CMQ/OE Exam 70 Questions with Verified Answers A-B-C analysis - CORRECT ANSWER A systematic collection and analysis of the behavior observed of an individual or a work group for the purpose of dete... rmining the cause of specific behaviors. acceptable quality limit (AQL) - CORRECT ANSWER The quality level that is the worst tolerable process average when a continuing series of lots is submitted for acceptance sampling. acceptance sampling - CORRECT ANSWER Inspection of a sample from a lot to decide whether to accept or not accept that lot. There are two types: attributes sampling and variables sampling. In attributes sampling, the presence or absence of a characteristic is noted in each of the units inspected. In variables sampling, the numerical magnitude of a characteristic is measured and recorded for each inspected unit; this involves reference to a continuous scale of some kind. acceptance sampling plan - CORRECT ANSWER Specific plan that indicates the sampling sizes and the associated acceptance or nonacceptance criteria to be used. In attributes sampling, for example, there are single, double, multiple, sequential, chain, and skip-lot sampling plans. In variables sampling, there are single, double, and sequential sampling plans. For detailed descriptions of these plans, see ANSI/ISO/ASQ A35342. accreditation - CORRECT ANSWER Certification, by a duly recognized body, of the facilities, capability, objectivity, competence, and integrity of an agency, service, or operational group or individual to provide the specific service or operation needed. For example, the Registrar Accreditation Board (U.S.) accredits those organizations that register companies to the ISO 9000 series standards. accuracy - CORRECT ANSWER A characteristic of measurement that addresses how lose observed value is to the true value. It answers the question, "Is it right?" ACSI - CORRECT ANSWER The American Customer Satisfaction Index is an economic indicator, a cross-industry measure of the satisfaction of U.S. customers with the quality of the goods and services available to them-both those goods and services produced within the United States and those provided as imports from foreign firms that have substantial market shares or dollar sales. action plan - CORRECT ANSWER The detailed plan to implement the actions needed to achieve strategic goals and objectives (similar to, but not as detailed as a project plan). active listening - CORRECT ANSWER Listening closely to what others are saying (for example, rather than what you think they're saying or what you want to say back to them). activity-based management - CORRECT ANSWER Managing with an accounting system (activity- based costing) that allocates costs to products based on resources employed to produce the product. ad hoc team - CORRECT ANSWER See temporary team ADDIE - CORRECT ANSWER An instructional design model (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation). adult learning principles - CORRECT ANSWER Key principles of how adults learn that impact how education and training of adults should be designed. affinity diagram - CORRECT ANSWER A management and planning tool used to organize ideas into natural groupings in a way that stimulates new, creative ideas. Also known as the KJ method. agile approach - CORRECT ANSWER Means to change rapidly to meet changing customer and business direction. Also see lean approach. AIAG - CORRECT ANSWER Automotive Industry Action Group. alignment - CORRECT ANSWER Action taken to ensure that a process or activity allows traceability from an action level upward to support the organization's strategic goals and objectives. alliance - CORRECT ANSWER An alliance can be the first step toward a partnership. See partnership/alliance. alpha risk - CORRECT ANSWER Type 1 error; rejecting a process or lot when it is acceptable. Also see producer's risk. analogies - CORRECT ANSWER A technique used to generate new ideas by translating concepts from one application to another. analysis of variance (ANOVA) - CORRECT ANSWER A basic statistical technique for analyzing experimental data. It subdivides the total variation of a data set into meaningful component parts associated with specific sources of variation order to test a hypothesis on the parameters of the model or to estimate analytical thinking - CORRECT ANSWER Breaking down a problem or situation into discrete parts to understand how each part contributes to the whole. AND - CORRECT ANSWER activity network diagram. A management and planning tool used to diagram the sequential relationships of events or processes or deliverables. The critical path method (CPM) and the program evaluation review technique (PERT) are derived from the arrow diagram. andon board - CORRECT ANSWER A visual