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The Course of Mexican Music. Janet L. Sturman

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The Course of Mexican Music The Course of Mexican Music offers a full panoramic view of Mexican music, using history as a point of departure and linking Mexican music across eras, styles, and perfo... rmance traditions. The aim is to understand what music Mexicans view as theirs, and how that music contributed to the creation of Mexico as a nation. In doing so, students learn both repertory and the musicians. The text brings together a full package of resources that students and instructors can use to explore the character, range, and scope of Mexican music from antiquity to the present. It includes a website that links to audio and video tracks. Special features: • A complete course—with important resources compiled in one place, many not found in previous works on Mexican music—access to 90 audio tracks, 17 video links, and 130 illustrations • Comprehensive introduction to musical styles and practices within historic narrative—folkloric, popular, and classical—in Mexico from pre-colonial times to the present • Builds upon the basic premise that understanding the relationship between historical circumstance and contemporary practice is critical to understanding the diversity, development, and contemporary potency of Mexican music Janet L. Sturman is Professor at the Fred Fox School of Music and Associate Dean of the Graduate College at the University of Arizona. CHAPTER 1 Why Study Mexican Music? 3 Mutually Engaged Audiences 3 Examining Music as an Integrative Frame 4 Immigrant Identities and Contributions 5 Geographies and Contexts 6 Examining Difference, Evaluating Concepts of the Essential 6 Historical Frames and Contemporary Practice 7 Harmonizing Conflicting Realities 8 Perspectives for Study 8 Performance and Reception 9 Knowing Mexico 10 Concluding Reflections 10 One Example, Many Experiences 10 Critical Thinking and Discussion Prompts 12 Key Terms, People, and Places 13 Notes 13 For Reference and Further Study 14 Discography 15 Websites 15 CHAPTER 2 Defining and Listening to Mexican Music 16 Evocation and Perception 16 Categorizing Music 17 Stylistic Exchange: “Sandunga” 19 Terms and Perspectives for Assessing Sound 21 Concluding Reflections 24 Critical Thinking and Discussion Prompts 25Key Terms, People, and Places 28 Notes 28 For Reference and Further Study 28 Discography 29 CHAPTER 3 Pre-Cortesian and Indigenous Music, Past and Present 30 PART I ANCIENT VOICES 30 An Opening Song 30 Early History 31 Music in Ancient Indigenous Life: Ancient Beliefs and Practices 33 Professional Training—Picture Yourself as a Cuicapiztle 36 Native Musical Instruments 36 Names and Categories of Ancient Aztec Instruments 39 Idiophones 40 Membranophones 40 Aerophones 40 Chordophones (post-contact) 41 What did the Music of Ancient Aztecs Sound Like? 41 Reconstruction and Motivations 42 Building a New Nation upon Ancient Sounds 46 Reclaiming Indigenous Autonomy 48 Reflecting on Archaic Indigenous Practice 52 PART II LIVING INDIGENOUS MUSIC, TRADITIONS APART 54 Who are the Living Indigenous People of Mexico? 54 Adaptive Musical Practice 57 Cora and Huichol Music 57 Yoeme (Yaqui) Ritual and Musical Practice 59 Concluding Reflections 62 Critical Thinking and Discussion Prompts 64 Key Terms, People, and Places 65 Notes 66 For Reference and Further Study 67 Discography 69 Films and Videos 70 CHAPTER 4 Majesty, Machismo, Mestizaje, and Other Legacies of the Vice-Kingdom of New Spain 71 Romances and Relations: Sex and Gender in Song and Deed 71 Mestizaje and the Legends of La Malinche 73 Imperial Catholic Rule and Music 75 Religious Dance Dramas 77 vi CONTENTSRacial, Ethnic, and Social Divisions, and Resulting Musical Practice 81 From the Chapel Schools to the People—The Villancico 81 Two Villancicos by Gaspar Fernandes 84 Instrumental Music Legacies 87 Transformative Frames: From the Chapel School to Wind Band 89 Oaxaca’s Famous Wind Band Schools 90 Fusing Heritage and Purpose—The Example of the Matachines 92 Concluding Reflections 94 Critical Thinking and Discussion Prompts 96 Key Terms, People, and Places 96 Notes 97 For Reference and Further Study 98 Discography 100 CHAPTER 5 Colonial Legacies and Regional Responses: Sones Regionales 101 A Modern Trío Reflects 101 Historical Perspectives: Many Mexicos 102 Oral History and Invented Tradition 103 Popular Music during the Colonial Era 104 Son and its Theatrical Roots 104 Characteristics of Son 105 Varieties of Son 106 “La petenera”: Regional Interpretations of Hispanic Legend 108 Additional Regional Types of Son 114 Son istmeño 114 Son jarocho 116 Sones de arpa grande de la tierra caliente, The Hotlands of Michoacán 119 Son guerrerense, from the Tierra Caliente of Guerrero 122 A Return to Son huasteco—Huapango huasteco 123 Regional Son and the Rise of the Mariachi 125 Son jalisciense and Son abajeño 126 Mariachi Instruments 129 Jáuregui’s History of Mariachi through “La negra” 129 Concluding Reflections 134 Critical Thinking and Discussion Prompts 136 Key Terms, People, and Places 136 Notes 137 For Reference and Further Study 