Business > EXAM > CMN 140 Exam1, CMN 140 Exam 2, CMN 140 Final 194 Questions with Verified Answers,100% CORRECT (All)

CMN 140 Exam1, CMN 140 Exam 2, CMN 140 Final 194 Questions with Verified Answers,100% CORRECT

Document Content and Description Below

CMN 140 Exam1, CMN 140 Exam 2, CMN 140 Final 194 Questions with Verified Answers "Hardware" vs "Software" of the brain - CORRECT ANSWER *Hardware:* -Biological organ of communication -Computation... is processed in gray matter -> e.g. how info is processed in the brain -Info is transmitted via white matter *Software:* -The brain gives rise to the mind -Some programs are innate (e.g. capacity for language) -Some are learned (e.g. English language) *There is a deep physical connection between the brain & the mind* What does the mind/brain have to do with mass communication? - CORRECT ANSWER Understanding how our minds process media gives us insight into the consequences (good & bad) of media use Automatic routines - CORRECT ANSWER sequences of learned behaviors that are enacted with little effort Automaticity - CORRECT ANSWER a mental state where our minds operate without the perception of conscious effort -Habits are formed -> habits are automatically reactivated when needed Social Cognitive Theory - CORRECT ANSWER -The mind has the capacity to learn by observing others -This means we can learn by observing mediated others -The basis for media effects research What does the "Monkey Business Illusion" teach us? - CORRECT ANSWER Narrow focus enhances one object at the expense of others If one is multitasking with their media, it does come at a cognitive cost -> not able to take in as much information Twin studies show that media use is heritable, especially in: - CORRECT ANSWER -Social media use -Political talk (FtF, online) -Computer use -Hours of TV watched -News consumption Media at the very beginning? - CORRECT ANSWER -Humans have evolved psychological programs for creating media (e.g. cave paintings, oral histories, etc.) Audiences: Physical Exposure - CORRECT ANSWER *Definition:* the things in our midst that we COULD be exposed to -Physical exposure (visual, auditory) is a necessary but not sufficient condition for media exposure *Just b/c we are physically exposed to a message does NOT mean we process the message* Audiences: Perceptual Exposure - CORRECT ANSWER *Definition:* exposure that is received thru visual or auditory senses -Perception is mediated by physical constraints -*Just Noticeable Difference (JND):* the moment where we can perceive a difference between two objects (or sounds) Audiences: Psychological Exposure - CORRECT ANSWER -*Encoding:* think short-term memory -*Storage:* think long-term memory -*Retrieval:* when we draw on a memory for further processing Central vs Peripheral Processing - CORRECT ANSWER *Central:* careful conscious evaluation *Peripheral:* heuristic or unconscious processing Three stages of moral development (Kohlberg) - CORRECT ANSWER (not completely fixed ages, but boundaries are made for context) *Pre-conventional stage:* 2-7 years old, children depend on authority; child's conscious is external *Conventional stage:* early adolescence; children begin to develop their own conscious & can internalize right from wrong *Post-conventional stage:* middle adolescence; social conscious > rigid moral rules Patterns of Development (Potter) - CORRECT ANSWER -Innovation -Penetration -Peak -Decline -Adaptation Patterns of Development: Innovation - CORRECT ANSWER -This is when a technology is first introduced -e.g. silent films -> "Talkies" -> etc. Characterized by two types of innovation: *Marketing:* a way to identify audiences & their needs w/ the goal of attracting audiences to a given message *Technological:* engineering innovation that creates a new way to transmit messages Patterns of Development: Penetration - CORRECT ANSWER -When a tech innovation begins to gain mass acceptance (e.g. Diffusion of Innovations Model -> Innovators, Early Adopters, Early Majority, Late Majority, Laggards) -This causes: *media displacement:* use of one medium comes at the cost to the use of another *media growth:* when a new medium grows our total media use, either thru multitasking or displacement from other non-media activities Patterns of Development: Peak - CORRECT ANSWER -When a tech innovation has reached peak market saturation (e.g. Broadcast TV -> Cable TV -> Internet [hasn't even peaked yet, 90% of U.S. adults had used in 2018; continues to grow]) Patterns of Development: Decline - CORRECT ANSWER -A period of audience loss (usually displaced by a competing technology) -e.g. TV shows displaced radio shows: Lone Ranger, Adventures of Superman, etc. Patterns of Development: Adaptation - CORRECT ANSWER -When a medium begins to redefine its position in the marketplace -Think: how TV & movie studios are entering the streaming business (e.g. Twitch) The Long Tail (Anderson) - CORRECT ANSWER -His book revolutionized the way we think about media & the entertainment industry -Historically, media content were produced w/ goal of reaching the largest audience (CBS, NBC, ABC) -Anderson's Thesis: the Internet expands the type of programming that content producers can offer Anderson's rules for the long tail economy: - CORRECT ANSWER Rule 1: make everything available -> there is money to be made even in the most niche content Rule 2: cut the price in half, now lower it -> a song for 99 cents is cheap from an industry perspective, but expensive compared to free alternatives (online) Rule 3: help me find it -> use algorithms, recommendation engines, & user generated content to help consumers find niche media Technological convergence - CORRECT ANSWER how innovations in production, storage, & retransmission of messages brings about changes to a media industry Marketing convergence - CORRECT ANSWER when multiple mediums are used to broadcast a marketing message Psychological convergence - CORRECT ANSWER when audiences see overlaps between media technologies, & these overlaps create new opportunities for production & use McLuhan: The Medium is the Message - CORRECT ANSWER It is not the content of the message that is influential to us, but the medium in which we view that content If we don't understand the medium, we won't understand the message Economies of Scope - CORRECT ANSWER - Increasing the number of different channels for extracting money from consumers -Achieved thru multi-product production -e.g. DVD/Blu-Ray/Digital Downloads; Licensed Merchandise; Streaming Services, etc. The Marketing Concept - CORRECT ANSWER Understand audience needs, & develop messages to meet those needs Economies of Scale - CORRECT ANSWER a proportionate saving in costs gained by an increased level of production (e.g. sell more box office tickets) Advantages & Disadvantages of Automatic Routines - CORRECT ANSWER *Advantages:* -efficiency -> filtering software of the mind is running automatically; makes thousands of decisions for us subconsciously *Disadvantage:* -start to experience message fatigue -> when we are overwhelmed with media messages, we start to narrow our focus & filter out even more messages -we end up exposing ourselves to the same types of message over & over Media literacy - CORRECT ANSWER The ability to access & process information from any kind of transmission Includes visual literacy (pictures, real-life), story literacy (plots in books, TV, films), & computer literacy (ability to create digital messages & process meaning from electronic screens) Knowledge Structures - CORRECT ANSWER The organizations of what you have learned & stored in your memory; the patterns in our minds by which we organize & retrieve information Personal Locus - CORRECT ANSWER provides mental energy & direction; composed of goals & drives If personal locus is weak, you do not have the goals & drives for comprehending certain media -> allowing the media to exercise a high degree of control Four dimensions of media literacy: - CORRECT ANSWER *Cognitive:* focuses our attention on factual info (i.e. names, dates, etc.) *Emotional:* how we perceive the feelings of people in media messages & how we read our own feelings *Aesthetic:* focuses on the art & craft exhibited in the production of media messages (i.e. editing, lighting, etc.) *Moral:* focuses our attention on values Media literacy is... - CORRECT ANSWER multidimensional & a continuum (not categorical; varies by degree) Media literacy is determined by: - CORRECT ANSWER The formation of knowledge structures in four areas: *media industries, media audiences, media content, & media effects* Information Processing Tasks: Filtering - CORRECT ANSWER Making decisions about which messages to filter out (ignore) & which to filter in (pay attention to) -> goal is to only attend to the messages that have some kind of usefulness for the person Information Processing Tasks: Meaning Matching - CORRECT ANSWER Using basic competencies to recognize referents & locate previously learned meanings efficiently Includes recognizing *denoted meanings* (e.g. recognizing your phone text tone) Develops *competencies* (e.g. ability to recognize referents & recall the memorized denoted meanings for those referents Information Processing Tasks: Meaning Construction - CORRECT ANSWER Using skills in order to move beyond meaning matching & to construct meaning for oneself in order to personalize & get more out of a message Relies on *skill ability* -> unlike competencies, skills have a wide range of ability; if personal locus is strong in skill development, those skills have a much higher chance of heightening Physical exposure - CORRECT ANSWER The message & the person occupy the same physical space for some period of time; space & time are regarded as barriers to this exposure Perceptual exposure - CORRECT ANSWER A human's ability to receive appropriate sensory input thru visual & auditory senses Psychological exposure - CORRECT ANSWER Can be both central (conscious) & peripheral (subconscious) In order for this exposure to happen, there must be some trace element in a person's mind already (i.e. an image, sound, emotion, etc.) Attention - CORRECT ANSWER In order for attention to occur, one must clear all three exposures described above (physical, perceptual, psychological) -> while also having a conscious awareness of the media message Exposure States - CORRECT ANSWER *Automatic:* message elements are physically perceived but processed active, but they may not be thinking about what they are doing -> Most media exposure happens in the automatic state *Attentional:* refers to people being aware of the messages & actively interacting with the elements in the messages *Transported:* audience members lose their sense of separateness from the message; concentration is so high that we lose touch w/ our real-world environment *Self-Reflexive:* people are hyperaware of the message & of their processing of the message; the fullest degree of awareness Mass communication - CORRECT ANSWER Presenting media to certain types of audiences instead of focusing on the size of the audience & grouping everyone together Niche audiences - CORRECT ANSWER Media programmers construction of special kinds of messages to appeal to particular kinds of people -> once a media business has identified a niche audience, they create messages geared towards those groups 5 types of segmentation of niche audiences: - CORRECT ANSWER *Geographic:* explains why neighborhoods tend to be homogeneous; most important for local news/local radio (can also apply on a national level) *Demographic:* media focuses on targeting characteristics of people (e.g. certain genders, ethnicities, ages, incomes, etc.) *Social class:* a mixture of characteristics, including income, but also considers people's worldviews (i.e. a college student w/ low income doesn't mean they are low class) *Geodemographic:* a blend of geographic & demographic segmentation; based on the assumption that the same types of people tend to cluster together in neighborhoods *Psychographic:* uses demographics, lifestyle, & product usage variables; looks at multiple characteristics of a person's lifestyle to develop segmentations How do media organizations appeal to existing needs & interests? - CORRECT ANSWER Employs two tactics: 1. Try to appeal to your existing needs & interests 2. Use cross-media & cross-vehicle promotion to attract your attention Cross-media promotion - CORRECT ANSWER Promoting different versions/aspects of the same product (i.e. Oprah promoting her book, but also her magazine & website) Cross-vehicle promotion - CORRECT ANSWER Promoting the same product on many different media platforms (i.e. a media company promoting the same product on their website, TV, newspaper, etc.) Audience conditioning - CORRECT ANSWER Feeding the same audience a message multiple times over; successful companies want to condition you to continually use their services so it becomes a habit you cannot live without (i.e. Youtube offering their app, then AutoPlaying other videos so you stay on their app) Why do we treat children as a special audience? - CORRECT ANSWER They have not lived long enough to have real-world experiences *(lack of experience)* They have not matured enough to be able to process elements in particular media messages *(lack of maturation)* Children's treatment from media regulators - CORRECT ANSWER In 1970s, regulators would reserve an hour of family time on TV & also created requirement to keep a clear separation between program content & commercial content on TV 4 kinds of treatments parents use to expose their children to media: - CORRECT ANSWER *Co-viewing:* parent & child watch TV together; when parents are in the room, kids will avoid harmful content *Active mediation:* conversations that parents/other adults have w/ children about TV use *Positive mediation:* pointing out good things in TV messages & encouraging children to emulate those good things *Negative mediation:* pointing out the bad behaviors of characters & being critical of what is portrayed Four natural abilities most