*NURSING > EXAM > NR 507 Advanced Pathophysiology Week 7 Quiz (Version 2) All Answer Verified 100% correct. (All)

NR 507 Advanced Pathophysiology Week 7 Quiz (Version 2) All Answer Verified 100% correct.

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NR 507 Advanced Pathophysiology Week 7 Quiz Question 1 Most dysphasias are associated with cerebrovascular accidents involving which artery? Correct! Middle cerebral artery Posterior ... communicating artery Anterior communicating artery Circle of Willis Dysphasias usually are associated with cerebrovascular accident involving the middle cerebral artery or one of its many branches. Question 2 Vomiting is associated with CNS injuries that compress which anatomic location(s)? Vestibular nuclei in the midbrain Diencephalon Correct! Vestibular nuclei in the lower pons and medulla oblongata Floor of the third ventricle Vomiting is associated particularly with CNS injuries that (1) involve the vestibular nuclei (located in the lower pons and medulla oblongata) or their immediate projections, particularly when double vision (diplopia) also is present. Question 3 Cognitive operations cannot occur without the _____ functioning. cingulate gyrus pons Correct! reticular activating system medulla oblongata Awareness encompasses all cognitive functions that embody awareness of self, environment, and affective states (i.e., moods). Consciousness often is viewed as having two distinct components: arousal and awareness. Arousal, an attentional system, is the state of awakeness that an individual exhibits. Level of arousal is mediated by the reticular activating system. Question 4 Dilated and sluggish pupils, widening pulse pressure, and bradycardia are clinical findings evident of which stage of intracranial hypertension? Correct! Stage 3 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 4 Stage 3 of intracranial hypertension presents clinical manifestations that include decreasing levels of arousal, Cheyne-Stokes respiration or central neurogenic hyperventilation, pupils that become sluggish and dilated, widened pulse pressure, and bradycardia. Question 5 Which description is consistent with a complex partial seizure? Alternative tonic and clonic movements Correct! Consciousness is impaired as well as the ability to respond to exogenous stimuli One seizure followed by another in less than 1 minute Focal motor movement without loss of consciousness A complex partial seizure results in impaired consciousness as well as the inability to respond to exogenous stimuli. Question 6 Cerebral edema is an increase in the fluid content of the Correct! brain tissue. meninges. neurons. ventricles. Cerebral edema is an increase in the fluid content of brain tissue: a net accumulation of water within the brain. Question 7 Since his cerebrovascular accident, a man has been denying his left hemiplegia. What term is used to describe this finding? Agraphia agnosia Visual agnosia Amusia agnosia Correct! Anosognosia Anosognosia is ignorance or denial of existence of the disease. Question 8 The existence of regular, deep, and rapid respirations after a severe closed head injury is indicative of neurologic injury to the cerebral area. pontine area. Correct! lower midbrain. supratentorial. Central reflex hyperpnea, a sustained deep rapid but regular pattern (hyperpnea), may result from central nervous system damage or disease that involves the lower midbrain and upper pons. It is seen after increased intracranial pressure and blunt head trauma. Question 9 Atheromatous plaques are most commonly found Correct! at branches of arteries. in the larger veins. near capillary sphincters. on the venous sinuses. Over 20 to 30 years atheromatous plaques (stenotic lesions) tend to form at branchings and curves in the cerebral circulation. Question 10 Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by Correct! upper and lower motor neuron degeneration. an autoimmune disorder caused by a virus. an autosomal dominant genetic disorder. demyelination of central nervous system neurons. ALS (sporadic motor system disease, sporadic motor neuron disease, motor neuron disease) is a worldwide degenerative disorder diffusely involving lower and upper motor neurons. Question 11 A man was in an automobile accident in which his forehead struck the windshield. A blunt force injury to the forehead would result in a coup injury to the _____ region. temporal parietal You Answered Occipital frontal The focal injury may be coup (directly below the point of impact). Objects striking the front of the head usually produce only coup injuries (contusions and fractures) because the inner skull in the occipital area is smooth. Question 12 Myasthenia gravis may result in adrenergic crisis. affects the nerve roots. is an acute autoimmune disease. Correct! causes muscle weakness. The disease is characterized by exertional fatigue and weakness that worsens with activity, improves with rest, and recurs with resumption of activity. Question 13 Which electrolyte imbalance contributes to lithium toxicity? Hyperkalemia Correct! Hyponatremia Hypernatremia