Supplementation-for-Infants.aspx Accessed December 10, 2016. _______________ describes a process used to make fats and oils more solid at room temperature. Cold pressing Winterizing Polymerization Hydrogenation The correct answer is D. Hydrogenation is the process of adding hydrogen atoms to carbon atoms. It is most often used in food production to turn oils containing unsaturated fats into those containing saturated fats. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth chart that is used to determine if a child is underweight or overweight plots height for age. length for age. weight for age. weight for stature. The correct answer is D. Weight for stature charts determine underweight and overweight and are not based on age. Charney P, Malone A. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Pocket Guide to Pediatric Nutrition Assessment. 3rd ed. Chicago: IL: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics; 2015. For a food to be labeled "light" or "lite," how many calories can it contain? At least 25% fewer calories than the regular food Less than 5 calories One-third fewer calories than the regular food No more than 40 calories The correct answer is C The food labeling law defines "light" or "lite" as 1/3 fewer calories than the regular food. A general rule for appropriate portion sizes for toddlers and preschool children is to offer 1 Tbsp of each food per meal for each year of the child's age. ¼ to ½ cup of each of three foods per meal. 2 Tbsp of each food per meal for each year of the child's age. ½ of the adult portion. The correct answer is A. Toddlers and preschool children should be given 1 Tbsp of each food for each year of age at meals. Which area in a kitchen usually has the least amount of light? Dry-storage Utensil-storage Preparation Inside reach-in refrigerator The correct answer is A. Dry storage needs a minimum of 10 foot-candles. Utensil-storage and inside reach-in refrigerators need a minimum of 20 foot-candles. Preparation areas need a minimum of 50 foot-candles. Which of the following statements is true regarding the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC)? The CAC is funded by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The CAC develops international standards and codes to promote growth of industry. The United States is required by international law to abide by Codex standards. The Codex lacks a standard for labeling of prepackaged foods. The correct answer is A. The CAC is funded by the FAO and the WHO. The CAC develops international standards and codes to protect consumers. The Codex maintains a standard for labeling of prepackaged foods but the United States is not required by international law to abide by Codex standards. FAO/WHO. Codex Alimentarius. Available at: http://www.fao.org/fao-who-codexalimentarius/en/. Accessed December 7, 2016. Which of the following is an element of the Chronic Care Model (CCM)? Inclusive team management Comprehensive data collection Clinical information systems Employee motivation at all levels The correct answer is C. The Chronic Care Model encompasses care provided in the community and by health systems. Clinical information systems are part of the health systems component of the CCM. Motivation at all levels, inclusive team management, and comprehensive data collection are not specified elements of the CCM. Improving Chronic Illness Care. The Chronic Care Model. Available at: http://www.improvingchroniccare.org/index.php?p=The_Chronic_Care_Model&s=2. Accessed December 27, 2016. What is the primary regulatory agency responsible for the safety of imported fish? Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) United States Department of International Commerce (USDIC) The correct answer is B. Each of these entities governs aspects of the food supply, but the FDA regulates safety of imported food products. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, a rare condition that presents with extremely high blood glucose levels, elevated serum osmolality, extreme dehydration, and low amounts of ketones, usually occurs in preterm infants. obese adolescents. adults aged 18 to 35 with hypertension. persons older than 65 with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The correct answer is D. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state often occurs when people with type 2 diabetes have an infection or forget to take their medicines. Because the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in the aging population, who may be more likely to forget to take their medications and experience underlying infections, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state occurs more often in seniors. Consultant Dietitians in Health Care Facilities Dietetic Practice Group. Nutrition Care of the Older Adult. 2nd ed. Chicago: American Dietetic Organization; 2004:43. The Joint Commission outlines patient safety goals annually. Which of the following are patient safety goals in an outpatient setting? Use medications safely, identify patients correctly, prevent infections Follow written safety procedures, prevent falls, individualize care Manage cases individually, record patient progress, encourage follow-up Demonstrate individual practitioner competence, administer medications accurately, post all safety procedures The correct answer is A. Correct identification of patients using at least two patient identifiers decreases the risk for wrong-patient errors. National patient safety goals also include prevention of infections. The Joint Commission. 2017 Ambulatory Care National Patient Safety Goals. Available at: https://www.jointcommission.org/assets/1/6/NPSG_Chapter_HAP_Jan2017.pdf. Accessed December 5, 2016. When performing a nutritional assessment on a child, head circumference should be measured up to the age of 12 months. 