CMQ/OE Exam Terms 2017/2018|101 Questions with Verified Answers A-B-C Analysis - CORRECT ANSWER A systematic collection and analysis of the behavior observed of an individual or a work group for th... e purpose of determining the cause of specific behaviors. Acceptable Quality Limit (AQL) - CORRECT ANSWER The quality level that is the worst tolerable process average when a continuing series of lots is submitted for acceptance sampling. Acceptance Sampling - CORRECT ANSWER Inspection of a sample from a lot to decide whether to accept or not accept that lot. There are two types: attributes sampling and variables sampling. In attributes sampling, the presence or absence of a characteristic is noted in each of the units inspected. In variables sampling, the numerical magnitude of a characteristic is measured and recorded for each inspected unit; this involves reference to a continuous scale of some kind. Acceptance Sampling Plan - CORRECT ANSWER Specific plan that indicates the sampling sizes and the associated acceptance or nonacceptance criteria to be used. In attributes sampling, for example there are single, double, multiple, sequential, chain, and skip-lot sampling plans. In variables sampling, there are single, double, and sequential sampling plans. Accreditation - CORRECT ANSWER Certification, by a duly recognized body, of the facilities, capability, objectivity, competence, and integrity of an agency, service or operational group or individual to provide the specific service or operation needed. Accuracy - CORRECT ANSWER A characteristic of measurement that addresses how close an observed value is to the true value. It answers the question "is it right?" ACSI - CORRECT ANSWER The American customer satisfaction index is an economic indicator, a cross-industry measure of the satisfaction of US customers with the quality of the goods and services available to them - both those goods and services produced within the United States and those provided as imports from foreign firms that have substantial market shares or dollar sales. Action Plan - CORRECT ANSWER The detailed plan to implement the actions needed to achieve strategic goals and objectives (similar to, but not as detailed as a project plan). Active Listening - CORRECT ANSWER Listening closely to what others are saying (for example, rather than what you think of what they are saying or what you want to say back to them). Activity-based Management - CORRECT ANSWER Managing with an accounting system (activity-based costing) that allocates costs to products based on resources employed to produce the product. ADDIE - CORRECT ANSWER An instructional design model (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation). Adult Learning Principals - CORRECT ANSWER Key principles of how adults learn that impact how education and training of adults should be designed. Affinity Diagram/KJ Method - CORRECT ANSWER A management and planning tool used to organize ideas into natural groupings in a way that stimulates new, creative ideas. AKA KJ method. Agile Approach - CORRECT ANSWER Means to change rapidly to meet changing customer and business direction. See lean approach. AIAG - CORRECT ANSWER Automotive Industry Action group Alignment - CORRECT ANSWER Action taken to ensure that a process or activity allows traceability from an action level upward to support the organization's strategic goals and objectives. Alliance - CORRECT ANSWER An alliance can be the first step toward a partnership. Alpha Risk - CORRECT ANSWER Type 1 error; rejecting a process or lot when it is acceptable. Also see producer's risk. Analogies - CORRECT ANSWER A technique used to generate new ideas by translating concepts from one application to another. Analysis of Variance(ANOVA) - CORRECT ANSWER A basic statistical technique for analyzing experimental data. It subdivides the total variation of a data set into meaningful component parts associated with specific sources of variation in order to test a hypothesis on the parameters of the model or to estimate variance components. There are three models: fixed, random and mixed. Analytical Thinking - CORRECT ANSWER Breaking down a problem or situation into discrete parts to understand how each part contributes to the whole. AND - CORRECT ANSWER Activity network diagram. A management and planning tool used to diagram the sequential relationships of events or processes or deliverables. The critical path method (CPM) and the program evaluation review technique (PERT) are derived from the arrow diagram. Andon Board - CORRECT ANSWER A visual device (usually lights) displaying status alerts that can easily be seen by those who should respond. AOQ - CORRECT ANSWER Average Outgoing Quality AOQL - CORRECT ANSWER Average Outgoing Quality Limit APICS - CORRECT ANSWER American Production and Inventory Control Society Appraisal Cost - CORRECT ANSWER Costs incurred to determine the degree of conformance to quality requirements. AS9100 - CORRECT ANSWER An