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NCLEX-RN Practice Quiz Test Bank #10 (75 Questions)

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NCLEX-RN Practice Quiz Test Bank #10 (75 Questions) 1. 1. Question The nurse should visit which of the following clients first? o A. The client with diabetes with a blood glucose of 95mg/dL o B. The c... lient with hypertension being maintained on Lisinopril o C. The client with chest pain and a history of angina o D. The client with Raynaud’s disease Incorrect Correct Answer: C. The client with chest pain and a history of angina The client with chest pain should be seen first because this could indicate a myocardial infarction. Despite many advances in treatment, acute MI still carries a mortality rate of 5-30%; the majority of deaths occur prior to arrival to the hospital. In addition, within the first year after an MI, there is an additional mortality rate of 5% to 12%. The overall prognosis depends on the extent of heart muscle damage and ejection fraction. • Option A: The client in answer A has blood glucose within normal limits. The diagnosis of T1DM is usually through a characteristic history supported by elevated serum glucose levels (fasting glucose greater than 126 mg/dL, random glucose over 200 mg/dL, or hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c exceeding 6.5%) with or without antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and insulin. • Option B: The client in this option is maintained on blood pressure medication. Pharmacological therapy consists of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), diuretics (usually thiazides), calcium channel blockers (CCBs), and beta-blockers (BBs), which are instituted taking into account age, race, and comorbidities such as presence of renal dysfunction, LV dysfunction, heart failure, and cerebrovascular disease. JNC-8, ACC, and ESC/ ESH have their separate recommendations for pharmacological management. • Option D: The client in answer D is in no distress. In Raynaud phenomenon, blood-flow restriction occurs during cold temperatures and emotional stress. Specifically, in Raynaud phenomenon, there is vasoconstriction of the digital arteries and cutaneous arterioles. 2. 2. Question A client with cystic fibrosis is taking pancreatic enzymes. The nurse should administer this medication: • A. Once per day in the morning • B. Three times per day with meals • C. Once per day at bedtime • D. Four times per day Incorrect Correct Answer: B. Three times per day with meals Pancreatic enzymes should be given with meals for optimal effects. These enzymes assist the body in digesting needed nutrients. Chronic, supportive therapy for patients with CF includes regular pancreatic enzymes, fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K), mucolytics, bronchodilators, antibiotics, and anti-inflammatory agents. • Option A: A new class of medications known as CFTR modulator therapies is designed to correct the dysfunction by improving production, intracellular processing, or function of the CFTR protein caused by the mutated gene. Each medication is targeted at a specific dysfunction caused by a specific gene mutation. • Option C: Individuals with CF are encouraged to consume a high-fat diet with supplemental fat-soluble vitamins to compensate for malabsorption. Additionally, patients living with CF are encouraged to consume a high-calorie diet to maintain a healthy weight and combat chronic inflammation and frequent infections that are commonly encountered. • Option D: According to the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, women should consume 2500 to 3000 calories a day, while men should consume 3000 to 3700 calories a day. Those living in hot climates or who participate in activities that cause sweating are encouraged to consume additional sodium in their diet. 3. 3. Question Cataracts result in the opacity of the crystalline lens. Which of the following best explains the functions of the lens? • A. The lens controls stimulation of the retina. • B. The lens orchestrates eye movement. • C. The lens focuses light rays on the retina. • D. The lens magnifies small objects. Incorrect Correct Answer: C. The lens focuses light rays on the retina. The lens allows light to pass through the pupil and focus light on the retina. The lens is a curved structure in the eye that bends light and focuses it for the retina to help you see images clearly. The crystalline lens, a clear disk behind the iris, is flexible and changes shape to help you see objects at varying distances. • Option A: Retinal tissue is stimulated by light but also responds to mechanical disturbances. Flashing lights usually are caused by separation of the posterior vitreous. As the vitreous gel separates from the retina, it stimulates the retinal tissue mechanically, resulting in the release of phosphenes and the sensation of light. • Option B: Because only a small portion of the retina, the fovea, is actually employed for distinct vision, it is vitally important that the motor apparatus governing the direction of gaze be extremely precise in its operation, and rapid. • Option D: The lens works much like a camera lens, bending and focusing light to produce a clear image. The crystalline lens is a convex lens that creates an inverted image focused on the retina. The brain flips the image back to normal to create what you see around you. In a process called accommodation, the elasticity of the [Show More]

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