SCIENCE 101 > QUESTIONS and ANSWERS > SCIENCE ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE 2020 (All)

SCIENCE ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE 2020

Document Content and Description Below

September 9 -13 2020 ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE Science Cell ➢ Cell: basic organizational unit of all living things. One thing in common is they all have membranes (phospholipids). ➢ Cell s... tructure organization: All cells contain DNA, and RNA& can synthesize proteins. Consists of nucleic acids, cytoplasm, and cell membrane. o Tissues: Cells that are grouped together o Organs: Tissues that are grouped together o Systems: Organs that are grouped together o Organism: A complete individual ➢ Nuclear parts of a cell o Nucleus: contains chromosomes, & regulates DNA of the cell. Defining structure of eukaryotic cells (they all have nucleus). Passes genetic traits between generations. Contains nuclear envelop, nucleoplasm, nucleolus, nuclear pores, chromatin, &ribosomes. o Chromosomes: thread like rods of DNA. Short deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA is the genetic material that storesinformation about the plant/animal. o Chromatin: DNA& Protein makeup chromosomes o Nucleolus: Proteins, small/round doesn’t have membrane.Protein synthesis, synthesizes & stores RNA. o Nuclear envelope: Encloses structures within nucleus. Made of lipids.o Nuclear pores: Exchange materials between the nucleus *cytoplasm o Nucleoplasm: Liquid like cytoplasm, within nucleus. Cell Membranes➢ Cell Membrane (Plasma membrane): Semipermeable membrane of lipids and proteins. Made of phospholipid bilayer, hydrophilic ends ofthe outer layer facing the external environment, the inner layer facinginside the cell, hydrophobic ends facing each other. o Hydrophilic: Water loving, can dissolve water o Hydrophobic: Hates water, can’t dissolve water ➢ Selective Permeability o Selective Permeability with regards to size, charge, and solubility. ➢ Cellstructure o Ribosomes: synthesize proteins from amino acids. o Golgi apparatus: synthesize materials like proteins that are transported out of the cell. Near nucleus & consists of layers ofmembranes. o Vacuoles: Sacs used for storage, digestion, and waste removal.One large in plant cells/ Animal cells are small or have numerous. o Vesicle: Has membrane, & can move materials within the cell. o Cytoskeleton: Microtubules that shape and support the cell. o Microtubules: Part of cytoskeleton & help support cell. Made of protein. o Cytosol: Liquid material within the cell. Mostly water & had floating materials. o Cytoplasm: Cytosol & organelles found within the plasma membrane, not within nucleus! o Cell membrane: Barrier that keeps materials out of cell. Determines what’s allowed in and out. o Rough Endoplasmic reticulum: Ribosomes on the surface, produce & store proteins o Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum: Helps store lipids & proteins.o Mitochondrion: Generate ATP, involved in cell growth & death. Contain their own DNA aside from the one within the nucleus. ▪ Functions: Produce energy, cell signaling, cellular differentiation, cell cycle & growth regulation. Can also have aerobic respiration. ➢ Animal Cell Structure o Centrosome: Mitosis & the cell cycle occur here o Centriole: Cellular division o Lysosome: Digests proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. Help remove undigested substances. o Cilia: Appendages that cause a cell to move & can move fluid o Flagella: Tail like structures that help the cell move. Acell usually only has one or a few flagella. Longer than cilia. ➢ Cell Cycle: Cell reproduces, growth cell, duplication of genetic material, and cell division. ➢ Cell Differentiation: Helps determine the cell type for each cell, process is controlled by genes of each cell (zygote). Following the directions of the genes, a cell builds certain proteins and other substances to set it apart as a specific type of cell. ➢ Mitosis: DNA replication & Production of new cells ▪ IPMAT=Cytokinesis o Interphase: Cell prepares to divide by replicating genetic & cytoplasmic material. (G1, S, G2) o Prophase: Chromatic thickens & nuclear membrane disintegrates.Centrioles move to opposite sides of the cells, and spindle fibers form. Mitotic spindle, formed cytoskeleton parts, moves chromosomes around the cell. o Metaphase: Spindle moves to the center of the cell. Chromosomesalign in the center.o Anaphase: Sister chromosomes begin to pull apart. When separated they’re called daughter chromosomes. Grooves appear inthe cell. Cell begins to furrow. o Telophase: Spindle disintegrates, nuclear membrane reform, andchromosomes turn into chromatin. In animal cells membrane is pinched, in plant cell a new cell wall begins to form. Splits into two. o Cytokinesis: Physical splitting of the cell. Meiosis: Reproduction of gametes zygote o Prophase I: Parent cell's nuclear membrane begins