international quality management standard for the aeronautics industry embracing the ISO 9001 standard. ASME - CORRECT ANSWER American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASQ - CORRECT ANSWER American Society for Quality, a society of individual and organizational members dedicated to the ongoing development, advancement, and promotion of quality concepts, principles, and technologies. Assessment - CORRECT ANSWER An estimate or determination of the significance, importance or value of something. ASTD - CORRECT ANSWER American Society for Training and Development ASTM - CORRECT ANSWER American Society for Testing and Materials Attribute Data - CORRECT ANSWER Does/Does not exist data. The control charts based on attribute data include fraction defective chart, number of affected units chart, count chart, count-per-unit chart, quality score chart, and demerit chart. Audit - CORRECT ANSWER A planned, independent, and documented assessment to determine whether agreed-on requirements are being met. Common types of audits are of the quality management system, processes products, and services. When an audit is to check on conformance to a standard, specifications, contract terms, or regulations, it may be called a compliance audit. Audit Program - CORRECT ANSWER The organized structure, commitment, schedules, and documented methods used to plan and perform audits. Audit Scope - CORRECT ANSWER The depth or extent and boundaries within which the audit will be conducted. Audit Team - CORRECT ANSWER The group of trained individuals conducting an audit under the direction of a team leader, relevant to a particular system, product, process, service, contract, project, or standard. Audit Types - CORRECT ANSWER "internal" or "First Party" (organization being audited by itself), "External" or "second Party" (an organization conducting an audit of a supplier, customer, or other company), and "External" or "third party" (audit conducted by a registrar or another party). Autocratic Management - CORRECT ANSWER Autocratic managers are concerned with developing an efficient workplace and often have little concern for people (theory X assumptions about people). They typically make decisions without input from subordinates. These managers rely on their positional power. Autonomation/Jidoka - CORRECT ANSWER Use of specially equipped automated machines capable of detecting a defect in a single part, stopping the process, and signaling for assistance. Availability - CORRECT ANSWER The availablility of a process or equipment to be in a state to perform its designated function under stated conditions at a given time. Ratio: Uptime/Downtime. Average Chart - CORRECT ANSWER A control chart in which the subgroup average, x-bar, is used to evaluate the stability of the process level. Average Outgoing Quality (AOQ) - CORRECT ANSWER The expected average quality level of outgoing product for a given value of incoming product quality. Average Outgoing Quality Limit (AOQL) - CORRECT ANSWER The maximum average outgoing quality over all possible levels of incoming quality for a given acceptance sampling plan and disposal specification. Balance Sheet - CORRECT ANSWER A financial statement showing the assets, liabilities, and owner's equity of a business. Balanced Scorecard - CORRECT ANSWER Translates an organization's mission and strategy into a comprehensive set of performance measures to provide a basis for strategic measurement and management, typically using four balanced views: financial, customers, internal business processes, and learning and growth. Baldrige Performance Excellence Program (BPEP) - CORRECT ANSWER The Baldrige National Quality Award was established by congress in 1987 to raise awareness of quality management and to recognize US companies that have implemented successful quality management systems. A Criteria for Performance Excellence is published each year. Three awards may be given annually in each of the five categories: manufacturing businesses, service businesses, small businesses, educational institutions, and healthcare organizations. The award is named after the late Secretary of Commerce Malcolm Baldrige, a proponent of quality management. The US Commerce Department's National Institute of Standards and Technology manages the award, and ASQ administers it. The major emphasis in determining success is achieving results. Batch Processing - CORRECT ANSWER Running large batches of a single product through the process at one time, resulting in queues awaiting next steps in the process. BATF - CORRECT ANSWER Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms Bathtub Curve - CORRECT ANSWER Also called life-history curve or Weibull Curve. A graphic demonstration of the relationship of failures over the life of a product versus the probable failure rate. Includes three phases: early or infant failure (break-in), a stable rate during normal use, and wear-out. Behavior Management - CORRECT ANSWER The management