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I/O ch. 3 Job Analysis Exam 47 Questions with Verified Answers,100% CORRECT

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I/O ch. 3 Job Analysis Exam 47 Questions with Verified Answers Job analysis - CORRECT ANSWER • the process of defining a job in terms of its component tasks or duties and the knowledge or skills ... required to perform them • this yeilds 3 major outcomes: job evaluation, job description, job specifications element - CORRECT ANSWER the smallest unit of work activity, such as pushing a button to start machine or entering a line of code for a computer program task - CORRECT ANSWER • the formation of multiple elements coming together • the activity of work that is performed to achieve a specific objective position - CORRECT ANSWER an individuals place in the organization defined by the tasks performed job - CORRECT ANSWER a collection of positions similar enough to one another to share a common job title KSAOs - CORRECT ANSWER are the knowledge, skills, activities, and other characteristics that are required for successful job performance. • basis for much of the work done in employee selection Job sections together model: - CORRECT ANSWER Job title: Instructor --> positions: professor of psych --> task: lecture ---> element: prepare lesson outline task-oriented - CORRECT ANSWER an approach to job analysis that focuses on describing the various tasks that are performed on the job • focus on very specific levels of tasks • task inventory approach, functional job analysis (FJA) worker-oriented - CORRECT ANSWER an approach to job analysis that examines broad human behaviors in work activities • focus broadly on general aspects of the job, such as the physical, interpersonal, and mental factors necessary for completion of the job and related work attributes • job element method, position analysis questionnaire, common metric questionnaire Task Inventory Approach - CORRECT ANSWER a task oriented approach that uses task statements generated by experts familiar with the job in question • usually administered to incumbents who put a check next to those statements that describe a task that they do on their job subject matter experts (SMEs) - CORRECT ANSWER individuals who participate in job analyses as a result of their expertise incumbents - CORRECT ANSWER employees who are currently occupying the job of interest Functional Job Analysis (FJA) - CORRECT ANSWER • a highly structured task-oriented approach developed by Sidney Fine in which data are obtained about what tasks a worker does and how those tasks are performed • a series of task statements are developed that are believed to be relevant for the job in question - incumbents or SMEs rate each of these task statements on a series of dimensions: data, people, and things Task focusing largely on data (dimension) - CORRECT ANSWER requires the employee to use cognitive resources in handling info, ideas, and facts • ranges from simple comparisons to synthesizing people dimension - CORRECT ANSWER the extent to which the job requires employees to use interpersonal resources such as understanding, courtesy, and mentoring - ranges from simply taking instructions to more sophisticated behaviors: mentoring things dimension - CORRECT ANSWER requires the use of physical resources and includes the use of strength, speed, and coordination - ranges from specific handling of things to more intricate and precise operations critiques to task-oriented approaches to job analysis - CORRECT ANSWER criticized as being potentially too narrowly focused on the tasks for a particular job - it follows that by focusing too narrowly on the tasks of a particular job, we rule out the possibility of making real comparisons across jobs b/c no job is likely to emerge as similar at such a fine-grain level Job element method (JEM) - CORRECT ANSWER a worker-oriented approach to job analysis that was designed to identify the characteristics of superior workers in a particular job - "element" in this context refers to general work behaviors, not the smallest unit of work activity as defined earlier. refer to KSAOs specifically that are necessary for a successful job performance criticism of Job Element Method - CORRECT ANSWER ignores the specific job tasks, making it difficult to demonstrate that a particular job element is related to the job • JEM approach may identify "ability to communicate clearly" as an important element but this isn't a particular job task and may leave us wondering what particular job task is important and how the element is related to it Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) - CORRECT ANSWER • A worker-oriented approach that is a widely used standardized instrument that focuses on general work behaviors • one of the best known job analysis methods • the incumbent or SME decides whether each item pertains to the job in question; each one that does is evaluated in terms of various dimensions and a job profile emerges as result PAQs 6 dimensions - CORRECT ANSWER • consists of 195 items, 187 of which describe general work behaviors, work conditions, and job characteristics • 187 job elements are organized along 6 dimensions - information input, mental processes, work output, relationships with other persons, job context, and other job characteristics PAQs 3 major criticisms - CORRECT ANSWER 1.) some data indicate that the reading level of the PAQ is at least college level, if not graduate level. This limits who can competently do the job analysis and rules out less educated incumbents in many jobs 2.) PAQ does not seem well suited for managerial jobs 3.) items themselves are too abstract common metric questionnaire (CMQ) - CORRECT ANSWER • a worker-oriented job analysis instrument that attempts to improve the generalizability of worker-oriented approaches through the use of items focused on slightly less general work behaviors • the focus here is on describing jobs at a level that allows the descriptions to be compared across jobs, as opposed to describing them so abstractly that differences across jobs are lost two basic beliefs about worker-oriented approaches to job analysis are reflected in the CMQ: - CORRECT ANSWER 1.) the instrument must comprehensively describe work activities using a common set of items written at more behaviorally abstract level than the typical task statements 2.) the rating scale must have the same meaning across all jobs O*NET - CORRECT ANSWER The Occupational Information Network is a comprehensive, interactive database developed by the US Department of Labor to identify and describe the key components of modern occupations • a hybrid technique b/c it focuses simultaneously on both the work and the worker • not based on FJA, based on data gathered in various ways including initial review of existing literature in the domains of human performance and occupational analysis 6 classes of Info for O*NET model: - CORRECT ANSWER 1.) worker characteristics, such as abilities and