Hypokalemia A potentially serious side effect is lithium toxicity. Lithium is normally removed from the kidneys; however, when the body is sodium depleted, the kidneys reabsorb sodium along with lithium. Question 14 Which is a positive symptom of schizophrenia? Lack of social interaction Correct! Auditory hallucinations Blunted affect Poverty of speech Positive symptoms frequently occur during a psychotic episode, when an individual loses touch with reality and experiences something that should be absent (e.g., hallucinations). Question 15 What are the most common side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)? Orthostatic hypotension and weight gain Hypertensive crisis and agitation Correct! Sleep disturbances and nausea Dry mouth and sexual dysfunction Common side effects of SSRIs include sleep disturbances (e.g., insomnia) and nausea. Question 16 Which defects of neural tube closure are most common? Lateral Anterior Midline Correct! Posterior Posterior defects are most common. Question 17 Anterior midline defects of neural tube closure cause developmental defects in the peripheral nerves. brain and skull. vertebrae. You Answered spinal cord. These developmental defects may cause brain and skull abnormalities. Question 18 The life-threatening problems associated with myelomeningocele include Correct! downward displacement of the cerebellum, brainstem, and fourth ventricle. upward displacement of the cerebellum into the diencephalon. encephalitis causing generalized cerebral edema and hydrocephalus. motor and sensory lesions below the level of the myelomeningocele. One serious, potentially life-threatening problem associated with myelomeningocele is the Arnold-Chiari type II malformation. This deformity involves the downward displacement of the cerebellum, cerebellar tonsils, brainstem, and fourth ventricle. Question 19 Symptoms characteristic of bulimia nervosa include: a fear of becoming obese despite progressive weight loss. absence of three consecutive menstrual periods. a perception that the body is fat when it is actually underweight. Correct! recurrent episodes of binge eating with fears of not being able to stop eating. Diagnosis of bulimia is based on among other findings, recurrent episodes of binge eating during which the individual fears not being able to stop. Question 20 Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a result of Correct! a zone of low pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). presence of Helicobacter pylori in the esophagus. excessive production of hydrochloric acid. reverse muscular peristalsis of the esophagus. Normally the resting tone of the LES maintains a zone of high pressure that prevents gastroesophageal reflux. In individuals who develop reflux esophagitis, this pressure tends to be lower than normal from either transient relaxation or weakness of the sphincter. Question 21 An intestinal obstruction at the pylorus or high in the small intestine causes metabolic alkalosis by causing the loss of bile acid secretions that cannot be absorbed. excessive loss of hydrogen ions normally absorbed from gastric juice. You Answered excessive loss of potassium promoting atony of the intestinal wall. gain of bicarbonate from pancreatic secretions that cannot be absorbed. If the obstruction is at the pylorus or high in the small intestine, metabolic alkalosis develops initially as a result of excessive loss of hydrogen ions that normally would be reabsorbed from the gastric juice. Question 22 Foods eliminated from the diet for children who have gluten-sensitive enteropathy (celiac sprue) include citrus fruits. red meat. starchy vegetables. Correct! cereal grains. Treatment consists of the immediate and permanent institution of a diet free of cereal grains (wheat, rye, barley, oats, malt). Lactose intolerance is presumed because of damage to the villi; therefore, lactose (milk sugar) is excluded from the diet. Question 23 _____ diarrhea results from lactose intolerance. Motility Small volume Correct! Osmotic Secretory The malabsorption of lactose results in osmotic diarrhea, in which fluids move by osmosis from the vascular compartment into the intestinal lumen. Question 24 At 2 or 3 weeks of age, an infant who has been fed well and gained weight begins to vomit for no apparent reason. The vomiting has gradually become more forceful. These symptoms may be indicative of which disorder? Galactosemia Esophageal atresia Correct! Pyloric stenosis Congenital aganglionic megacolon Clinical manifestations of pyloric stenosis can present between 2 and 3 weeks after birth; an infant who has fed well and gained weight begins to vomit without apparent reason. The vomiting gradually becomes more forceful. Question 25 Congenital aganglionic megacolon (Hirschsprung disease) involves inadequate motility of the colon caused by neural malformation of the _____ nervous system. somatic central Correct! parasympathetic sympathetic Congenital aganglionic megacolon is caused by a malformation of the parasympathetic nervous system. [Show More]

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