methodology and practices adapted from B.F. Skinner's theories: a practice used in managing people. Behavioral Theories - CORRECT ANSWER Motivational theories, notably those of Abraham Maslow, Frederick Herzberg, Douglas McGregor and others. Benchmarking - CORRECT ANSWER An improvement process in which a company measures its performance against that of best-in-class organizations (or others that are good performers), determines how those organizations achieved their performance levels, and uses the information to improve its own performance. Areas often bench marked include strategies, operations, processes, and procedures. Benefit-Cost Analysis - CORRECT ANSWER Collection of the dollar value of benefits derived from an initiative and the associated costs incurred and computing the ratio of benefits to cost. Beta Risk - CORRECT ANSWER Type 2 error; the possibility that a bad product will be accepted by a consumer. Consumer risk. Bias - CORRECT ANSWER A characteristic of measurement that refers to a systematic difference. Big Q, Little q - CORRECT ANSWER A term used to contrast the difference between managing for quality in all processes and products (Big Q) and managing for quality in a limited capacity (little q). Binomial Distribution - CORRECT ANSWER Defines the probability of successes from a given number of trials. Black Belt - CORRECT ANSWER Full-time leader responsibility for implementing Six Sigma process improvement projects using pertinent methodologies, such as DMAIC, DOE, and others. Usually, the Black Belt trains the Green Belts, and often serves for a two-year assignment overseeing eight to ten SS projects. Blemish - CORRECT ANSWER An imperfection that is severe enough to be noticed, but should not cause any real impairment with respect to intended normal or reasonably foreseeable use. (defect, imperfection and nonconformity) Block Diagram - CORRECT ANSWER A diagram that shows the operation, interrelationships, and inter-dependencies of components in a system. Boxes, or blocks (hence the name), represent the components; connecting lines between the blocks represent interfaces. There are two types of block diagrams: a functional block diagram, which shows a system;s subsystems and lower-level products, their interrelationships, and interfaces with other systems; and a reliability block diagram, which is similar to the functional block diagram except that it is modified to emphasize those aspects influencing reliability. Bottom Line - CORRECT ANSWER An essential point or primary consideration. The line at the bottom of a financial statement that states the net profit or loss incurred. Boundraryless Organization - CORRECT ANSWER An organization without the internal or external boundaries limiting traditional structures. AKA network organization, a modular corporation or a virtual corporation. BPR - CORRECT ANSWER Business process reengineering. Brainstorming - CORRECT ANSWER A problem-solving tool that teams use to generate as many ideas as possible related to a particular subject. Team members begin by offering all their ideas; the ideas are not discussed or reviewed until after the brainstorming session. Breakthrough - CORRECT ANSWER A method of solving chronic problems that results from the effective execution of a strategy designed to reach the next level of quality. Such change often requires a paradigm shift within the organization. Brown Fields - CORRECT ANSWER Abandoned, idle, or underused commercial or industrial facilities or site, often where use is complicated by real or potential environmental contamination. BSI - CORRECT ANSWER British Standards Institute Business Partnering - CORRECT ANSWER The creation of cooperative business alliances between constituencies within an organization or between an organization and its customers or suppliers. Partnering occurs through a pooling of resources in a trusting atmosphere focused on continuous, mutual improvement. Business Processes - CORRECT ANSWER Processes that focus on what the organization does as a business and how it goes about doing it; the functional processes (generating output within a single department) and cross-functional processes (generating output across several functions or departments). Calibration - CORRECT ANSWER The comparison of a measurement instrument or system of unverified accuracy to a measurement instrument or system of a know accuracy to detect any variation from the true value. Capability Ratio (Cp) - CORRECT ANSWER The specification tolerance width divided by the process capability. Capability Maturity Model (CMM) - CORRECT ANSWER Description of key elements of an effective software process, covering planning practices, engineering, managing software development and maintenance. Capital Expenditure - CORRECT ANSWER Money for improvements that will have a useful life of more than a year. Cascading Training - CORRECT ANSWER Training implemented in an organization from the top down, where each level acts as trainers to