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2024/2025 ABPP EXAM - Questions and Answers (Complete Solutions)

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2024/2025 ABPP EXAM - Questions and Answers (Complete Solutions) The _____ nucleus is to vision as the ____ nucleus is to auditory inputs. A. LGN, MGN B. LGN, VPL C. MGN, VPM D. MGN, LGN Has a 5th l... obe ever been supported by research? If so, where is it located? A. False, no location B. True, Operculum C. True, Insula D. True, Basal Ganglia is considered a "little brain" The insula is found below the Operculum which is the "Lip" that folds from the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes Cuneus wedge refers to all of the following except: A. Visual areas Brodmann's area 17, 18, 19 B. Above the calcarine fissure C. Below the calcarine fissure D. None The motor system is _______ pathway. A. Spinothamlamic B. Corticospinal C. Corticobulbospinal D. Column-medial lemniscus ______ neurons ____ from brain/CNS to muscles. Pick any/all that apply. A. Afferent, arriving B. Efferent, exiting C. Motor pathways D. Sensory pathways All of the following are medications used to slow the progression of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease EXCEPT: A. Donepezil B. Galantamine C. Rivastigmine D. Memantine Memantine acts on what neurotransmitter? A. Acetylcholine B. Dopamine C. Serotonin D. Glutamate A 70-year-old male has been referred to you for a dementia evaluation. When completing your chart review, you notice that he is currently prescribed both Aricept and Namenda. What would be an acceptable recommendation regarding this medication use? A. Continue the combination therapy and consider adding Exelon. B. Continue the combination therapy, as these medications act on different neurotransmitters and the effect is not duplicative. C. Discontinue the Aricept, as it's duplicative. D. Discontinue the Namenda, as it's duplicative. Appropriate combination therapy as Aricept/donepezil acts on acetylcholine and Namenda/memantine acts on glutamate. All of the following are common neuropsychological issues for AD EXCEPT: A. Semantic fluency > phonemic fluency impairment B. Delayed recall > immediate recall impairment C. Poor confrontation naming D. Borderline recognition memory Recognition memory is impaired with increased FP or FN errors. Also poor consolidation, flat learning curve, visuospatial deficits, and intact simple attention to late in the disease. All of the following are common neuropsychological issues for VaD EXCEPT: A. Decreased processing speed B. Visuospatial deficits C. Semantic > phonemic fluency impairment D. Psychomotor slowing Phonemic fluency has greater impairment. Other issues include executive dysfunction and attention issues. Which test data could help to distinguish LBD from AD? A. CVLT-2 DRFR B. BVMT-R IR C. JLO D. WMS-IV Logical Memory Recognition Memory is not significantly affected in early DLB, especially delayed free recall. In terms of Vascular Dementia, which statements are false regarding classification system criteria among: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Association International (NINDS-AIREN), Alzheimer's Disease Diagnostic and Treatment Centers (state of CA: ADDTC), and the DSM-IV TR. NINDS-AIREN has stricter criteria compared to DSM-IV TR and ADDTC diagnosing dementia only if memory impairment and 2 additional areas of impaired cognitive domains (3 domains total), while DSM-IV TRI and ADDTC only require 2 domains being negatively impacted/impaired. A. DSM-IV TR requires impairment in basic daily ADLs NINDS-AIREN and DSM-IV TR require neuroimaging confirming stroke B. NINDS-AIREN looks to onset of dementia within 3 months of stroke and/or is an abrupt deterioration or stepwise decline C. ADDTC criteria do not require memory impairment they only require that more than one cognitive domain has been affected. D. All 3 criteria are criticized as inconsistent with the reality that pure VaD and pure AD are opposing anchors of a commonly occurring spectrum of disease B is false DSM-IV TR looks more to social and occupational then to ADLs for change in functioning Why has Binswanger's disease been called into question? A. Lacunar infarcts in the thalamus, basal ganglia, and periventricular white matter can demonstrate healing B. Cognitive impairment co-occurs with periventricular white matter volume loss C. White matter abnormalities are seen on imaging for healthy elderly D. Binswanger's disease is well established in the research literature Healthy normals have white matter abnormalities without cognitive decline Which of these choices contribute to small vessel disease? A. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy B. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy C. Lacunar D. Lipohyalinosis E. Lentriculostriate All of the following are potential reversible causes of cognitive impairment in older adults EXCEPT: A. Thyroid issues B. B12 deficiency C. Neurosyphilis D. Substance use E. NPH F. Depression G. None, all of the above are potential causes Get lab work and neuroimaging to rule these causes out. Abnormal stiffening and extension of the neck is one of the "probable" signs of: a) AD b) Huntington's c) Pick disease d) Progressive Supranuclear Palsy e) Parkinson's Disease f) HIV-associated dementia PSP has is characterized by stiffening of the neck The second most common dementia is: a. AD b. Lewy Bodies c. Pick d. Fronto-Temporal e. Vascular Prevalence of VD is 10-15%; Lewy Bodies-12-27% Your patient presents with progressive decline in speech and writing; speech is non-fluent with phonological errors. Comprehension and repetition is intact: What is the possible diagnosis a. Logopenic progressive aphasia b. Semantic dementia c. Progressive nonfluent aphasia d. This description does not fit any criteria primary progressive aphasias Primary nonfluent aphasia: loss of naming, nonfluent aphasia. But repetition and comprehension is intact. Your other patient is presenting with dysnomia, effortful speech, and impaired repetition and comprehension for complex sentences. What is the possible diagnosis? a. Logopenic progressive aphasia b. Semantic dementia c. Progressive nonfluent aphasia d. This description does not fit any criteria primary progressive aphasias Logopenic aphasia: loss of naming, nonfluent aphasia, with impaired repetition and comprehension 17q21-22 is associated with: a. AD b. Lewy Bodies c. Pick d. Fronto-Temporal e. Logopenic progressive aphasia f. Semantic dementia g. Progressive nonfluent aphasia Ubiquitin immunoreactive inclusions in cells OR ubiquitin immunoreactive neuritis is found in 50% cases of: a. AD b. Lewy Bodies c. Pick d. Fronto-Temporal e. Logopenic progressive aphasia f. Semantic dementia g. Progressive nonfluent aphasia What test measures were most reliable in predicting vascular dementia at baseline post stroke? A. MMSE B. Memory C. CVLT D. Category word-list generation E. Executive functioning on Trails B _____ is to abrupt onset, as ______ is to stepwise progression, and _____ is to insidious onset for VaD. A. Single strategic infarct, Multi-infarct Dementia, small vessel disease affecting white matter B. Lacunar infarct, MID, leukoaraiosis C. Leukoaraiosis, binswagner's disease, MID D. MID, Lacunar infarct, small vessel disease affecting white matter In Pick's disease, which of the following cognitive domains are typically spared? A. Memory B. Executive function C. Visuospatial ability D. Psychomotor ability E. A & C F. C & D G. None of the above Which of the following medications would you use to treat bvFTD? (pick all that apply) A. Donepezil B. Memantine C. SSRI D. SNRI Match the typically affected brain areas with appropriate types of PPA. Nonfluent/agrammatic 1. Left tempoparietal area Semantic dementia 2. Left posterior frontal and insular areas Logopenic variant 3. Anterior temporal area Nonfluent - 2, semantic dementia - 3, logopenic - 1 Which 2 are autosomal dominant disorders? A. Sickle cell & PPA B. HD & PPA C. Cystic fibrosis & PPA D. Fragile X & PPA NF1 is also autosomal dominant. Sickle cell and CF are autosomal recessive. PKU is also autosomal recessive. Impaired repetition is found in ______ and impaired naming is found in _______. A. Semantic dementia, logopenic variant B. Nonfluent variant, logopenic variant C. Semantic dementia, nonfluent variant D. Logopenic variant, semantic dementia Which types of FTD are not tau-positive? (pick all that apply) A. bvFTD B. PPA C. PSP D. FTD-MND Pick's disease is characterized by Pick bodies and cells, whereas FTD-MND is ubiquitin-based. Alien limb syndrome can be seen in which of the following disorders (pick all that apply). A. PSP B. CBD C. AD D. Left PCA stroke Which test would be most useful in assessing potential cognitive impairment in ALS? A. CVLT-2 B. Grooved Pegboard C. JLO D. COWAT Which subtype of ALS has greater cognitive impairment and faster disease progression? A. Bulbar onset B. Limb onset C. Tremor onset D. There is no significant difference between the two types The most common neonatal strokes are related to a. MCA b. PCA c. ACA d. Sinovenous The drug that most common leads to an increase in stroke risk is a. Marijuana b. Alcohol c. Cocaine d. Heropine e. Opiates Ataxia, vertigo and nausea are common signs of stroke to: a) Anterior circulation b) Posterior circulation c) Vestibular cortex d) Small pontine lesion e) Dorsal-Medial thalamus The most common hemorrhage due to trauma is a) Intraventricular hemorrhage b) Subarachnoid hemorrhage c) Epidural hemorrhage d) Subdural hemorrhage Amyloid angiopathy is a. Congenital abnormality b. Degeneration of blood vessels c. Leads to small vessel hemorrhage d. Leads to thalamic hemorrhage Complete recovery is most likely in: a. Periventricular hemorrhage, stage III b. Intracerebral hemorrhage c. Lacunar infarction secondary to amyloid angiopathy d. Right PCA stroke Cerebellar stroke will likely result in: a) Coma and then quadriplegia b) Ataxia of upper and/or lower extremities c) Ataxia of the trunk and nausea d) Headache, balance and ataxia of extremities Cerebellar stroke is likely to lead to truncal ataxia, nausea, and occipital headache [Show More]

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