related to media literacy: - CORRECT ANSWER *Field independency:* a person's natural ability to distinguish between noise & the signal in any message (filtering for important info) *Crystalline intelligence:* the ability to memorize facts (i.e. vocabulary) -> gives us the facility to absorb the images, defintions, opinions, & agendas of others *Fluid intelligence:* the ability to be creative, make leaps of insight, & perceive things in a fresh & novel manner -> gives us the facility to to challenge what we see on the surface & recognize new patterns *Conceptual differentiation:* how people group & classify things; when encountering a new message, we must categorize it using either leveling or sharpening strategies Leveling & Sharpening Strategies of Conceptual Differentiation - CORRECT ANSWER *Leveling:* look for similarities between the new message & previous messages we have stored away as examples in our categories *Sharpening:* focuses on differences & tries to maintain a high degree of separation between the new message & older messages 3 emotional abilities to increase media literacy: - CORRECT ANSWER *Emotional intelligence:* ability to understand & control our emotions, understand empathy, & handle the emotional demands of relationships *Tolerance for ambiguity:* if one has a low tolerance for ambiguity, they will likely choose to ignore the messages that do not meet their expectations *Nonimpulsiveness:* refers to how quickly people make decisions about messages; nonimpulsive people are those who take time to consider things from many perspectives Media convergence - CORRECT ANSWER The blending together of previously separated channels of communication such that the characteristics that have divided those channels into distinctly different media have been eroding Technological convergence - CORRECT ANSWER How innovations about storing & transmitting info have brought about changes to the mass media industries Analog vs Digital Coding - CORRECT ANSWER *Analog:* recording, storage, & retrieval of info that relies on the physical properties of a medium *Digital:* using a sequence of symbols or bytes (usually numbers) that are not dependent on the physical characteristics of any one medium Marketing convergence - CORRECT ANSWER Changed the way media programmers regard audiences & how they develop their messages; tech changes have forced media businesses to move away from a certain medium & focus much more on the messages & the audiences Psychological convergence - CORRECT ANSWER Changes in people's perceptions about barriers that previously existed that are now breaking down or totally eliminated due to recent changes in the media Four types of players in media's economic game: - CORRECT ANSWER A. The consumer (contribute resources -> money, time, attention) B. The advertisers (contribute money for time & space in media) C. The media companies (contribute money, messages, & audiences to the game) D. The employees of media companies (contribute time, skills, & talent to the game) Below-the-line vs Above-the-line employees - CORRECT ANSWER *Below-the-line employees:* clerical people who apply common skills in the performance of their jobs; can be learned by many people & improved with practice (i.e. lighting technician, ticket taker, receptionist, etc.) *Above-the-line employees:* creative types; these jobs require talent much more than training or effort (although those are important too) (i.e. writers, producers, directors, actors, singers, etc.) Four characteristics of the economic game of mass media: - CORRECT ANSWER 1. The importance of valuing resources well 2. The complex interdependency among players 3. Digital convergence The nature of competition Four types of players in media's economic game: - CORRECT ANSWER A. The consumer (contribute resources -> money, time, attention) B. The advertisers (contribute money for time & space in media) C. The media companies (contribute money, messages, & audiences to the game) D. The employees of media companies (contribute time, skills, & talent to the game) Below-the-line vs Above-the-line employees - CORRECT ANSWER *Below-the-line employees:* clerical people who apply common skills in the performance of their jobs; can be learned by many people & improved with practice (i.e. lighting technician, ticket taker, receptionist, etc.) *Above-the-line employees:* creative types; these jobs require talent much more than training or effort (although those are important too) (i.e. writers, producers, directors, actors, singers, etc.) Four characteristics of the economic game of mass media: - CORRECT ANSWER 1. The importance of valuing resources well 2. The complex interdependency among players 3. Digital convergence 4. The nature of competition Mass Media Economy: Importance of Valuing Resources Well - CORRECT ANSWER Resource valuation depends on considering supply & demand AND assessing how well a resource will achieve a particular goal (e.g. buying/selling antiques without the price knowledge example) Mass Media Economy: Complex Interdependency Among Players - CORRECT ANSWER When negotiations are involved & complex, one company's decision may affect many other companies (e.g. increasing TV ad time example); sometimes decision makers are conflicted b/c they experience cross-purposes (e.g. when a decision maker might be part of more than one group -> each with a different economic goal) Mass Media Economy: Digital Convergence - CORRECT ANSWER Refers to the digitization of media; has eroded the characteristics that made various forms of media so different from one another Mass Media Economy: Nature of Competition - CORRECT ANSWER Existence of monopolistic AND competitive markets Monopolistic competition: each firm is large relative to the size of the market for its products & firms in an industry compete aggressively for resources; every company can enter the market & compete for audiences, but only a few companies are very skilled at doing so Why is advertising so important to our economy? - CORRECT ANSWER Grows our economy; makes it possible for new goods to enter markets & lets us know immediately that they are available Three media strategies that help them win the economic game: - CORRECT ANSWER *Maximizing profits:* mass media businesses are run to make as large a profit as possible *Constructing Audiences:* media companies construct desirable audiences then rent them out to advertisers; this is done using one of two strategies: *quantity audience strategy* (i.e. try to attract as large a general audience as possible) OR *quality audience strategy* (i.e. try to attract a certain kind of niche audience) *Reducing Risk:* Media companies reduce the risk of not attracting a large enough audience by using the *marketing concept* -> media businesses begin with audience needs then construct messages to meet those needs Anderson's five kinds of aggregators: - CORRECT ANSWER physical goods (Amazon, eBay, etc.) digital goods (iTunes, etc.) advertising services (Google, Craigslist, etc.) information (Google, Wikipedia, etc.) communities/user-created content (Facebook, etc.) *These aggregators rely on recommendations to direct users to the products & services they are most likely to buy* Consumers' Strategies: Default Strategy - CORRECT ANSWER Follows our unconscious, preprogrammed habits b/c these default strategies require little effort & delivers familiar satisfactions (i.e. getting on Facebook every morning) Consumers' Strategies: Media Literacy Strategy - CORRECT ANSWER People who use this strategy consider the value of their own resources & want to negotiate a better exchange for those resources (i.e. direct support -> paying for a streaming subscription; indirect support -> investing time in their medium) Cultivation Theory (Gerbner) - CORRECT ANSWER - Explores TVs independent contribution to viewers' conceptions of social reality -*Core idea:* exposure to TV changes viewer attitudes, & the change in these attitudes should differ depending on how much TV is consumed -*Core hypothesis:* those who spend more time watching TV are more likely to perceive the real world in ways that reflect the most common & recurrent messages of the TV world Takeaway of Cultivation Theory - CORRECT ANSWER Heavy TV viewers see the world as more dangerous than light TV viewers *"Mean World Syndrome":* a worldview that with exaggerated sense of victimization, apprehension, insecurity, anxiety, & mistrust due to heavy TV viewing Critiques of Cultivation Theory - CORRECT ANSWER -The theory is correlational not causal -> most cultivation research is survey-based & lacks an experimental manipulation (causal would mean finding children who had never experienced TV) -What constitutes "heavy" viewership is just a few hours a week & other times it is many more hours -The Cultivation effect disappears when the proper statistical controls are in place -> idea known as "mainstreaming" Mainstreaming - CORRECT ANSWER -Asks participants if they feel that crime is a personal problem of theirs -> heavy viewers said yes as well as low-income participants regardless of viewership Early News (pre-19th century) - CORRECT ANSWER -Mostly factual; focused on accuracy -Affluent readership -> only the rich were able to buy news/most poor had limited literacy "Big" News (post-Civil War) - CORRECT ANSWER -High cost of production; largely newspaper based -Economic factors dictated a large audience -Focused on developing content w/ mass appeal -> important to appear "objective" -Followed by *massive declines in daily newspapers* Mixed Outlook of TV News - CORRECT ANSWER Decline in local news; viewership of network news went up from 2008 to 2016 Growth in Online News - CORRECT ANSWER -Desire for: more efficient access & more "targeted" content -2018: 45% of Americans get their news from FB Echo Chambers - CORRECT ANSWER *Argument:* social media lets viewers expose themselves to sympathetic info & audiences (selective exposure) -More than 50% of Americans believe news is biased (splits along partisan affiliation) Echo Chambers (Garrett, 2009) - CORRECT ANSWER *Selection:* People are likely to select news stories they think will reinforce pre-existing beliefs; people are SLIGHTLY less likely to select news stories they think will challenge pre-existing beliefs *Exposure:* once people start reading a news article, they do not stop, even if it challenges their pre-existing beliefs Echo Chambers (Fletcher & Nielsen, 2017) - CORRECT ANSWER -In traditional & new media contexts, audience fragmentation is lesser than audience duplication (i.e. audience are exposed to multiple news sources) -This pattern is true not only in the USA, but among international audiences Do social media contribute to political polarization? - CORRECT ANSWER Not true. The most polarized individuals are the people who use social media the least *Conclusion:* the evidence for echo chambers is very mixed (still an ongoing area of research) The multiple perspectives on the news: - CORRECT ANSWER *normative:* what news "should" do *descriptive:* what the news "does" Theories of Media Entertainment - CORRECT ANSWER *We are hardwired for stories* -> humans can learn thru stories; does not need to be literally true *We gain info from individual experiences* -> our cognitive systems are evolved to learn from experience *Relatable information is better processed* -> we understand info better when it resembles personal experiences Takeaway from Media Entertainment - CORRECT ANSWER Humans have evolved the capacity to learn from stories Oral Traditions: Storytelling - CORRECT ANSWER -Mechanism for transmitting history & culture -Serves two functions: transmits a lesson & entertains audiences "Modern" Entertainment - CORRECT ANSWER Beyond survival, humans have gained the capacity to redirect energy toward art, culture, storytelling, music, ceremony, etc. What does entertainment mean? - CORRECT ANSWER *Brings enjoyment:* immediate, positive, pleasant (AKA hedonic/a pleasant sensation) *Brings appreciation:* longer, contemplative, meaningful (AKA eudaimonic/living life in pursuit of human excellence) Uses & gratifications (Rosengreen, 1947) - CORRECT ANSWER -A theory of media selection -> U&G asks: what do people do with media? -Assumes that people seek different "gratifications" from media: diversion, knowledge, enjoyment, escape, socialization, etc. "Functional" theory of media: - CORRECT ANSWER -People use media to solve perceived problems & in order to maintain equilibrium & personal stability -We must understand the medium in order to understand why people use it Core assumptions of uses & gratifications: - CORRECT ANSWER -Audience is active & its media use is goal-oriented -Audiences can link a specific gratification w/ a specific medium -Media compete w/ other resources for need satisfaction Paradigms of uses & gratifications research: - CORRECT ANSWER Distinguishing between: -*Gratifications sought* (what I wanted from the media) -*Gratifications obtained* (what I actually got from the media) Selective Exposure Theory - CORRECT ANSWER -Assumes that people make entertainment choices based on personal preferences & needs, to relieve discomfort & extend pleasure -Selection is usually impulsive -Determined by one's mood (& can distract from or alter one's mood) Disposition Theory - CORRECT ANSWER Theory describing why we enjoy media We enjoy seeing: -good things happen to people we like -bad things happen to people we dislike We hate seeing: -bad things happen to people we like -good things happen to people we dislike Disposition Theory of Drama - CORRECT ANSWER Drama: a series of events involving intense conflict *Elements:* conflict, interesting characters, satisfying resolution, etc. Theory applied to drama -> usually a strong like/dislike for characters increases involvement; favorable ending for the liked person leads to viewer enjoyment Disposition Theory of Comedy - CORRECT ANSWER Comedy: drama containing cues that it should not be taken seriously Theory applied to comedy -> suggests we should laugh at the misfortunes