those below. Case Study - CORRECT ANSWER A prepared scenario that, when studied and discussed, serves to illuminate the learning points of a course of study. Cash Flow Statement - CORRECT ANSWER A financial statement showing the flow of cash in and out of an enterprise within a given time period. Catchball - CORRECT ANSWER A term used to describe the interactive process of reaching consensus in developing and deploying policies and plans with hoshin planning. Cause-and-Effect Diagram - CORRECT ANSWER A tool for analyzing process variables. It is also referred to as the Ishikawa Diagram because Kaoru Ishikawa developed it, and the fishbone diagram because the complete diagram resembles a fish skeleton. The diagram illustrates the main causes and sub-causes leading to an effect (symptom). The cause-and-effect diagram is one of the seven tools of quality. CBT - CORRECT ANSWER Computer-based training C-Chart - CORRECT ANSWER Count control chart CE Mark - CORRECT ANSWER A mark paced on a product signifying that the product complies with the essential/safety requirements of the relevant European regulations; from the French, Conformite Europeenne. Cell - CORRECT ANSWER A layout of workstations and/or various machines for different operations (usually in a U shape) in which multitasking operators proceed with a part from machine to machine to perform a series of sequential steps to produce a whole product or major sub-assembly. Cellular Team - CORRECT ANSWER The cross-trained individuals who work within a cell. Central Tendency - CORRECT ANSWER The propensity of data collected on a process to concentrate around a value situated somewhere midway between the lowest and highest values. Centralization - CORRECT ANSWER Relates to the locus of the decision-making authority within an organization. Certification to a Standard - CORRECT ANSWER A process in which an accredited, independent third-party organization conducts an on-site audit of a company's operations against the requirements of the standard to which the company wants certification. Upon successful completion of the audit, the company receives a certificate indication that it has met the standard requirements. The third party (registrar) lists the organization receiving certification (registration). Chain Reaction - CORRECT ANSWER A series of interacting events descried by W. Edwards Deming: improve quality>decrease costs>improve productivity>increase market share with better quality and lower price>stay in business, provide jobs and provide more jobs. Chaku-Chaku - CORRECT ANSWER Means load-load in a cell layout where a part is taken from one machine and loaded into the next. Champion - CORRECT ANSWER An individual who has accountability and responsibility for many processes or who is involved in making strategic-level decisions for the organization. The champion ensures ongoing dedication of project resources and monitors strategic alignment. AKA sponsor. Chance Cuase - CORRECT ANSWER Same as common cause, a random and uncontrollable cause of variation. Change Agent - CORRECT ANSWER The person who takes the lead in transforming an organization into a quality-focused organization by providing guidance during the planning phase, facilitating implementation, and supporting those who pioneer those changes. Change Management - CORRECT ANSWER The strategies, processes, and practices involved in creating and managing change. Changeover - CORRECT ANSWER Changing a machine or process from one type of product or operation to another. Characteristic - CORRECT ANSWER A property that helps to identify or to differentiate between entities and that can be described or measured to determine conformance or non-conformance to requirements. Charter - CORRECT ANSWER A documented statement officially initiating the formation of a committee, team, project, or other effort in which a clearly stated purpose and approval in conferred. Check Sheet - CORRECT ANSWER A simple data-recording device. The check sheet is custom designed for the particular use, allowing ease in interpreting the results. The check sheet is one of the seven tools of quality. Check sheets should not be confused with data sheets and checklists. Sometimes called a tally sheet. Checklist - CORRECT ANSWER A tool for organizing and ensuring that all important steps or actions in an operation have been taken. checklists contain items that are important or relevant to an issue or situation. Checklists should not be confused with check sheets and data sheets. Chi-square - CORRECT ANSWER A measurement of how well a set of data fits a proposed distribution, such as a normal distribution. Chronic Problem - CORRECT ANSWER A long-standing adverse situation that can be remedied by changing the status quo. For example, actions such as revising an unrealistic manufacturing process or addressing customer defections can change the status quo and remedy the situation. [Show More]
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