18 months. 24 months. 36 months. The correct answer is D. It is important to measure adequate head growth, to indicate brain development, up to 3 years of age. Charney P, Malone A. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Pocket Guide to Pediatric Nutrition Assessment. 3rd ed. Chicago: IL: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics; 2015. Which of the following groups of whole grains is gluten free? Spelt, rye, oats, quinoa, kamut, corn Amaranth, quinoa, millet, teff, buckwheat Bulgur, durum, farina, malt, orzo Corn, rye, seitan, kamut, barley The correct answer is B. Gluten is a protein found in wheat, rye, barley, and triticale, which is a cross between wheat and rye. Thus, a gluten-free diet would exclude these grains. Five whole grains that are gluten free are amaranth, millet, teff, buckwheat, and quinoa. NIH National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney diseases. Celiac Disease. Page last updated January 27, 2012. Available at: http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/digestive-diseases/celiac-disease/Pages/facts.aspx#treatment. Accessed March 28, 2015. Thalheimer JC. Gluten-free whole grains. Today's Dietitian. 2014;16(10):18. Available at: http://www.todaysdietitian.com/newarchives/100614p18.shtml. Accessed December 7, 2016. During their peak growth spurt, adolescent males are at greatest risk for a deficiency of protein. copper. iron. phosphorus. The correct answer is C. Iron needs increase at a higher rate for adolescent males for development of lean body mass. Charney P, Malone A. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Pocket Guide to Pediatric Nutrition Assessment. 3rd ed. Chicago: IL: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics; 2015. Which agency is responsible for reviewing safety information related to food ingredients and food packaging? Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) International Food Information Council (IFIC) Food Safety Alliance for Packaging (FSAP) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) The correct answer is A. Each of these entities addresses different food regulations, but CFSAN is the agency that reviews safety information for ingredients and packaging. US Food and Drug Administration. How US FDA's GRAS Notification Program Works. Published December 2005/January 2006. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodIngredientsPackaging/GenerallyRecognizedasSafeGRAS/ucm083022.htm. Accessed December 7, 2016. The loss of muscle mass that occurs with aging is termed: cachexia. sarcopenia. dystrophy. myotonia. The correct answer is B. Sarcopenia is the term for loss of muscle mass. Cachexia refers to wasting; dystrophy refers to defective nutrition and metabolism, and myotonia refers to muscle spasms. With regard to staff members having and consuming food and beverage items in patient care areas, Joint Commission standards require that all food and beverages be consumed in break areas. do not specifically address this issue. prohibit food and drinks if contamination might occur. require that an environment or care risk assessment be performed to address potential patient safety issues. The correct answer is B. The Joint Commission standards do not specifically address the issue of food and drink being present and/or consumed in patient care areas. However, the Joint Commission does require compliance with applicable laws and regulations as well as the institution's own policies and procedures; thus it is possible that the organization per se or state or local laws would prohibit food and drink in clinical areas even though Joint Commission does not prohibit this directly. Joint Commission. Risk Assessment: Staff Food and Drink. Available at: http://www.jointcommission.org/standards_information/jcfaqdetails.aspx?StandardsFaqId=87&ProgramId=47. Accessed December 23, 2016. The average contribution margin (CM) per item on a menu is $6.74 and the menu mix (MM) percentage that is considered to be high is 12. A menu item has a CM of $6.93 and a MM percentage of 11. What menu engineering term would be used to describe this menu item? Plowhorse Puzzle Dog Star The correct answer is D. CM indicates profitability, whereas MM determines an item's popularity relative to other menu items. Puzzles are items that are profitable but not very popular. Plowhorses are items that are popular but not very profitable. Stars are items that are both popular and profitable. Dogs are items that are neither popular nor profitable. In a community needs assessment report, the passage "...the southeast region of Essex County, including the adjoining municipalities of Kardon, Greenwalt, and Addison...," is an example of the target population. the lead organizations. the definition of the community. the stakeholders. The correct answer is C. This passage defines the community. Community can be defined by not only common interest and values but also geographic boundaries. Which of the following are the correct CDC growth charts to use in a child care center for assessing the growth of a 6-year-old boy? Weight-for-age and length-for-age charts Weight-for-age and stature-for-age charts Stature-for-age and weight-for-stature charts Length-for-age and weight-for-stature charts The correct answer is B. Weight-for-stature charts are used in 2- to 5-year-olds; length-for-age and weight-for-age are used in infants and toddlers from birth to 36 months. Weight-for-age and stature-for-age charts are used in children aged 2 to 20 years. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. 2000 CDC Growth Charts: United States. Updated September 9, 2010. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts/. Accessed December 5, 2016. Which of the following is NOT an acceptable way to thaw food? In a refrigerator at a product temperature of 45°F or lower At room temperature for a maximum time of 2 hours Under running potable water at a temperature of 70˚F or lower In a microwave as long as the food will be cooked within 24 hours The correct answer is B. If frozen food is exposed to the temperature danger zone during thawing, any foodborne microorganisms present will begin to grow. When thawing food under potable water, food cannot go above 41°F for longer than 4 hours. This includes the time it takes to thaw the food plus the time to prep or cool it. Which statement best describes the P component of the PDSA performance improvement model? Determine how changes will be implemented Implement the intervention Determine the impact of the intervention Implement and monitor the plan he correct answer is A. PDSA, or Plan-Do-Study-Act, is an iterative, four-stage problem-solving model used for improving a process or carrying out change. The P component of PDSA includes planning how changes will be implemented. Actual implementation of the changes is included in D, determining the impact of the change is part of S (study). A, or act, includes reflecting on the plan and the outcomes. Of the following foodborne microorganisms, which of the following is considered a parasite? Shigella Staphylococcus aureus Hepatitis A Giardia duodenalis The correct answer is D. Giardia duodenalis is the only parasite among all options listed. Hepatitis A is a virus. Shigella and staphylococcus aureus are considered bacteria. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts are appropriate for healthy infants. children with cerebral palsy. children with Down syndrome. premature infants weighing less than 1500 g at birth. The correct answer is A. It is appropriate to use the CDC's charts for plotting the growth of healthy US infants. Premature infants and children with Down syndrome or cerebral palsy require special growth considerations. Charney P, Malone A. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Pocket Guide to Pediatric Nutrition Assessment. 3rd ed. Chicago: IL: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics; 2015. The greatest number of employee injuries in kitchens is from burns. contusions. sharp knives. slippery floors. The correct answer is D. Falls on wet or greasy floors in a kitchen will cause more injuries and more severe injuries leading to potential workman's compensation claims than burns or cuts. Martin J, Oakley C. Managing Child Nutrition Programs - Leadership For Excellence. 2nd ed. Gaithersburg, MD: Jones & Bartlett; 2008:643. Nipple feeding is likely to be successful if it is attempted once an infant reaches a gestational age of 28 weeks. 30 weeks. 32 weeks. 34 weeks The correct answer is C. Prior to 32 weeks gestational age, an infant cannot coordinate sucking, swallowing, and breathing. Thus, waiting until the infant reaches 32 weeks gestational age is recommended. US Department of Agriculture. Development of Feeding Skills. In: Infant Nutrition and Feeding. Available at: https://wicworks.fns.usda.gov/wicworks/Topics/FG/Chapter2_DevelopmentofFeedingSkills.pdf. Accessed December 21, 2016. . Which of the following statements best describes the similarities between the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)? Both programs are regulated by the USDA, provide referrals to health care and other social services providers, and are entitlement programs. Both programs are regulated by the USDA, contain income eligibility guidelines, and are entitlement programs. Both programs are regulated by the USDA, contain income eligibility guidelines, are entitlement programs, and recipients must have a documented medical or nutritional risk. Both programs are regulated by the USDA and contain income eligibility guidelines. The correct answer is D. Both programs are regulated by the USDA and they both impose eligibility guidelines, but WIC is not an entitlement program, and SNAP eligibility isn't based on nutritional risk; instead eligibility is based on family income. What term is used to indicate the monetary value of a property or business beyond any amounts owed? Total assets Owner's equity Long-term liabilities Gross profit The correct answer is B. Total assets are anything owned by the company including liabilities. Gross profit is the difference between net sales and the cost of the items or services sold. Monetary value of a property or business beyond debts is called owner's equity. A report indicates that survivors of a massive earthquake who are 24 months of age or younger have an RR for cholera of 3.3. This means that children who are 24 months of age or younger who are living in an earthquake devastated-area are approximately 30% more likely to develop cholera than children of this age who live outside the post-earthquake area. have more than three times greater risk of developing cholera than children of this age who live outside the post-earthquake area. have approximately 30% lower risk of developing cholera than children of this age who live outside the post-earthquake area. are one-third as likely to develop cholera as children of this age who live outside the post-earthquake area. The correct answer is B. The epidemiologic term "relative risk," or RR, is defined as follows: if RR > 1.0, the exposed group (in this case, children living in the earthquake area) are at a greater risk of a disease than the unexposed group. You are developing a heart disease prevention program for a worksite and need to locate several nutrition research articles. The best database to use is: PubMed Merck Index Online Scopus The Cochrane Library The correct answer is A. PubMed is the database of choice when it comes to the health sciences. The Scopus database is very large and has search engine limitations; Cochrane includes systematic reviews for evidence-based practice; and the Merck index is an encyclopedia of chemical substances. Which health education planning model demonstrates that lasting behavior change is voluntary and must include input from the client? PATCH The 10-step Planning Model PRECEDE-PROCEED CDCynergy The correct answer is C. Each of the options listed are planning models, but the distinguishing characteristic of the PRECEDE-PROCEED model is that behavior change is voluntary. Edelstein S. Nutrition in public health: a handbook for developing programs and services. 