device (usually lights) displaying status alerts that can easily be seen by those who should respond. AOQ - CORRECT ANSWER Average outgoing quality. AOQL - CORRECT ANSWER Average outgoing quality limit. APICS - CORRECT ANSWER American Production and Inventory Control Society. appraisal cost - CORRECT ANSWER Costs incurred to determine the degree of conformance to quality requirements. AQL - CORRECT ANSWER See acceptable quality limit. AS9100 - CORRECT ANSWER An international quality management standard for the aeronautics industry embracing the ISO 9001 standard. ASME - CORRECT ANSWER American Society of Mechanical Engineers. ASQ - CORRECT ANSWER American Society for Quality, a society of individual and organizational members dedicated to the ongoing development, advancement, and promotion of quality concepts, principles, and technologies. assessment - CORRECT ANSWER An estimate or determination of the significance, importance, or value of something. ASTD - CORRECT ANSWER American Society for Training and Development. ASTM - CORRECT ANSWER American Society for Testing and Materials. attribute data - CORRECT ANSWER Does/does not exist data. The control charts based on attribute data include fraction defective chart, number of affected units chart, count chart, count-per-unit chart, quality score chart, and demerit chart. audit - CORRECT ANSWER A planned, independent, and documented assessment to determine whether agreed-on requirements are being met. Common types of audits are of the quality management system, processes, products, and services. When an audit is to check on conformance to a standard, specifications, contract terms, or regulations, it may be called a compliance audit. audit program - CORRECT ANSWER The organized structure, commitment, schedules, and documented methods used to plan and perform audits. audit scope - CORRECT ANSWER The depth or extent and boundaries within which the audit will be conducted. audit team - CORRECT ANSWER The group of trained individuals conducting an audit under the direction of a team leader, relevant to a particular system, product, process, service, contract, project, or standard. audit types - CORRECT ANSWER "Internal" or "first party" (organization being audited by itself), "external" or "second party" (an organization conducting an audit of a supplier, customer, or other company), and "external" or "third party" (audit conducted by a registrar or another party). auditee - CORRECT ANSWER The individual or organization being audited. auditor - CORRECT ANSWER An individual or organization carrying out an audit. autocratic management - CORRECT ANSWER Autocratic managers are concerned with developing an efficient workplace and often have little concern for people (theory X assumptions about people). They typically make decisions without input from subordinates. These managers rely on their positional power. autonomation - CORRECT ANSWER Use of specially equipped automated machines capable of detecting a defect in a single part, stopping the process, and signaling for assistance. See jidoka. availability - CORRECT ANSWER The ability of a process or equipment to be in a state to perform its designated function under stated conditions at a given time. Availability can be expressed by the ratio: Uptime /Downtime average - CORRECT ANSWER The sum of all the pertinent data divided by the number of observations collected. Also see mean. average chart - CORRECT ANSWER A control chart in which the subgroup average, X-bar, is used to evaluate the stability of the process level. average outgoing quality (AOQ) - CORRECT ANSWER The expected average quality level outgoing product for a given value of incoming product quality. average outgoing quality limit (AOQL) - CORRECT ANSWER The maximum average outgoing quality over all possible levels of incoming quality for a given acceptance sampling plan and disposal specification. balance sheet - CORRECT ANSWER A financial statement showing the assets, liabilities, and owner 's equity of a business entity. balanced scorecard - CORRECT ANSWER A financial statement showing the assets, liabilities, and owner 's equity of a business entity. balanced scorecard - CORRECT ANSWER Translates an organization's mission and strategy into comprehensive set of performance measures to provide a basis for strategic measurement and management, typically using four balanced views: financial, customers, internal business processes, and learning and growth. Baldrige Performance Excellence Program (BPEP) - CORRECT ANSWER The Baldrige National Quality Award was established by Congress in 1987 to raise awareness of quality management and to recognize U.S. companies that have implemented successful quality management systems. A Criteria for Performance