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ATI MED SURG STUDY GUIDE RELIABLE 2020 2021 STUDY GUIDE

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Fluids and electrolyte imbalance: ~8 questions ● Signs and symptoms of hypovolemia and dehydration vs. hypervolemia; sources of fluid loss and intake ○ Dehydration/ hypovolemia - Causes: anythi... ng that causes a loss of water/blood/fluid ■ Hemorrhage ■ Vomiting/Diarrhea ■ Burns ■ Fever ■ Long term 1. Signs/symptoms: less blood, ■ BP decrease ■ Increase pulse rate ■ Orthostatic hypotension ■ Impaired motor function ■ Increased respirations ■ Increased body temp ● Every degree celsius - Treatment: replace fluid ■ Oral fluid replacement ■ Slow IV infusion (crystalloid IVs) ■ Increase fluid intake ○ Fluid overload/ hypervolemia - Causes: ■ Late phase kidney failure ■ Long-term corticosteroid therapy ■ SIADH ■ Psychiatric disorders with - Signs/ Symptoms: ■ Increase pulse rate: bounding pulse ■ Elevated BP ■ Increase Resp. Rate, shallow ■ Paresthesia: “pins and needles” ■ Pitting edema - Treatment: ■ PATIENT SAFETY IS PRIORITY #1 NPO/unconsciousness ■ Profuse salivation ■ Fistulas ■ GI suction ■ Diabetes insipidus increase above normal = additional 500 mL fluid loss ■ Neck veins distended in supine position ■ Change in mental status ■ Elevated H and H, protein, BUN: hemoconcentration ■ Urine gravity greater than 1.030 polydipsia ■ Heart failure ■ Excessive fluid intake ■ High Na+ with crackles ■ Neuromuscular: altered level of consciousness, headache, muscle weakness ■ Weight gain ■ Low H and H and protein leads to excessive water in vascular space (hemodilution) [Show More]

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