interests 2.) worker requirements, such as general knowledge and skills 3.) experience requirements, such past employment history, training, or licensure 4.) occupational requirements, such as generalized work activities 5.) occupation-specific info such as technical info particular to a certain job family 6.) occupational characteristics such as labor market and social info strategic job analysis - CORRECT ANSWER An approach to job analysis that considers the status of jobs as they currently exist but also factors in how jobs are likely to change in the future as a result of anticipated organizational or industry changes Job descriptions - CORRECT ANSWER as an outcome of job analysis, a written statement of what job holders actually do, how they do it, and why they do it - presents the task requirements of the job - typically include job title and description of the tasks and machinery involved job specifications - CORRECT ANSWER • an outcome of job analysis describing the KSAOs deemed necessary to perform a job; often called job specs • view job description as stemming directly from job analysis and the job specifications as being inferred indirectly from the job analytics through the job description Competencies - CORRECT ANSWER • Set of behaviors encompassing skills, knowledge, abilities, and personal attributes that are critical to successful work accomplishment. competencies vs. KSAOs - CORRECT ANSWER view competencies as sets or groupings of specific KSAOs that allow employees to perform specific organizational functions How does competency modeling parallel job analysis? - CORRECT ANSWER both involve describing jobs in a careful and methodical way so that HR practices such as selection and placement can be based on this info How does job analysis differ from competency modeling? - CORRECT ANSWER • competency modeling is more worker-oriented and job analysis is more task-oriented • competency modeling much broader focus b/c it tries to build a full framework for HR functioning by defining the responsibilities, skills, knowledge, abilities, personal attributes, and business challenges that are relevant for a particular organization • job analysis tends tp be more methodically rigorous • competency modeling tends to consider organization strategy a bit more and takes a broader look at the organization Purposes of Job Analysis - CORRECT ANSWER • job analysis is the foundation for much of industrial psychology • two reasons: 1.) it is necessary to the success of HR functions. W/o them, HR functions in organizations would be carried out ineffectively 2.) an increased emphasis on laws associated w/ the work place has made it more desirable for companies to use job analyses as their first line of defense when accused of unfair practice Job classification - CORRECT ANSWER Jobs are often categorized in terms of job families, each can be used as a level of analysis for various personnel decisions - ex: word processing specialist, world processing specialist II, Data technician I may all be declared parts of a job family called computer support staff Performance Management is - CORRECT ANSWER one of the most frequent uses of job analysis data, and is also one of the most important functions performed by HR departments • to conduct a useful and fair performance appraisal, organizations must have clearly stipulated goals, objectives, and criteria on which employees can be evaluated Selection and Placement - CORRECT ANSWER • most important part of industrial psychology • can have costly impact if not carried out correctly • hiring someone who has the required skills but lacks ability to carry out a certain task is costly Job Design and Redesign - CORRECT ANSWER •job analysis may uncover problems with a particular job that the organization may want to address • PAQ or CMQ data indicate that employees spend far too much time on a particular facet of the job, info that the company may use to initiate a job redesign intervention to make the work processes more efficient Work Design Questionnaire (WDQ) - CORRECT ANSWER • created by Morgeson and Humphrey, a comprehensive measure of job design to replace the incomplete and narrow existing measures that looks at 77 items, 21 dimensions of work characteristics • the 21 work characteristics can be organized into: 1.) task characteristics such as autonomy and task variety 2.) knowledge characteristics that reflect traditional KSAOs 3.) social characteristics that include social support and feedback from others 4.) contextual characteristics composed of physical demands and work conditions jobs are dynamic: - CORRECT ANSWER in that they change considerably with changes in technology, in the workforce, and in economic demands--job analysis can be used to identify the extent to which job behaviors have changed to match the times Job Evaluation - CORRECT ANSWER • as an outcome of job analysis, a technique that attempts to determine the value or worth of particular jobs to organizations so that salaries can be set accordingly • compensation often the largest budget item in most companies Point System - CORRECT ANSWER • the most common approach to job evaluation, which involves estimating the value of jobs based on points assigned to various predetermined dimensions • most common of these dimensions: compensable factors compensable factors - CORRECT ANSWER • dimensions or factors used to rate jobs, indicating that employees are compensated based on these factors. Examples include: effort, skill, responsibility, and working conditions • jobs requiring more effort and skill, involving more responsibility and taking place in less desirable working conditions (working outdoors in subzero temp vs. office) should be more highly compensated than jobs that don't have these characteristics Equal Pay Act of 1963 - CORRECT ANSWER Stipulates that men and women who do work that is equal must be compensated similarly • the word equal has been interpreted to mean jobs that are the same comparable worth - CORRECT ANSWER a doctrine maintaining that jobs of equal (or comparable) worth to the organization should be compensated equally • linked closely to gender differences in compensation • proponents of comparable worth insist that job evaluation should play a larger role and competition w/in the labor market a smaller role, in setting compensation Comparable worth argument - CORRECT ANSWER argues that the market artificially sets compensations for female dominated jobs lower than male dominated jobs b/c of bias that views female-dominated jobs as less valuable • focusing on job behaviors rather than on job performers, job evaluation decreases likelihood of gender bias in compensation Opposers of comparable worth - CORRECT ANSWER • say there is no bias against female-typed jobs and women can work where ever they prefer • women paid less b/c they choose low paying jobs that provide greater flexibility or they leave the workforce to raise their families [Show More]

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