Biology > QUESTIONS & ANSWERS > BIOL 251 Exam 3, Complete answers,already graded A. (All)

BIOL 251 Exam 3, Complete answers,already graded A.

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BIOL 251 Exam 3 1. What is the function of antidiuretic hormone? It stimulates angiotensin II secretion. It promotes water conservation. It stimulates hypothalamic osmoreceptors. It inhibits sal... ivation and thirst. It targets the cerebral cortex. 2. Fluid intake is governed mainly by hypothalamic neurons called __________. baroreceptors proprioceptors nociceptors osmoreceptors mechanoreceptors 3. What is the total body water (TBW) content of a 70 kg young male? 10 L 20 L 40 L 60 L 70 L 4. What is the greatest determinant of the intracellular water volume? K+ Na+ Ca2+ Cl- PO43- 5. Where are cells with aldosterone receptors found? Adrenal cortex Adrenal medulla Posterior pituitary Proximal convoluted tubule Distal convoluted tubule 6. How is calcium concentration in the body regulated? By hormones By sodium and calcium concentrations in the plasma By chloride and phosphate concentrations in the plasma By the parasympathetic nervous system By the sympathetic nervous system 7. Breathing into and out of a paper bag for a long period of time will lead to __________. metabolic alkalosis metabolic acidosis urinary alkalosis urinary acidosis respiratory acidosis 8. The bicarbonate buffer system would not work very well in the human body if not for the action of the respiratory system, which ___________. supplies the buffer system with CO2 supplies the buffer system with O2 expels HCO3- produced by the buffer system expels H+ produced by the buffer system expels CO2 produced by the buffer system 9. Place the following descriptions in order to represent the effects of profuse sweating. 1. Water loss (sweating) 2. Sweat glands produce perspiration by capillary filtration 3. Blood volume and pressure drop; osmolarity rises 4. Blood absorbs tissue fluid to replace loss 5. Intracellular fluid diffuses out of cells to replace lost tissue fluid 10. Dehydration Reduced plasma volume and blood pressure Renin release Angiotensinogen conversion to angiotensin I Angiotensin I conversion to angiotensin II Angiotensin II stimulation of hypothalamus Sense of thirst Ingestion of water Moistens mouth and distends stomach Plasma volume elevates 11. Place a single word into each sentence to make it correct. Antidiuretic hormone provides a means of controlling water output . The increased osmolarity of the blood stimulates the hypothalamus to stimulate the posterior pituitary to release ADH. ADH will work on the kidneys to reabsorb water into the blood stream. A negative feedback system is used until the blood volume and osmolarity return to normal levels. 12. Complete each sentence by dragging the proper label into the appropriate position. A buffer is any mechanism that resists changes in pH. A physiological buffer uses direct elimination of acids, bases, or carbon dioxide from the body in order to adjust systemic acidity. A substance that binds H+ during times of acidity and releases H+ during time of alkalinity is referred to as a chemical buffer . Carbon dioxide, when present in sufficient amounts, will bind with water to form carbonic acid which is capable of dissociating into bicarbonate and hydrogen ions. The phosphate buffer system plays a significant role in the ICF because phosphates are capable of binding and unbinding H+ depending on current conditions of acidity or alkalinity. The carboxyl ends of protein chains are capable of buffering H+ as part of the protein buffer system . 13. Which of the following is not an accessory organ of digestion? Tongue Liver Pancreas Salivary glands Spleen 14. __________ is a hormone, whereas __________ is an enzyme. Enterokinase; pepsin Gastrin; secretin Gastrin; cholecystokinin (CCK) Gastric lipase; histamine Secretin; pepsin 15. The small intestine is suspended from the abdominal wall by the ___________. falciform ligament mesentery greater omentum lesser omentum esophageal hiatus 16. The oral phase of swallowing is under __________ control and the pharyngo-esophageal phase is __________. central nervous system; also controlled by the central nervous system central nervous system; controlled by autonomic reflexes autonomic nervous system; controlled by autonomic reflexes voluntary; also voluntary involuntary; also involuntary 17. The swallowing center is located in the __________. mouth oropharynx esophagus medulla oblongata enteric nervous