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BIOL 102 Chapter 2 Study guide latest 2020 - Liberty University / BIOL 102 Chapter 2 Study guide latest 2020

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BIOL 102 Chapter 2 Study guide latest 2020 - Liberty University Chapter 2 The Start of Life: Genetics and Prenatal Development CHAPTER OUTLINE Earliest Development  Genes and Chromosomes: The C... ode of Life  The Basics of Genetics: The Mixing and Matching of Traits  Transmission of Genetic Information  The Human Genome and Behavioral Genetics: Cracking the Code  Inherited and Genetic Disorders: When Development Deviates from the Norm  Genetic Counseling: Predicting the Future from the Genes of the Present The Interaction of Heredity and Environment  The Role of the Environment in Determining the Expression of Genes: From Genotypes to Phenotypes  Studying Development: How Much Is Nature? How Much Is Nurture?  Physical Traits: Family Resemblances  Intelligence: More Research, More Controversy  Genetic and Environmental Influences on Personality: Born to Be Outgoing?  Psychological Disorders: The Role of Genetics and Environment  Can Genes Influence Environment? Prenatal Growth and Change  Fertilization: The Moment of Conception  The Stages of the Prenatal Period: The Onset of Development  Pregnancy Problems  The Prenatal Environment: Threats to Development LEARNING OBJECTIVES After you have read and studied this chapter, you should be able to answer the following questions. 1. What is our basic genetic endowment, and how can human development go off track? 2. How do the environment and genetics work together to determine human characteristics? 3. Which human characteristics are significantly influenced by heredity? 4. What happens during the prenatal stages of development? 5. What are the threats to the fetal environment and what can be done about them?20 PRACTICE TEST – PRETEST Circle the correct answer for each of the following multiple choice questions and check your answers with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter. 1. Michelle is expecting twins that are the result of two eggs being fertilized by two sperm. Her babies are a. dizygotic. c. monozygotic. b. identical. d. multizygotic. 2. Becky's mother has blue eyes and her father has brown eyes. Becky has brown eyes. Becky's phenotype is a. blue eyes. b. brown eyes. c. two "brown eye" genes. d. one "brown eye" gene and one "blue eye" gene. 3. Which of the following is a genetically normal male? a. XY c. YX b. XX d. YY 4. A person with Down syndrome has a. only one chromosome 5. c. an extra chromosome 21. b. an extra X chromosome. d. two X and one Y chromosome. 5. At about the seventh week of pregnancy, a test was done on a patient that involved withdrawing and analyzing amniotic fluid. This test is called a. fetoscopy. c. amniocentesis. b. ultrasound. d. chorionic villus sampling. 6. Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive after a. 3 to 6 months of sexual intercourse. b. 10 months of sexual intercourse. c. 12 to 18 months of trying to get pregnant with unprotected intercourse. d. 24 months of trying to get pregnant with the help of fertility drugs. 7. _____ usually causes death before its victims reach school age and occurs mainly in Jews of eastern European ancestry and in French-Canadians. a. Sickle-cell anemia c. Klinefelter’s syndrome b. Tay-Sachs disease d. Fragile X syndrome 8. What difference in temperament did Kagan find in his study that compared 4-month-old infants in China, Ireland, and the United States? a. Chinese babies had significantly lower motor activity, irritability, and vocalization. b. American babies had abnormally high motor activity, irritability, and vocalization. c. American babies had significantly lower motor activity, irritability, and vocalization. d. Irish babies had significantly lower motor activity, irritability, and vocalization. 9. What is the first stage of prenatal development? a. zygotic c. germinal b. embryonic d. blastocyst 10. A patient took DES during pregnancy. Her daughter has a possible risk of a. sterility. c. breast cancer. b. toxemia. d. vaginal or cervical cancer.21 11. The process by which a sperm and an ovum join to form a single new cell is called a. ovulation. c. fertilization. b. conception. d. insemination. 12. When couples use fertility drugs to help them conceive, what is the chance that they will have dizygotic twins? a. 1 in 10 c. 1 in 100 b. 1 in 50 d. 1 in 1000 13. Polygenic inheritance is a. the phenotype of the individual. b. a trait that is expressed in the individual, but not inherited. c. a trait caused by an interaction of gene pairs. d. one gene of a gene pair causing a particular trait to be expressed. 14. The gender of the child is determined by a. the mother. b. the father. c. random distribution of chromosomes. d. the mother for a girl and the father for a boy. 15. Which of the following is an inherited disorder produced by a single allele? a. FAS c. PKU b. CVS d. FAE 16. Which of the following disorders does NOT result in some degree of mental retardation? a. Down syndrome c. Klinefelter’s syndrome b. Tay-Sachs disease d. Fragile X syndrome 17. Basic units of genetic information are a. gametes. c. chromosomes. b. DNA. d. genes. 