Excellence is published each year. Three awards may be given annually in each of five categories: manufacturing businesses, service businesses, small businesses, education institutions, and healthcare organizations. The award is named after the late Secretary of Commerce Malcom Baldridge, a proponent of quality management. The U.S. Commerce Delartment's National Institute of Standads and Texhnolgy manages the award, and ASQ administers it. The major emphasis in determining success is achieving results. batch processing - CORRECT ANSWER Running large batches of a single product through the process at one time, resulting in queues awaiting next steps in the process. BATF - CORRECT ANSWER Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. bathtub curve - CORRECT ANSWER Also called life-history curve or Weibull curve. A graphic demonstration of the relationship of failures over the life of a product versus the probable failure rate. Includes three phases: early or infant failure (break- in), a stable rate during normal use, and wear-out. behavior management - CORRECT ANSWER The management methodology and practices adapted from B. F. Skinner 's theories: a practice used in managing people. behavioral theories - CORRECT ANSWER Motivational theories, notably those of Abraham Maslow, Frederick Herzberg, Douglas McGregor, and others. benchmarking - CORRECT ANSWER An improvement process in which a company measures its performance against that of best-in-class organizations (or others that are good performers), determines how those organizations achieved their performance levels, and uses the information to improve its own performance. Areas often benchmarked include strategies, operations, processes, and procedures. benefit-cost analysis - CORRECT ANSWER Collection of the dollar value of benefits derived from an initiative and the associated costs incurred and computing the ratio of benefits to cost. beta risk - CORRECT ANSWER Type 2 error; the possibility that a bad product will be accepted by a consumer. See consumer's risk. bias - CORRECT ANSWER A characteristic of measurement that refers to a systematic difference. Big Q, little q - CORRECT ANSWER A term used to contrast the difference between managing for quality in all processes and products (Big Q) and managing for quality in a limited capacity (little q). binomial distribution - CORRECT ANSWER Defines the probability of successes from a given number of trials. Black Belt - CORRECT ANSWER Full-time leader responsible for implementing Six Sigma process improvement projects using pertinent methodologies, such as DMAIC, DOE, and others. Usually, the Black Belt trains the Green Belts, and often serves for a two-year assignment overseeing eight to ten Six Sigma projects. blemish - CORRECT ANSWER An imperfection that is severe enough to be noticed, but should not cause any real impairment with respect to intended normal or reasonably foreseeable use. (See also defect, imperfection, and nonconformity.) block diagram - CORRECT ANSWER A diagram that shows the operation, interrelationships, and interdependencies of components in a system. Boxes, or blocks (hence the name), represent the components; connecting lines between the blocks represent interfaces. There are two types of block diagrams: a functional block diagram, which shows a system's subsystems and lower-level products, their interrelationships, and interfaces with other systems; and a reliability block diagram, which is similar to the functional block diagram except that it is modified to emphasize those aspects influencing reliability. Bloom's Taxonomy (levels of cognition) - CORRECT ANSWER REMEMBER - Recall or recognize lerms, definitions, facts, ideas, materials, patterns, sequences, methods, formulas, principles, etc. UNDERSTAND - Read and understand descriplions, communications, reports, tables, diagrams, directions, regulations, etc. APPLY - Know when and how to use ideas, procedures, methods, formulas, principles, theories, etc. ANALYZE - Break down information into its constituent parts and recognize their relationship to one another and how they are organized; identify sublevel factors or salient data from a complex scenario. EVALUATE - Make judgements about the value of propised ideas, sokutuons, etc., by comparing the proposal to specific criteria or standards. Create - Put parts or elements together in such a way to reveal a pattern or structure not clearly there before; identify which data or information from a conplex set is appropriate to examine furtger or from which supported conclusions can be drawn. body language - CORRECT ANSWER The expression of thoughts and emotions through movement or positioning of the body. [Show More]
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