of disliked others Disposition Theory of Suspense - CORRECT ANSWER Suspense: narrative where we are unsure of the final outcome Two explanations of the theory: -*Arousal:* arousal & then relief from suspense is liked -*Excitation transfer:* great distress intensifies the enjoyment we experience from a happy ending Problem of Disposition Theory - CORRECT ANSWER Why do we like morally ambiguous characters? Research says: we seem to enjoy, but not appreciate them "Interactivity" defined thru different disciplines: - CORRECT ANSWER *Sociology:* a form of social action guided by the real or imagined presence of others *Computer science:* a process between computers & humans *Communication:* an interface between the end user & the medium Three types of interactive media: - CORRECT ANSWER *Competitive, Cooperative, & Acquisition* The boundaries between these "types" are fuzzy Competitive (Interactive media) - CORRECT ANSWER Users compete w/ themselves, others, against a computer, or against many other people (i.e. video games) Cooperative (Interactive media) - CORRECT ANSWER users interact w/ others, socialize, share personal info, & work toward shared goals (i.e. social networking sites, dating apps, virtual worlds) Acquisition (Interactive media) - CORRECT ANSWER users seek out & find info, goods, services, & other resources (i.e. search engines, Wikipedia, video/music streaming, shopping) Why people use interactive media? *Social Determination Theory* - CORRECT ANSWER -SDT is a general motivational theory -> used to explain human behavior, generally -Therefore, it can also explain interactive media use -*General idea:* people desire autonomy, competence, & relatedness Flow Theory - CORRECT ANSWER -A motivational theory -Flow is: focused attention, altered sense of time, loss of self awareness, not taxing, intrinsically rewarding -Flow happens: when *task challenge* & *individual skill* are both HIGH A Theory of Fun (Raph Koster) - CORRECT ANSWER *Core idea:* games hijack our cognitive system -*Pattern recognition:* incremental increases in difficulty -*Learning:* good games TEACH -*Learning to learn:* making failure OK -*Cognitive chunking:* novel puzzles -*Cognitive flexibility:* multiple solutions to the same problem *Simplified?* It is fun to exercise your brain! (Shark Tank) Seven KEY questions of venture capital: - CORRECT ANSWER Who is the audience? What is the technology? When will it come to market? Where will it launch? Why will it work? How big is the market (estimate)? How much will it cost consumers? The history of interactive media is dominated by failures... - CORRECT ANSWER Some lack a "marketing concept" Some lack a "killer app" Successful interactive media often requires... - CORRECT ANSWER technological convergence (e.g. Twitch -> technological convergence of games (competitive) & video streaming (cooperative)) Popular ways to group media messages is between: - CORRECT ANSWER *reality* & *fantasy* Magic window - CORRECT ANSWER What children believed TV to be when reality & fantasy were clearly separated -> children able to distinguish fictional programming from news by age 5 Adult discount - CORRECT ANSWER When children's minds age cognitively & they are able to identify what is real & what is fictional (start to develop a skepticism about media messages) Criteria for Determining Reality of Media Messages: - CORRECT ANSWER *Factuality:* is it factual? *Perceptual persuasiveness:* does the message present characters/settings that we perceive as real? *Social utility:* does the message portray social lessons that can be used by people in everyday life? *Identity:* do the characters lead people to believe they are like the people in one's everyday life, so that they develop attachments to those characters? *Emotional involvement:* does the message engage people's feelings? *Plausibility:* is this actually something that COULD happen? *Typicality:* is this something that USUALLY happens? *Narrative consistency:* is the plot believable? What are some notes on realistic media? - CORRECT ANSWER Realistic media messages may follow some of the criteria but not others & STILL be considered realistic AND not every viewer will have the same reactions/responses to the criteria Next-Step Reality: Audience's Perspective - CORRECT ANSWER -Audiences seek out messages that appear real & present something more than everyday reality -However, people want messages that are similar to their lives, but provide something they cannot get in everyday life *(next-step reality)* Next-Step Reality: Programmer's Perspective - CORRECT ANSWER -Producers try to make media that is a tad more dramatic than ordinary life -*Next-step reality* is used to persuade people into the "ease" of a product -> i.e. by not showing the true process of the product -Uses whatever will get the audience's attention (i.e. violent crimes rather than simple crimes -> rarer) Five Different Perspectives on News - CORRECT ANSWER *Political philosophy perspective Traditional journalism perspective News-working perspective Economic perspective Consumer personal perspective* News Perspectives: Political philosophy perspective - CORRECT ANSWER This is what news SHOULD be -> daily reporting of the key, accurate facts about most significant events to inform the public, giving individuals enough to make rational, informed choices (builds off the 1st Amendment) News Perspectives: Traditional journalism perspective - CORRECT ANSWER This perspective focuses on seven criteria to specify the characteristics an event must have to be considered newsworthy -> *timeliness, significance, proximity, prominence, conflict, human interest, & deviance* News Perspectives: News-working perspective - CORRECT ANSWER News is the flow of stories produced by newsworkers who learn how to be successful (get published & read) thru a continuing process of socialization w/in news organizations -Frequently cannot achieve standards b/c of unavoidable constraints* -Most popular formula for telling stories in the news is called *simplified extended conflict (SEC)* Simplified extended conflict - CORRECT ANSWER Journalists look for some angle of conflict that is very simple -> news cannot have no conflict or conflict too complex or the audience will become uninterested News Perspectives: Economic perspective - CORRECT ANSWER News is that which is presented by news businesses & is shaped by decisions regarding resources, in order to increase profits by maximizing revenue & minimizing expenses -Two most salient characteristics: *commercialism* & *marketing perspective* Commercialism - CORRECT ANSWER Businesses are shooting to reach a large audience in order to rent them to advertisers; must make sure not to offend those audiences Marketing perspective - CORRECT ANSWER Journalists are more likely to present stories that grab the attention of large audiences by highlighting the unusual that will shock people -> typically a market-driven organization selecting target markets for its products Economic perspectives criticisms: - CORRECT ANSWER -When news decisions are made by marketers instead of journalists, the news coverage is confounded w/ advertising -Tends to change the content of the news in a way that is somehow harmful to the public News Perspectives: Consumer personal perspective - CORRECT ANSWER News which people expose themselves to in order to keep up to date about events & issues they regard as being the most important Standards for Evaluating News - CORRECT ANSWER *Objectivity:* we must view news objectively *Accuracy:* evaluating the factuality of news -> measured by the story's completeness & context *Neutrality:* the news must be free from journalistic bias or editorializing *Lack of bias:* refers to the truthfulness of the news story *Balance:* must present all sides of a story equally Media Literacy of Interactive Media: Personal Implications - CORRECT ANSWER -Make sure you have a clear distinction between opportunity & addiction -> must know how to control your time with them Media Literacy of Interactive Media: Broader Implications - CORRECT ANSWER -Their growing popularity is changing economies & societies -Generates new forms of money (i.e. cryptocurrency) -Changes the way people can socialize (i.e. virtual interactions) Media effects can be either: - CORRECT ANSWER *immediate* or *long-term* Immediate effects occur during one's exposure to a media message (e.g. change in emotion) Long-term effects show up only after many exposures -> no single exposure is responsible for the effect Types of Media Effects - CORRECT ANSWER Cognitive: plants ideas & info into our minds (can be factual & social) Belief: shows us values used by people in the news & characters in fictional stories Attitudinal: evaluative judgements about things -> we compare media messages to our standard Emotional: media that makes us feel things Physiological: influences our automatic bodily systems Behavioral: media messages that trigger our actions (e.g. ordering a product we saw an ad for) Macro: media's influence on larger units -> i.e. organizations, institutions, society, etc. Four-Dimensional Analysis of Media Effects - CORRECT ANSWER *Timing:* determining whether something has an immediate or long-term effect *Valence:* determining whether something has a positive, neutral, or negative impact (depends on from what POV too) *Intentionality:* determining the intentionality of the media messages we seek *Type:* determining what "type" of media effect is occurring Manifested Effects (of Media) - CORRECT ANSWER Media effects that we can easily observe Process Effects (of Media) - CORRECT ANSWER Media that influences how we think, feel, act, etc. Baseline Effects (of Media) - CORRECT ANSWER The typical degree of risk of experiencing a media effect Fluctuation Effects (of Media) - CORRECT ANSWER A temporary change to the baseline effects of media -> usually temporary, after a brief period of time & then the risk level returns to the base level Seven baseline factors that influence media effects: - CORRECT ANSWER *Developmental maturities:* as we get older, we mature cognitively, emotionally, & morally -> makes it easier for us to control how media affects us *Cognitive abilities:* not everyone who has the same developmental potential will exhibit the same level of cognitive ability *Knowledge structures:* people with the largest knowledge structures learn the most from media *Sociological factors:* the degree of socialization is related to the amount of influence the media will have *Lifestyle:* people who have active lifestyles (i.e. those who interact w/ many people & institutions) are less affected by the media *Personal Locus:* the combination of an individual's goals & drives for media exposures *Media Exposure Habits:* exposure habits that focus our attention on certain media & certain types of media messages What are some factors that cause fluctuation of media effects? - CORRECT ANSWER -Content of the messages -Context of the portrayals -Cognitive complexity of content -Motivations -States (a temporary drive or emotional reaction that occurs in response to some stimuli) -Degree of identification (how much we identify/attach to particular characters) Third-person effect - CORRECT ANSWER the common attitude that others are influenced by media messages, but we are not (pertaining to violence specifically) Immediate effects of exposure to media violence: - CORRECT ANSWER *Imitation:* exposure to media violence can trigger aggressive behaviors that mimic the media portrayals *Disinhibition:* exposure to media violence can reduce viewers' normal inhibitions that prevent them from behaving in a violent manner *Attraction:* many people are attracted to violence & the arousing nature of the portrayal Long-term effects of exposure to media violence: - CORRECT ANSWER *Narcotization:* people continue to crave the strong arousal that violent content brings *Desensitization:* portrayals are presented so often that we can no longer treat them w/ wonder or awe (becomes common) *Cultivation:* repeated exposure to violent messages leads people to believe that the world is a violent place How does *social cognitive theory* apply to violence? - CORRECT ANSWER -People were asked about media violence -They were asked: is the violence justified, rewarded, glamorized, realistic, etc.? -According to SCT, if they answered "yes" to these questions, it is more likely that someone will repeat violent behavior modeled in the media What does the BBC documentary about violent video games tell us? - CORRECT ANSWER Violent video games have 2 schools of thought: 1. violence desensitizes real-life violence vs. 2. violence benefits people's minds Payne Fund Studies - CORRECT ANSWER -Measured effects of movie behavior on children & adolescents -13 specific studies from 1929-1932 -*Analyzed:* information processing, attitudes, sleep disruption, & meaning making How did Herbert Blumer measure movie effects? (1933) - CORRECT ANSWER -Used 1600 personal "movie autobiographies" & 1200 questionnaires to grade school aged children -*Analyzed:* info acquisition, attitude change, emotion stimulation, & health behavior Key Finding of Blumer's study: - CORRECT ANSWER *Movies produced unwanted influences on social mores* Children: -Retained info from movies -Changed attitudes based on movies -Had "simulated emotions" by movies -Imitated behaviors seen in movies Major Issues of Morality & Media: - CORRECT ANSWER *Violence:* From 1967-85 the proportion of cartoons containing violence was not under 90% *Sex:* In 1993, 24-36 channels offered "Adult Programming" in America *Stereotyping:* Brand (1995): Counter-stereotyped content reduces traditional stereotypes Social Cognitive Theory & Morality (Bandura) - CORRECT ANSWER *Observational Learning:* -Morality is learned by watching others -Rewards/punishments for social/moral behavior *Self-Regulation:* -Core moral process -Self-sanctions keep conduct in line with internal standards -Morality is rooted in self-regulation rather than abstract reasoning *Moral Competence:* -*Ability* to behave *Moral Performance:* -*Willingness* to behave Disposition Theory of Morality (Zillmann) - CORRECT ANSWER *We like it when...