140 Discography 142 Films and Videos 142 CONTENTS viiCHAPTER 6 Sound Foundations for Independence 143 From Battle Cry to the National Anthem 143 Music in Imperial Mexico 146 Santa Anna’s Rebellious Republic 148 Conflicting Identities: Mayapax Fiddle Music and the Caste War of the Yucatan 148 German and Irish Immigration to Mexico 150 The Mexican–American War 150 The French Invasion and the Lingering Farewell 151 Music in the Restored Republic 155 The Rise of the Jarabe and Official Folkloric Representation 156 Advancing Formal Music Education 157 Concluding Reflections 157 Critical Thinking and Discussion Prompts 158 Key Terms, People, and Places 158 Notes 159 For Reference and Further Study 159 Discography 160 Films and Videos 161 Websites 161 CHAPTER 7 Immigration and Cosmopolitan Identity during the Porfiriato 162 Setting the Scene: An episode from Chin Chun Chan 162 Defining the Porfiriato 163 Technology and Connection 164 Transportation, Industry, and Immigration 164 The Chinese in Mexico: Some Historical Background 164 The Zarzuela: From Spain to Mexico 166 The Creation of Chin Chun Chan 167 Theater at the Dawn of the Twentieth Century 169 Production History 170 Experimental Revivals of Chin Chun Chan 171 Confronting Charges of Racism 171 Popular Musical Conventions in Chin Chun Chan 173 Significance of Chin Chun Chan 175 The National Conservatory and Formal Musical Institutions 176 Juventino Rosas, A Crossover Artist 177 The orquesta típica 180 Travel and Cosmopolitan Song 181 Opera in Mexico 184 Concluding Reflections 186 Critical Thinking and Discussion Prompts 187 Key Terms, People, and Places 187 viii CONTENTSNotes 188 For Reference and Further Study 189 Discography 191 Videos and Films 191 Websites 192 CHAPTER 8 Gifts of the Revolution 193 Pre-Revolutionary Corridos 193 Madero’s Decisive Uprising 195 Corridos of the Revolution 196 Pancho Villa in Song 196 Women in Corridos 201 The Tumultuous 1920s 204 Concluding Reflections 205 Critical Thinking and Discussion Prompts 206 Key Terms, People, and Places 207 Notes 208 For Reference and Further Study 208 Discography 209 Websites 209 CHAPTER 9 Cinema, Radio, and the Celebrity Cantante 210 Transformative Imagination: Picture This 210 Technological Interplay and the Collective Imagination 210 The Golden Era of Mexican Film 1930–1960 212 Iconic Performance and the Reflective Gaze 213 Re-Imagining the Mexican Cowboy in Allá en el rancho grande 215 Indio Fernández’s Synthesis of Romance and Politics 218 Integrating the Rural Life of the Nation in Flor Silvestre 219 Cosmopolitan Integrations and the Danzón in Salón México 224 From Club to Concert Hall 226 Concluding Reflections 227 Critical Thinking and Discussion Prompts 228 Key Terms, People, and Places 229 Notes 229 For Reference and Further Study 230 Discography 232 CHAPTER 10 New Song and Rock Mexicano 233 Introduction: The Lull and the Storm 233 The Latin American New Song Movement in Mexico 233 The Social Environment During the Early Rock Era 238 Rocanrol in the 1950s 239 Changing Practices 241 CONTENTS ixLa Onda Chicana 242 The Move Underground 245 New Opportunities in the 1980s 245 The 1990s to the Present 247 Bi-Nationalism and Beyond in the Twenty-First Century 247 Concluding Reflections 249 Critical Thinking and Discussion Prompts 251 Key Terms, People, and Places 252 Notes 253 For Reference and Further Study 254 Discography 255 Films and Videos 255 CHAPTER 11 Competing Popular Styles 256 The Wedding Playlist as Pop Catalog 256 Two Pillars of Northern Dominance 258 The Conjunto Style from Early to Modern Practice 258 Early Norteño Masters 259 The Texas–Mexican Conjunto 260 Lydia Mendoza’s Breaking of Gender Restrictions 261 Waila: An Indigenous Response to Expanding Influences 262 Los Tigres del Norte 265 The Narcocorrido 265 Migration and Cross-Border Exchange 268 From Regional Banda to Transnational Tecnobanda 269 Balada and the Grupera Movement 273 Commercializing the Balada 274 Cumbia, Quebradita, and Youth Dance Clubs 275 Pasito Duranguense 276 Techno Cumbia aka Música “Tribal” 279 Concluding Reflections 280 Critical Thinking and Discussion Prompts 281 Key Terms, People, and Places 282 Notes 283 For Reference and Further Study 284 Discography 286 Films and Videos 286 CHAPTER 12 Classical Contemporary Music: New Frames for New Audiences 287 The National Institute of Fine Arts: Nexus and Radiating Influence 287 Silvestre Revueltas and the Post-Revolutionary Arts Brigades 290 Extending Nationalist Sentiment: Moncayo’s Huapango 292 x CONTENTSPost-National Expression: Manuel Enríquez 294 The Modern Composer as Philosopher: Mario Lavista 296 Dramatic Alliances: Marcela Rodríguez 297 Concluding Reflections 301 Critical Thinking and Discussion Prompts 302 Key Terms, People, and Places 303 Notes 303 For Reference and Further Study 304 Discography 306 Films and Videos 306 CHAPTER 13 A Despedida and Closing Reflections 307 Integration, Influence, and Confluence 307 Beautiful Little Sky—“Cielito lindo” 308 Departures 312 Closing Questions 312 Critical Thinking and Discussion Prompts 312 For Reference and Further Study 313 Discography 313 [Show More]

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