3rd ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett; 2010. A handwashing station must be equipped with the following items: Running hot and cold water, soap, single-use paper towels, waste container, and signage indicating that employees should wash their hands before returning to work. Running hot water, soap, a warm-air dryer, waste container, and signage indicating that employees should wash their hands before returning to work. Running hot and cold water, soap, hand sanitizer, towel to dry hands, waste container, and signage indicating that employees should wash their hands before returning to work. Running hot water, hand sanitizer, single-use paper towels, waste container, and signage indicating that employees should wash their hands before returning to work. The correct answer is A. There are five components to a handwashing station: hot and cold running water, soap, a means to dry hands, waste container, and signage indicating employees are required to wash hands before returning to work. A community nutritionist can best elicit opinions as to why a particular nutrition program is not working by forming a focus group. examining the results of the pre-test and post-test. sharing the problem with similar agencies. redefining the target population. The correct answer is A. A focus group would allow the nutritionist to solicit opinions from members of a target group regarding perceived needs and barriers, or even why certain programs aren't working. Edelstein S. Nutrition in public health: a handbook for developing programs and services. 3rd ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett; 2010. A manager who encourages qualified people to apply for existing or anticipated job openings is performing what act? Selection Recruitment Human resource planning Development The correct answer is B. Recruitment is the process of locating and encouraging potential applicants to apply for a job opening. Selection is the process of comparing applicant knowledge, skills, and abilities to those required of a position and choosing the applicant most qualified. Human resource planning is designed to ensure that the organization's labor requirements are met and involves both forecasting staffing needs and analyzing labor market conditions. Development refers to the process of improving the technical, human, and conceptual skills of employees. Gregoire MB, Spears MC. Foodservice Organizations: A Managerial and Systems Approach. 9th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson; 2016. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans are primarily developed and published by the executive branch of the government under what departments? Agriculture and Education Housing and Urban Development and Agriculture Education and Health and Human Services Agriculture and Health and Human Services The correct answer is D. The Health and Human Services Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion takes a leadership role in developing the guidelines. The USDA coordinates and supports the review and dissemination of the government's recommendations. What toxin is commonly linked to tuna, bonito, mackerel, and mahimahi? Anisakis simplex Vibro vulnificus Histamine Ciguatoxin The correct answer is C. Histamine is a toxin commonly linked to tuna, bonito, mackerel, and mahimahi. Anisakis simplex is a parasite commonly linked with cod, halibut, mackerel, and pacific salmon. Vibrio vulnificus is a bacteria commonly linked to oysters from contaminated water. Ciguatoxin is a toxin commonly linked to barracuda, grouper, jacks, snapper. What decision-making technique focuses on the highest gains with the smallest amount of losses, regardless of what the competitor does? Game theory Simulation Artificial Intelligence Queuing theory The correct answer is A. A variety of decision-making techniques have been developed. Game theory introduces a competitive note to decision-making by bringing into a situation the actions of an opponent. The objective is to obtain the highest gains with the smallest amount of losses, regardless of what a competitor does. Simulation utilizes devices for imitating real-life occurrences and studying their properties, behaviors, and operating characteristics (eg, virtual reality). Artificial intelligence attempts to duplicate the thought processes of experienced decision makers (eg, expert systems). Queuing balances the cost of waiting lines against the cost of preventing them by expanding facilities. We have an expert-written solution to this problem! The indicator head of a bimetallic stemmed thermometer ranges from 32˚F to 212˚F. 32˚F to 220˚F. 0˚F to 220˚F. 0˚F to 212˚F. The correct answer is C. The indicator must register temperatures below 32˚F to accommodate incoming frozen food shipments and above 212˚F to accommodate hot holdings. Which of the following is true about cutting boards? Only synthetic cutting boards are ever allowed to be used. Only wooden cutting boards are ever allowed to be used. Wooden cutting boards should be made from hardwood such as maple or oak. It is permissible to use the same cutting board for ready-to-eat and raw foods as long as you use different sides of the cutting board. The correct answer is C. Many jurisdictions allow the use of either wooden or synthetic cutting boards, but wooden cutting boards must be made from nonabsorbent hardwood so the odor or taste of food does not transfer. Separate cutting boards should be used for raw and ready-to-eat food to prevent cross-contamination no matter which type of cutting board is used. National Restaurant Association Education Foundation. ServSafe Coursebook. 