* good things happen to good people & bad things happen to bad people *We dislike it when...* good things happen to bad people & bad things happen to good people Scientific Challenges of Learning Morality from Media - CORRECT ANSWER *Media's impact on morality is studied indirectly* -We often don't manipulate the moral content in a message -We study moral judgements as an "effect" or outcome of media *Media & morality research is based on a "rationalist" framework* -Underplays the role of intuition & emotion *Newer "intuitionist" theories overcome these limitations Moral Foundations Theory (MFT) - CORRECT ANSWER 6 moral foundations: *Care/Harm* *Fairness/Cheating* *Loyalty/Betrayal* *Authority/Subversion* *Sanctity/Degradation* Morally Ambiguous Characters (MACs) - CORRECT ANSWER -Characters we can't characterize as good or bad; characters whose ends we can't predict -Daalmans (2011) analyzed 25 years of prime time TV -> 90% of moral transgressions were committed by MACs -MACs were punished for moral violations 75% of the time MACs in Soap Operas: - CORRECT ANSWER -MACs were liked almost as much as good characters -Had less positive outcomes -Were more enjoyed than appreciated What are we to make of MACs? - CORRECT ANSWER -MACs promote moral deliberation in audiences -> i.e. greater appreciation for narrative -MACs allow audiences to "transcend their own limitations & boundaries" -> i.e. identifying with the character -MACs may introduce uncertainty into the narrative -> uncertainty leads to suspense Moral outrage (Crockett) - CORRECT ANSWER A powerful emotion that motivates people to shame & punish wrongdoers -> can have a good & a bad side What can we say about immoral acts encountered *online*? - CORRECT ANSWER -There is evidence that immoral acts encountered online incite *stronger moral outrage* than immoral acts encountered in-person/thru other forms of media -The architecture of the attention economy creates a steady flow of 'clickbait' that people can access at any time Outrage fatigue (Crockett) - CORRECT ANSWER Constant exposure to outrageous news could diminish the overall intensity of outrage experiences, or cause people to experience outrage more selectively to reduce emotional & attentional demands On the other hand, studies have shown that venting anger begets more anger *More research is necessary to resolve these possibilities* Costs of Moral Outrage (Crockett) - CORRECT ANSWER -Retaliating online reduces the risks of expressing moral outrage -Empathic distress -> online settings reduce this by representing other people as 2-D icons whose suffering is not readily visible Rewards of Moral Outrage (Crockett) - CORRECT ANSWER -Outrage expression provides reputational rewards -> outrage signals moral quality to others -Can also benefit society by holding bad actors accountable & sending a message to others that such behavior is socially unacceptable How does digital media limit the potential social benefits of moral outrage? (Crockett) - CORRECT ANSWER -Ideological segregation online prevents the targets of outrage from receiving messages that could induce them to change their behavior (echo chambers) -By lowering the threshold for outrage expression, digital media may degrade the ability of outrage to distinguish the truly heinous from the merely disagreeable -Expressing outrage online may result in less meaningful involvement in social causes -> i.e. thru volunteering or donating -Serious risk that moral outrage in the digital age will deepen social divides What does Huskey add to Crockett's argument that individuals show moral outrage when exposed to social media & this outrage is consistent w/ an individual's moral subculture? - CORRECT ANSWER -Moral subcultures emerge in response to media use & the moral profiles of these subcultures shape the evaluation of moral actions -Crockett's model should specify: message, source, & receiver characteristics that explain intensity of & variation in moral emotions How does Huskey evaluate Crockett's argument that social media constitute echo chambers & that exposure to moral content in social media contributes to polarization? - CORRECT ANSWER -Audience fragmentation is lesser than audience duplication & this finding is true across multiple nations & platforms -If social media contribute to polarization, then the most polarized audiences should use social media the most -> but this is not the case What does Huskey say about Crockett's argument that exposure to moral content evokes stronger moral outrage in social media compared with in person? - CORRECT ANSWER -The hypothesis that social media increase moral outrage over other channels requires additional evidence Behavior Change Theories - CORRECT ANSWER What is it about a message that will change an audience's behavior? -These theories guide the selection of routes to behavior intention & certain beliefs to target Info Processing Theories - CORRECT ANSWER Answers questions about psychological processes & context -> hints at ways to achieve attention & acceptance *How are people processing the info in a media message?* Limited Capacity Model of Motivated Mediated Message Processing (LC4MP): Five assumptions - CORRECT ANSWER -Human info capacity is limited -Two motivational systems: appetitive (to approach) & aversive (to avoid) -Messages are continuing streams of info in multiple modalities (e.g. visual, auditory) -Communication is dynamic & happens over time -Communication is an interactive exchange of info LC4MP Process: - CORRECT ANSWER *Encoding:* taking the info in & holding it in the mind (short-term/working memory) *Storage:* storing the info for later use (long-term memory) *Retrieval:* retrieving the info from your long-term memory LC4MP: *Human info capacity is limited* - CORRECT ANSWER -Cognitive resources are in a pool w/ a fixed size -Can be split into two pools: *visuospatial sketchpad* (visual info) & *phonological loop* (auditory info) -Since cognitive resources are capacity limited, we can only attend to a small amount of info at any given time -> these resources are split into 3 sub-processes: *encoding, storage, & retrieval* LC4MP: *Two motivational systems: appetitive & aversive* - CORRECT ANSWER -Developed over evolutionary time to facilitate survival behavior -*Appetitive:* to approach (i.e. find food, mates, etc.) -*Aversive:* to avoid (i.e. predators, pathogens, etc.) -At rest, the appetitive system is more active than the aversive system -> however, the appetitive system operates slowly & shows roughly linear increases in approach -The aversive system operates quickly, & negative info quickly results in high levels of avoidance -> this is a fight or flight response LC4MP: *Messages are continuing streams of info in multiple modalities* - CORRECT ANSWER -Across visual & auditory modalities, info can be: *concordant* (matching across modalities -> i.e. correct