system 18. The __________ regulates the flow of contents from the stomach to the duodenum. gastric rugae antrum pyloric sphincter fundic region cardiac region 19. The enzyme that catalyzes the first step reaction in HCl production by gastric parietal cells is called __________. carbonic acid carbonic anhydrase dipeptidase protease ATPase 20. Which of the following enzymes functions at the lowest pH? Salivary amylase Pancreatic amylase Pepsin Trypsin Dipeptidase 21. The __________ stores excess glucose and releases it into the blood when needed. pancreas stomach liver spleen small intestine 22. Which of the following is not a component of the pancreatic juice? Trypsinogen Chymotrypsinogen Deoxyribonuclease Sodium bicarbonate Enterokinase 23. Which of the following is not associated with the large absorptive surface of the small intestine?0-2013 Circular folds (plicae circulares) Intestinal length Microvilli Villi Rugae 24. The __________ of the small intestine is/are similar to the __________ of the stomach. villi; pyloric glands rugae; Peyer patches intestinal crypts; gastric pits goblet cells; parietal cells pyloric sphincter; ileocecal valve 25. Which of the following statements regarding the migrating motor complex is true? It milks the chyme toward the colon. It allows a bolus to move down the esophagus. It churns and mixes residue in the descending colon. It churns and mixes a bolus with gastric juices. It propels pancreatic juice down the pancreatic duct. 26. Which of the following statements is true regarding the sodium-glucose transport protein (SGLP)? It is a uniport carrier. It is an antiport carrier. It uses solvent drag to transport glucose and sodium. It transports glucose and sodium from the intestinal lumen into the epithelial cells. It transports glucose from the intestinal lumen into the epithelial cells, and sodium in the opposite direction. 27. Lecithin prepares fats for hydrolysis by forming __________. triglycerides, fatty acids, and glycerol low density lipoproteins (LDL) chylomicrons emulsification droplets micelles 28. The muscle tone of the __________ along the colon contracts it lengthwise, causing its walls to bulge and form pouches called __________. circular folds; ceca taeniae coli; haustra haustra; taeniae coli internal sphincters; omental (epiploic) appendages internal sphincters; ceca 29. The movement of colonic contents from one puckered section to another is called __________. the gastrocolic reflex the duodenocolic reflex mass movement haustral contraction defecation 30. Drag each label into the appropriate position in order to identify whether the region is part of the large or small intestine. Large Intestine Rectum Cecum Ascending Colon Transverse Colon Descending Colon Sigmoid Colon Small Intestine Jejunum Ileum Duodenum 31. Identify each organ pictured below. Then click and drag each characteristic listed into the appropriate category to identify the organ to which it pertains. Rugae Plicae Gastric Pits Villi Oblique Layer of Muscularis Brush border Maximized size for storage and mixing Maximized surface area for absorption Microvilli Pryers Patches \ 32. Read each function of gastric juice below. Then click and drag each to the specific secretion to which it applies. Hydrochloric Acid Pepsin Gastric Lipase Instrinsic Factor Activated Pepsin and Active form of a Digests fat in the Dysfunction could Lingual Lipase Zymogen Stomach pernicious anemia Breaks up connective Digests proteins Essential to absorption tissue and cell wall of plants of vitamin B12 Destroys most ingested Autocatalytic Pathogens Converts iron to an Absorbable form 33. Drag each label into the appropriate position in order to identify whether the structure is an actual part of the digestive tract or an accessory structure. Accessory Organ Digestive Tract Teeth Buccal cavity Salivary glands Duodenum Liver Jejunum Gallbladder Ileum Colon Retctum 34. Place the appropriate words and descriptions with the picture with the correct highlighted peritoneal structure. Words can be used more than once. Attached T 35. . Fill-in the sentences with the correct word and place the sentences in order to describe the flow of bile in the biliary ducts. Bile is made in the and released into the This duct then merges with the from the galldladder to make the bile duct. The bile duct merges with the from the pancreas to form the This short tube opens up and releases bile into the at the major duodenal papilla. [Show More]

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