5th ed. Chicago: NRA; 2008:11-17. The local WIC nutritionist has collected considerable data about pregnant women and infants in her community. Which of the following would be correctly categorized as qualitative data? The number of live births per 1,000 deliveries The mean age of women with documented cases of gestational diabetes A graph of the gestational ages and birthweights of all infants born alive A tally that notes the reasons that pregnant women report for omitting dairy products from their diets The correct answer is D. Qualitative data are reported or derived from interviews with key informants who are knowledgeable about the community. Number of live births, mean age, and gestational age and birthweights are all quantitative measures. In what marketing lifestyle group are consumers categorized if they are young, impulsive, and seek variety, excitement, and risky activities? Innovators Makers Achievers Experiencers The correct answer is D. Marketing segmentation categorizes consumers based on certain characteristics. Experiencers are described as young, impulsive variety-seekers. Innovators are described as having high income and high self-esteem. Makers tend to be lower income, have a focus on self-sufficiency, and are family oriented. Achievers are successful individuals who also tend to have higher incomes. What name is given to standard methods of accounting and presentation of financial statements that provide comparability of financial data within an industry? Public accounting Internal auditing Uniform systems of accounts Cost accounting The correct answer is C. Public accounting may include work with clients to issue educated tax advice. Other public accounting practices are used to provide advice on business decisions and transactions or insurance and benefits. Public accounting encompasses a wide range of accounting roles. Internal auditing examines a company's financial records, ensuring their quality and legality. Uniform systems of accounts represent standard methods of accounting within an industry. In developing a community nutrition intervention, a logic model graphically shows how various elements of planning lead to intended outcomes. provides a detailed budget that addresses various types of costs of the project. is used primarily for planning rather than implementation or evaluation. illustrates the underlying educational philosophies used in the intervention. The correct answer is A. The logic model is a graphic that shows inputs, outputs, and outcomes or impact. It is used in program planning, implementation, and evaluation. Which of the following is a current asset? Accounts receivable China Small equipment Retained earnings The correct answer is A. Current assets are those that are liquid or can easily be converted to cash. China and small equipment cannot be quickly converted to cash. Retained earnings are the part of income that is set aside by the company instead of being distributed to shareholders. Accounts receivable represent current assets. Which of the following nutrients is essential for growth and sexual maturation in adolescents? Calcium Selenium Zinc Iron The correct answer is C. Zinc deficiency is the hallmark sign of growth retardation and sexual immaturity. A preventive cardiology clinic sees patients who come to their clinic without initial coronary heart disease. Five years after the clinic opened, the physician conducts a chart review of these patients to compare the development of coronary heart disease among two groups: all patients and patients who were referred to the registered dietitian nutritionist. This is a retrospective cohort study. correlational study. prospective cohort study. prevalence study. The correct answer is A. A retrospective cohort study looks at data from the past on a group of people after they have developed the outcome of interest. A prospective cohort study follows a group of people before any of the subjects have developed the outcome of interest. Shell eggs should be stored at or below 32⁰F. 41⁰F. 45⁰F. 50⁰F. The correct answer is C. Shell eggs are the only food stored at an air temperature of 45⁰F or lower. Other cold foods are stored at 41⁰F or lower. To avoid contracting Listeria monocytogenes, pregnant women should avoid unpasteurized milk and cheese. any processed meats. large ocean fish. unwashed fruits and vegetables. The correct answer is A. Listeria can be killed with pasteurization. Any unpasteurized products, including milk and cheese, should not be consumed by pregnant women. Which of the following financial terms includes accumulated depreciation? Fixed assets Owner's equity Liability Gross profit The correct answer is A. Accumulated depreciation is the total depreciation of an asset up to a given date, which is subtracted from the original cost of the item. Accumulated depreciation is included in an organization's fixed assets. [Show More]
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