18. The determination of traits by a combination of both genetic and environmental factors is a. polygenic transmission. c. chorionic transmission. b. dizygotic transmission. d. multifactorial transmission. 19. _____ studied cross-pollination of pea plants to observe properties of dominant and recessive traits. a. Darwin c. Jensen b. Mendel d. Scarr 20. The conduit between the mother and fetus is the a. blastocyst. c. placenta. b. endoderm. d. amnion. KEY NAMES Match the following names with the appropriate description. 1. ___ Arthur Jensen a. dominant and recessive traits 2. ___ Jerome Kagan b. genotype-environment effects 3. ___ Gregor Mendel c. inheritance of intelligence22 4. ___ Sandra Scarr d. temperament KEY VOCABULARY TERMS Explain the difference between the terms in each of the following groups. 1. Monozygotic twins; Dizygotic twins 2. Homozygous; Heterozygous 3. Dominant trait; Recessive trait 4. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS); Fetal alcohol effect (FAE) 5. Genes; DNA; Chromosomes 6. Down syndrome; Sickle-cell anemia Look up the definitions of the following terms and given a specific example of each. 7. Polygenic inheritance 10. Multifactorial transmission 8. Behavioral genetics 11. Temperament 9. Genetic counseling 12. Teratogen Explain the relationship among the following. 13. Gametes, Fertilization, Zygote, Germinal stage, Embryonic stage, Fetal stage, Fetus Differentiate among the following prenatal tests. 14. Amniocentesis; Chorionic villus sampling (CVS); Ultrasound sonography Differentiate among the following methods of fertilization. 15. Artificial insemination; In vitro fertilization (IVF); Surrogate mother Fill in the blanks in each of the following puzzles with the term that belongs with each definition. The first letter of each term will spell, from top to bottom, the term that matches the last definition. (NOTE: Some terms may be from previous chapters.) 16. _ A disorder produced by injury to a gene on the 23rd chromosome pair, producing mild to moderate mental retardation is called Fragile _ syndrome. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Research in which behaviors of one or more participants in a study are measured as they age. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ The inability to conceive after 12 to 18 months of trying to become pregnant. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ A type of observation in which naturally occurring behavior is observed without intervention. - - - - - - - PRACTICE TEST – POST TEST Circle the correct answer for each of the following multiple choice questions and check your answers with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter. 1. Your hair color is your a. gene. c. phenotype. b. genotype. d. heredity. 2. If Jamie has blue eyes, her mother has blue eyes, and her father has brown eyes, Jamie is a. cross-modal. c. heterozygous. b. homozygous. d. multidimensional. 3. Bryan is an African American with the following symptoms: yellowish eyes, poor appetite, stunted growth, and a swollen stomach. He may have a. hemophilia. c. sickle-cell anemia. b. Tay-Sachs disease. d. Klinefelter's syndrome. 4. A man is extremely tall, has small external male sex organs, and breast enlargement. What genetic disorder does he have? a. Down syndrome c. Sickle-cell anemia b. Tay-Sachs disease d. Klinefelter's syndrome 5. Which of the following statements is true regarding a father’s effect on the prenatal environment? a. Father’s drug use and physical or emotional abuse of the mother can adversely affect the unborn child. b. Father’s drug use can benefit the unborn child. c. Father’s physical abuse of the mother can positively affect the unborn child. d. Fathers have no effect on the prenatal environment. 6. A couple having trouble getting pregnant went to an infertility specialist. The doctor shared with them that they were not alone in their difficulty conceiving, and that ______ % of couples meet the criteria of infertility. a. 5% c. 15% b. 10% d. 20% 7. A patient of yours has schizophrenia. Her monozygotic twin has what chance of developing schizophrenia? a. 50% c. 80% b. 60% d. 95% 8. You notice that a child demands responses from her parents and babysitter. How would you describe this child's interaction with the environment? a. active c. prosocial b. passive d. evocative 9. A pregnant woman works around toxic fumes and her baby is born with birth defects. It is possible that the toxic chemical acted as a a. virus. c. teratogen. b. bacteria. d. pathogen. 10. You have a patient who admits to drinking several alcoholic beverages a day during her pregnancy. You will need to monitor her child for a. Down syndrome. c. Klinefelter's syndrome. b. FAS. d. diethylstilbestrol (DES).31 11. When a cell duplicates itself exactly, the process is called a. mitosis. c. fertilization. b. meiosis. d. homozygotic. 12. Although Ashanti has a headache she decides not to take an aspirin during her pregnancy. Her decision is a. unwise, there are no risks associated with taking legal drugs during pregnancy. b. unwise, aspirin has no effect on a fetus during prenatal development. c. wise, the use of aspirin may cause fetal bleeding or growth impairments. d. wise, pregnant mothers should avoid all artificial substances during pregnancy. 