subtitles of audio) OR *discordant* (conflicting across modalities -> i.e. incorrect subtitles) -Assumes we process mediated info in the same way that we process non-mediated info -The human brain has not yet developed mechanisms to quickly discriminate between mediated & non-mediated stimuli LC4MP: *Communication is dynamic & happens over time* - CORRECT ANSWER -Asking about a message at its end is not helpful -Messages can have various trajectory shifts -> neg. to pos. & pos. to neg. -Self-report scores can look the same for different trajectories, but the behavioral outcomes differ LC4MP: *Communication is an interactive exchange of info* - CORRECT ANSWER -Most of the models we have considered so far assume one-to-many models of communication -But humans control so many facets of communication: attentional state, changing the channel, & many forms of new media are many-to-many 3 Research Domains of LC4MP: *Cognitive Load* - CORRECT ANSWER -Primarily concerned w/ capacity limitations in the human info processing system -> how messages load the system & how different load levels impact message processing -Resources can be split into four parts: -> *Resources required:* messages can be more/less complex, which requires more/less resources -> *Resources allocated:* how many cognitive resources we give to a message -> *Resources available:* allocated minus required -> *Resources remaining:* total minus allocated What do we know about *Cognitive Load*? - CORRECT ANSWER -Increased motivational relevant &/or structural features increase resource allocation to a message -Messages which are more complex require more cognitive resources -Messages that are too complex are not well remembered 3 Research Domains of LC4MP: *Motivated Processing* - CORRECT ANSWER -How motivational systems are involved in communication processes of encoding, storage, & retrieval -People differ in their motivated processing -Different baseline rates of appetitive (ASA) & aversive (DSA) activation -Four types of people: *risk-takers* (high ASA, low DSA); *risk-avoiders* (low ASA, high DSA); *inactives* (low ASA, low DSA); *coactives* (high ASA, high DSA) Risk-takers - CORRECT ANSWER Prefer riskier choices, competitive/threatening situations (e.g. horror movies, violent video games, sports, etc.) Risk-avoiders - CORRECT ANSWER Prefer safer choices (puzzle/strategy games, soap operas, etc.) Coactives - CORRECT ANSWER Score in the middle between risk-takers & risk-avoiders What do we know about *Motivated Processing*? - CORRECT ANSWER -Different ASA/DSA combinations lead to different message processing outcomes -Experience w/ the topic shape processing, particularly when it comes to anti-drug messages -Messages which contain appetitive or aversive content elicit -> more resources allocation to encoding & storage processes AND leads to greater recognition & recall for these messages -If the message is too aversive, disengagement occurs -Moderately arousing messages are best remembered -Risk-takers seek more arousing media, are attracted to more risky portrayals, & are more resistant to persuasion -Messages w/ positive/negatively valenced arousal will elicit resources allocation -Too much arousal leads to disengagement -Particularly true for negatively valenced arousal 3 Research Domains of LC4MP: *Memory* - CORRECT ANSWER -How message features interact w/ individual differences to shape memory -At its core, LC4MP is focused on understanding how cognitive load & motivation shape: encoding, storage, & retrieval *Memory:* Encoding - CORRECT ANSWER -A perception & info selection process wherein stimuli from the environment are developed into a coherent mental representation -Related to "resource allocation" -Key finding: as resource allocation increases, so does encoding *Memory:* Storage - CORRECT ANSWER -Encoded info is stored into long-term memory for later use -Key finding: increased appetitive system activation leads to increased encoding; increased aversive system activation leads to decreased encoding -Key finding: when messages are difficult to process (e.g. complex), providing graphics (e.g. infographics) helps w/ storage *Memory:* Retrieval - CORRECT ANSWER -The process by which info that has previously been stored in the brain is activated for reuse -New area of research, findings still preliminary -Key finding: emotional messages are better remembered than calm or neutral messages What do we know about *Memory*? - CORRECT ANSWER -Cognitive overload is associated w/ reduced storage -Moderately arousing messages are best encoded -Negatively valenced messages lead to decreased encoding -Arousal is a double-edged sword: increases storage for positive, but decreases storage for negative messages David Marr's Tri-Level Framework - CORRECT ANSWER Fully understanding any behavior requires explanation at three levels: *Computation:* why does a behavior exist? *Algorithm:* what rules govern the behavior? *Implementation:* how is the behavior physically implemented? Applying Marr's Tri-Level Framework - CORRECT ANSWER *Computation* (why) -> share info w/ a conversational partner *Algorithm* (what) -> interaction partner stands too close, expectation violation *Implementation* (how) -> expectation violation is neurally encoded, & results in the speaker taking a step backward Important Neuro Concepts - CORRECT ANSWER *Forward Inference:* experimentally manipulate task & observe corresponding brain activation *Subtraction Logic:* activation from one condition is subtracted from the other *Reverse Inference:* activation in a brain region that a specific mental process is occurring (logical fallacy: affirming the consequent) Intersubject Correlation - CORRECT ANSWER (Hasson et al., 2008) -ISC can help us see general responses across time to media content -See what media content make audiences think alike [Show More]

Last updated: 5 months ago

Preview 1 out of 36 pages

Add to cart

Instant download

Also available in bundle (1)

CQM-C EXAM (27 Sets) Questions with Verified Answers,100% CORRECT

CQM-C Exam 40 Questions with Verified Answers,CMQ/OE Exam Terms 2017/2018|101 Questions with Verified Answers,ASQ CMQ/OE 34 Questions with Verified Answers,Ready, Fire, Aim" by Michael Masterson Exam...

By securegrades 5 months ago



Reviews( 0 )


Add to cart

Instant download

Can't find what you want? Try our AI powered Search



Document information

Connected school, study & course

About the document

Uploaded On

Nov 29, 2023

Number of pages


Written in



Member since 4 years

117 Documents Sold

Additional information

This document has been written for:


Nov 29, 2023





Recommended For You

Get more on EXAM »
What is Browsegrades

In Browsegrades, a student can earn by offering help to other student. Students can help other students with materials by upploading their notes and earn money.

We are here to help

We're available through e-mail, Twitter, Facebook, and live chat.
 Questions? Leave a message!

Follow us on

Copyright © Browsegrades · High quality services·