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TEST BANK FOR PORTH’S PATHOPHYSIOLOGY 10TH EDITION BY NORRIS CHAPTER 14: Somatosensory Function, Pain, and Temperature

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1. While batting, a baseball player is struck in the ribs by a pitch. Place the following components of the player's pain pathway in the chronological order as they contribute to the player's sensatio... n of pain. Use all the options. A) Thalamus B) Dorsal root ganglion body C) Dorsal root ganglion periphery D) Axon E) Cerebral cortex Ans: C, B, D, A, E Feedback: All somatosensory information from the limbs and trunk shares a common class of sensory neurons called dorsal root ganglion neurons. Somatosensory information from the face and cranial structures is transmitted by the trigeminal sensory neurons, which function in the same manner as the dorsal root ganglion neurons. The cell body of the dorsal root ganglion neuron, its peripheral branch (which innervates a small area of periphery), and its central axon (which projects to the CNS) communicate with the thalamus, which in turn communicates with the cerebral cortex using third-order neurons. 2. A student is feeling inside her backpack to find her mobile phone. There are a number of other items in the bag other than the phone. The nurse knows that which of the following terms best describes one's ability to sense of shape and size of an object in the absence of visualization? A) Stereognosis B) Astereognosis C) Modalities D) Somesthesia Ans: A Feedback: The sense of shape and size of an object in the absence of visualization is known as stereognosis. Astereognosis is a deficit whereby a person can correctly describe the object but does not recognize it. “Modalities” is a term used for qualitative, subjective distinctions between sensations such as touch, heat, and pain. Somesthesia describes most of the perceptive aspects of body sensation and requires the function of the parietal association cortex. 3. A woman with severe visual and auditory deficits is able to identify individuals by running her fingers lightly over their face. Which of the following sources is most likely to provide the input that allows for the woman's unique ability? A) Pacinian corpuscles B) Ruffini end organs C) Meissner corpuscles D) Free nerve endings Ans: C Feedback: Meissner corpuscles, which are present on the hair-free areas like palms and fingers, are responsible for fine tactile sensation. Pacinian corpuscles provide input on vibration, while Ruffini end organs exist in deeper structures that signal continuous states of deformation. Free nerve endings also detect touch and pressure, but not to the highly differentiated degree of Meissner corpuscles. 4. A mother is placing her child into the bathtub. The child immediately jumps out of the tub and begins to cry, stating his feet are “burning.” The nurse in the emergency department knows that the child's response is based on which of the following pathophysiological principles listed below? A) Children react much quicker to contact with hot water than adults. B) The tactile sensation occurs well in advance of the burning sensation. The local withdrawal reflex reacts first. C) It takes a long time for thermal signals to be processed before the brain can send a signal through the spinal cord and tell the foot to withdraw. D) The thermal processing center is located on the rapid conducting anterolateral system on the same side of the brain as the injury. Ans: B Feedback: If a person places a foot in a tub of hot water, the tactile sensation occurs well in advance of the burning sensation. The foot has been removed from the hot water by the local withdrawal reflex well before the excessive heat is perceived by the forebrain. All other responses are incorrect. [Show More]

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