13. A prenatal diagnostic procedure which involves high-frequency sound waves that form a picture of a fetus is called a. fetoscopy. c. ultrasound sonography. b. amniocentesis. d. chorionic villus sampling. 14. Who studied the role of genes in intelligence? a. Darwin c. Mendel b. Kagan d. Jensen 15. What percent of the gene sequence is shared by all humans? a. 25.3 c. 66.5 b. 43.8 d. 99.9 16. A developing child is able to swallow and urinate. Its arms develop hands, hands develop fingers, and fingers develop nails. What stage of prenatal development is the child experiencing? a. germinal c. embryonic b. zygotic d. fetal 17. DNA tests are available for all of the following disorders EXCEPT a. cystic fibrosis. c. hemophilia. b. diabetes. d. retinoblastoma. 18. At the end of the _____ stage the developing human has rudimentary eyes, nose, and lips, although what appear to be gills and a tail-like structure may make it look nonhuman. a. conception c. embryonic b. germinal d. fetal 19. A physician places a man’s sperm directly into a woman’s vagina in a. CVS. c. artificial insemination. b. IVF. d. surrogate motherhood. 20. Which of the following is transmitted to the child as it passes through the birth canal? a. rubella c. AIDS b. syphilis d. gonorrhea LEARNING OBJECTIVES REVISITED 1. What is our basic genetic endowment, and how can human development go off track? • A child receives 23 chromosomes from each parent. These 46 chromosomes provide the genetic blueprint that will guide cell activity for the rest of the individual’s life. • Gregor Mendel discovered an important genetic mechanism that governs the interactions of dominant and recessive genes and their expression in alleles. Traits such as hair and eye color and the presence of phenylketonuria (PKU) are alleles and follow this pattern.32 • Genes may become physically damaged or may spontaneously mutate. If damaged genes are passed on to the child, the result can be a genetic disorder. • Behavioral genetics, which studies the genetic basis of human behavior, focuses on personality characteristics and behaviors, and on psychological disorders such as schizophrenia. Researchers are now discovering how to remedy certain genetic defects through gene therapy. • Genetic counselors use data from tests and other sources to identify potential genetic abnormalities in women and men who plan to have children. Recently, they have begun testing individuals for genetically based disorders that may eventually appear in the individuals themselves. 2. How do the environment and genetics work together to determine human characteristics? • Behavioral characteristics are often determined by a combination of genetics and environment. Genetically based traits represent a potential, called the genotype, which may be affected by the environment and is ultimately expressed in the phenotype. • To work out the different influences of heredity and environment, researchers use nonhuman studies and human studies, particularly of twins. 3. Which human characteristics are significantly influenced by heredity? • Virtually all human traits, characteristics, and behaviors are the result of the combination and interaction of nature and nurture. Many physical characteristics show strong genetic influences. Intelligence contains a strong genetic component, but can be significantly influenced by environmental factors. • Some personality traits, including neuroticism and extroversion, have been linked to genetic factors, and even attitudes, values, and interests have a genetic component. Some personal behaviors may be genetically influenced through the mediation of inherited personality traits. • The interaction between genetic and environmental effects has been classified into three types: active genotype–environment influences, passive genotype–environment influences, and evocative genotype– environment influences. 4. What happens during the prenatal stages of development? • The union of a sperm and ovum at the moment of fertilization, which begins the process of prenatal development, can be difficult for some couples. Infertility, which occurs in some 15% of couples, can be treated by drugs, surgery, artificial insemination, and in vitro fertilization. • The germinal stage (fertilization to 2 weeks) is marked by rapid cell division and specialization, and the attachment of the zygote to the wall of the uterus. During the embryonic stage (2 to 8 weeks), the ectoderm, the mesoderm, and the endoderm begin to grow and specialize. The fetal stage (8 weeks to birth) is characterized by a rapid increase in complexity and differentiation of the organs. The fetus becomes active and most of its systems become operational. 5. What are the threats to the fetal environment, and what can be done about them? • Factors in the mother that may affect the unborn child include diet, age, illnesses, and drug, alcohol, and tobacco use. The behaviors of fathers and others in the environment may also affect the health and development of the unborn child.33 ANSWER KEYS [Show More]

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