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HIEU 201 TEST 5 STUDY GUIDE – LIBERTY UNIVERSITY | HIEU201 TEST 5 STUDY GUIDE

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HIEU 201 Test 5 Study Guide – Liberty University As you read and prepare for the test, use the questions below to guide you. Use this study guide to review on a daily basis, and also feel free to... use it on the open notes/ open book test at the end of the week. Textbook Chapter 9: 1. Why did the eastern provinces of Rome survive after the western provinces fell? a. e eastern provinces of the Empire survived. They did so because they were richer, more urbanized, and more populous and because the main thrust of the Germanic and Hun- nish invaders had been directed at the western re- gion 2. Explain the three components of Byzantine civilization. a. Greek was language b. Roman emperor successors c. Split from Roman Catholic church and became the Eastern Greek Orthodoc church 3. What was the great city of the Byzantine world, and where is it located today? a. Constantinople - istanbul 4. How did Byzantine culture differ from the west? a. Byzantine civilization was economically and cul- turally far more advanced than the Latin West b. trade and urban life had greatly declined in the West c. Ceremonies 5. Explain the Great Schism of 1054, its causes and consequences, as well as the legacies left for East and West. a. The final break came in 1054 when the Chris- tian church split into the Roman Catholic church in the West and the Eastern (Greek) Orthodox church in the East. 6. Who was Justinian, and for what accomplishment is he best known? a. . The first great Byzan- tine ruler was Justinian, b. Justinian’s most lasting achievement was the appointment of a commission of scholars to collect and codify Rome’s ancient laws and the commentaries of learned jurists. c. Corpus Juris Civilis, which became the offi- cial body of law of the Byzantine Empire. I 7. How did Constantinople resist conquest in 717? Who were they fighting against? In 717, the Muslims besieged Constan- tinople. The Byzantine fleet was armed with a new weapon, “Greek fire”—a fiery explosive liquid shot from tubes— 8. Which group did defeat the Byzantines in Asia Minor? a. Seljuk Turks, a people from Central Asia who had adopted Islam, defeated the Byzantines in Asia Minor an 9. During which Crusade was Constantinople looted by Venetian merchants and why? a. In 1204, during the Fourth Crusade, Latin Christian knights—greedy for riches—and Venetian merchants—eager to gain control of the rich Byzantine trade— decided to take Constantinople rather than fight the Muslim 10. Who drove the Byzantines completely from Asia Minor, conquered the Balkans, and finally defeated the great city of Constantinople? When did Constantinople fall? a. 1453 The Ot- toman Turks had accepted Islam and had begun to build an empire. They drove the Byzantines from Asia Minor and conquered much of the Bal- kans. B 11. Recognize the major legacies of Byzantium for Western Civilization. the laws of ancient Rome under Justinian. This monumental achievement preserved Roman law’s principles of reason and justice. Today’s legal codes in much of Europe and Latin America trace their roots to the Roman law recorded by Justin- ian’s lawyers. The Byzantines also preserved the philosophy, scienc Contacts with Byzantine civilization stimu- lated learning in both the Islamic world to the east and Latin Christendom to the west. The Byzantines carried the torch of civili- zation unextinguished at a time when the barba- rous Germanic and Slav tribes had reduced much The Byzantines carried the torch of civili- zation unextinguished at a time when the barba- rous Germanic and Slav tribes had reduced much 12. Summarize the historical and legendary origins of Islam. When Muhammad was about forty, he believed that he was visited in his sleep by the angel Gabriel, who ordered him to “recite in the name of the Lord!” Transformed by this experience, Muhammad came to believe that he had been chosen as a prophet, the carrier of God’s revelation. Although most desert Arabs worshiped tribal gods, many Arabs, including Muhammad, in the towns and trading centers were familiar with Ju- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Embroidering the truth The tapestry was commissioned by William the Conqueror's half-brother, Bishop Odo of Bayeux, depicting the events surrounding the conquest. It details events leading up to the invasion and shows the key aspects of the conquest itself, not least the Battle of Hastings. The tapestry is not a tapestry in the normal sense. It is actually an embroidery of at least eight coloured wools, worked into pieces of linen. It is divided into a series of connected panels, approximately half a metre wide and 70 metres long. It is probably incomplete. If we're reasonably sure that it was commissioned by Odo, there is greater fuzziness over its designer and manufacturers. It is thought likely to have been created by English embroiderers, probably in the then famous embroidery works of Winchester; though some French historians maintain it was made in Normandy. Even the name is disagreed over, depending on which country you are in: to the French it is La Tapisserie de la reine Mathilde, or Queen Matilda's Tapestry (Matilda was the Conqueror's wife). Image 4 – Harold before he became king at the ceremony where he gave his oath The story The pictures of the tapestry tell the story of the adventures of Duke Harold Godwinson, brother-in-law of King Edward the Confessor, who was shipwrecked in Ponthieu in 1064. Following his rescue by William, Duke of Normandy, Harold is shown swearing to support William in his quest to succeed Edward the Confessor as King of England - a promise which he was later to break. We then see Harold returning to England and being acclaimed as king after Edward's death. The tapestry approaches this piece of history from the Norman perspective, attempting to justify the invasion launched by William to claim what he believed was rightfully his. The image of Harold that the tapestry projects is one of a double-dealer who broke a sacred promise to William. But the oath sworn by Harold to William is reported in only one other source - William of Poitiers' 'Deeds of Duke William', another Norman account, written some ten years after the conquest. The Norman version clearly needed this event to have happened - but a historian cannot be sure whether it did, or did not, take place. Image 5 King Harold is slain Death of Harold Next we see William's preparations for the invasion of England and the decisive Battle of Hastings. One of the most striking images is the one that depicts the slaying of Harold with an arrow through his eye. That Harold died in this way is a fact 'known' to almost every English schoolchild. But is it true? The inscription here reads 'hic harold rex interfectus est', with the name 'harold' written above a warrior with an arrow in his eye. But the words 'interfectus est' (has been killed) appear to refer to a second warrior being hacked down by a mounted Norman swordsman. The tapestry is our only source on this point, so we cannot know which of the two figures was meant to be King Harold. Image 6 A Norman castle, built on top of a mound A window on the past As well as being a source for political events, the tapestry is also a source for cultural history because it is a record of the way 11th-century people reflected on their world. It reveals something of how people represented themselves to each other. By show-casing the art and skill of designers and embroiderers, it tells us what early medieval people were capable of in their workshops. We can also see a little of how people lived. It demonstrates the style of castles at the time - they were originally built as wooden stockades placed atop artificial mounds. We gain a view of the interior of famous places such as Edward the Confessor's palace at Westminster or William of Normandy's court at Rouen. There are banquets, troop actions, grisly battle scenes. Image 7 Norman soldiersw riding into battle Distinctive Norman soldiers We can also see craftsmen at work, as they constructed the vessels for the invasion fleet. One of the most famous images of this great campaign is of the Norman soldiers with their chain-mail and helmets with distinctive nose-guards. What English schoolchildren have in their minds when we think of Norman soldiers is the pictures based upon these images in the tapestry at Bayeux. Image 8 Harold’s soldiers in a shield-wall formation, resisting attack Chance survival The tapestry has survived through time by a combination of luck and good judgement. Indeed, its own history tells us much about France at various times. It is assumed that it was displayed in Bayeux for around 700 years after its completion, but it was put at risk at various points. It was nearly used as a tarpaulin to cover ammunition during the French Revolution and was moved around a lot during this time of incessant fighting. It became a subject of much interest to 19th-century scholars and in 1818 an English draughtsman spent two years inspecting and cataloguing the work of art. This detailed examination included listing every pin-hole, and resulted in a plan for restoration which was completed in Bayeux in 1842. It had been kept on scrolls for many years and after it was restored the tapestry was displayed under glass. When the Franco-Prussian War broke out in 1870, it was moved again and, later, it was spirited away during the Nazi invasion to prevent it being sent to Berlin like so much other foreign art. We have seen from our examination of the Bayeux Tapestry how problematic sources can be. History is often like this. What evidence of the past we have, has survived by chance or because it is valued and kept for all sorts of non-historical reasons. Sometimes historians simply don't have enough evidence to be certain about what happened, and must fall back on educated guesswork. Even so, to be good history, whatever account they come up with must fit with what evidence there is. [Show More]

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