to disappear,spindles form o Metaphase I: Chromosomes line up with homogonous chromosomes. Crossing over may occur o Anaphase I: Homogonous chromosomes are separated, so one ofeach goes to either side o Telophase I: Cell separates, cytokinesis occurs o Prophase II: Almost simultaneous with Telaphase I; new spindlesform and attach to centromereso Metaphase II: Chromosomes line up again, and some crossing over may occur o Anaphase II: Sister chromatids pulled apart at centromeres, towards poles o Telophase II: Cell separates, nuclear membranesform, cytokinesis occurs o Interphase: Diploid sex cells have double the normal chromosomes necessary Tissues ➢ Categories of Tissues o Epithelial: Cells are tightly joined. Ex. Skin o Connective: May be dense, loose, or fatty. Protects and binds body parts. Ex. Bone tissue, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, fat,blood, and lymph. o Cartilage: Cushions & provides structural support for body parts. Jelly like base and fibrous. o Blood: Blood transports oxygen to cells and removes wastes.Carries hormones and defends against diseases. o Bone: Hard tissue that supports and protects softer tissues &organs. Marrow produces red blood cells. o Muscle: Helps support and move the body. ▪ 1. Smooth ▪ Cardiac ▪ Skeletal oNervous: Located inside the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Neurons form network through the body that control responses to changes in the external and internal environment. Some send signals to muscles and glands to trigger responses.Organs ➢ Mammals 1 organ system s 1) Integumentary system 2) Respiratory system 3) Cardiovascular system 4) Endocrine system 5) Nervoussystem 6) Immune system 7) Digestive system 8) Excretory system 9) Muscular system 10) Skeletal system 11)Reproductive system ➢ Three Primary Body Planes o Transverse (horizontal): Superior and inferior o Sagittal plane: Right and left sections. o Coronal (frontal): Front & Back {anterior & posterior} ➢ Terms of direction o Medial: toward or at the midline of the body; on the innerside of o Lateral: away from the midline of the body; on the outer sideof o Proximal: closer to the origin of the body part or the point ofattachment of a limb to the body trunk o Distal: farther from the origin of a body part or the point ofattachment of a limb to the body trunk o Anterior: toward or at the front of the body; in front of o Posterior: Toward or at the back of the body; behindo Cephalad=Head, Cranial=skull o Caudad=towards the tail or posterioro Superior: toward the head end or upper part of a structure orthe body; above o Inferior: away from the head end or toward the lower part ofa structure or the body; below Respiratory System ➢ Upper respiratory system: Nose, nasal cavity, mouth, pharynx and larynx. ➢ Lower respiratory system: Trachea, lungs, and bronchial tree ➢ Airway: nose, nasal cavity, mouth, pharynx (throat, larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe), bronchi, and bronchial network. o Lined with cilia, which brings debris toward the mouth o Lungs: Bronchi, Bronchial network, alveoli ▪ Alveoli: one cell thick, allow gas exchange with blood capillaries. ▪ Right lung has three lobes ▪ Left lung has two lobes, leaving room for heart. ▪ Lungs are surrounded by pleural membrane, reducesfriction between surfaces when breathing. ▪ Breathing includes diaphragm & intercostal muscles. • Diaphragm: dome-shaped muscle that separate thethoracic and abdominal cavities.➢ Functions of the Respiratory System o Function: Supply oxygen and rid the body carbon dioxide. Exchange of gases occurs in alveoli, surrounded by blood capillaries. o Filters air. Air si warmed, moistened, and filtered as it passesthrough the nasal cavity. o Responsible for speech, air passes through larynx (vibrates&produces sound) before entering trachea (windpipe). o Vital in cough production, expels foreign from body. o Chemoreceptors smell airborne particlesin nasal cavity. o Helps body maintain acid-base homeostasis. Hyperventilationincreases blood pH during acidosis (low pH), slowing breathing during alkalosis (high pH) helps lower blood pH. ➢ Breathing process o Breathing process: Diaphragm & intercostal muscles contract to expand lungs. o Inhaling: Diaphragm contracts & moves down, increasing the size of the chest cavity. o Exhaling: Intercostal muscles contract & ribs expand, increasing size & volume in the chest cavity. Pressure inside the chest cavity decreases. o Diaphragm & intercostal muscles relax, size of the chest cavity decreases, forcing air out of the lungs. o Medulla oblongata: controls breathing process ▪ Medulla monitors level of carbon dioxide in blood, & signals breathing rate to increase when levels are too high. Cardiovascular System➢ Responsible for the internal transport of substances to and from cells.o Made up of the following ▪ Blood: Blood is composed of water, solutes, and otherelements in a fluid connective tissue. ▪ Blood Vessels: Tubules of different size that transportblood. ▪ Heart: Muscular pump providing the pressure necessary tokeep blood flow. o Circulatory systems can be open or close. o Supplementary & Lymph clean up excess fluids & proteins & returns them to the circulatory system. o Blood: Stabilizes pH, carries raw materials & removes waste products from cells. Can fight infections. ▪ Composed of red & white blood cells, platelets & plasma. • Plasma composed of plasma proteins, ions, glucose,amino acids, hormones, & dissolved gases. o Red blood cells form in bone marrow, and transport oxygen tocells. o White blood cells defend the body against infection and removevarious wastes. ▪ White blood cells include lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, & basophils. Platelets are fragments of the stem cell & function in blood clotting. ➢ Heart o Made of cardiac muscle tissue. o Four chambers two atriums & two ventricles ▪ Halves separated by AV valves • Located between arteries & ventricles leading awayfrom the heart. • Valves move blood in one direction, preventing it frombacking into the chambers. • Heart functions by contracting & relaxing• Cardiac Cycle: Atrial contraction fills the ventricle & ventricular contraction empties them, forcing circulation. ➢ Systole (contracting ventricles)/ Diastole (relaxing ventricles) Types of circulation ➢ Coronary circulation: Flow of blood to the heart tissue. o Coronary arteries: Delivers oxygen-rich blood to myocardium o Cardiac veins: Vesselsthat remove deoxygenated blood from heart muscle. ➢ Pulmonary circulation: Flow of blood between the heart & lungs o Carries deoxygenated blood away from the right ventricle of heart to lungs, & returns oxygenated blood to left atrium & ventricle of the heart. ➢ Systemic circulation: o Carries oxygenated blood away from heart to the body, &returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart.Blood Pressure➢ The pressure of blood against the arterial walls. Lymphatic System ➢ Function: The lymphatic system is to return excess tissue fluid to the bloodstream. o System consists of transport vessels & lymph organs o Lymph vascularsystem consist of: Lymph capillaries, lymph vessels, & lymph ducts. o Major functions of the lymph vascular systems ▪ The return of excess fluid to the blood. ▪ The return of protein from the capillaries. ▪ The transport of fats from the digestive tract. ▪ The disposal of debris & cellular waste. o Lymphoid organs: Lymph nodes, spleen, appendix, adenoids, thymus, tonsils, & small patches of tissue in the small intestine. o Lymph node: located at intervals throughout the lymph vesselsystem. ▪ Nodes contain lymphocytes & plasma cells. ▪ Spleen filters blood stores of red blood cells & macrophage. ▪ Thymus secrets hormones & major site of lymphocyte production. Spleen ➢ Located in the upper left of the abdomen, & behind the stomach/below the diaphragm. o Made of lymphoid tissue. o Blood vessels are connected to spleen by splenic sinuses. ▪ Gastrolienal ligament that connects the stomach to thespleen. ▪ Lienorenal ligament that connects the kidney to the spleen ▪ Middle section of phrenicocolic ligamento Function of the spleen is to filter unwanted materials from theblood, including red blood cells. They help fight infections. Gastrointestinal System ➢ Digestive systems function by o Movement: Mixes & passes nutrients through the system & eliminates waste. o Secretion: Enzymes, hormones, & other substances necessaryfor digestion are secreted into the digestive tract. o Digestive: Includes chemical breakdown of nutrients intosmaller units that enter the internal environment. o Absorption: Passage of nutrients through plasma membranesinto the blood or lymph & then to the body. Mouth and Stomach ➢ Digestion begins in the mouth (chewing & mixing of nutrient with saliva) o Salivary glands are stimulated & secrete saliva (amylase) o This initiates breakdown of starch in digestion. o Swallowed the food moves down the pharynx into esophagus tothe stomach. ➢ Stomach is a flexible, muscular sac. Three main function include 1) Mixing and storing food 2) Dissolving & degrading food via secretions 3) Controlling passage of food into the small intestine oProtein digestion begins in the stomach. The smooth muscle (peristalsis) then moves the food into small intestine, absorption begins. ➢ Liver o Largest solid organ & gland. Has 4 lobes. Blood flows through sinusoids. o Functionsinclude:▪ Production of bile. ▪ Production of certain blood plasma proteins. ▪ Production of cholesterol. ▪ Storage of excess glucose in the form of glycogen ▪ Regulation of amino acids ▪ Processing of hemoglobin (to store iron) ▪ Conversion of ammonia to urea ▪ Purification of blood ▪ Regulation of blood clotting ▪ Controlling infections by boosting immune factors & removing bacteria. ➢ Small intestine o Most nutrients are absorbed in the small intestine. o Enzymes from the pancreas, liver, & stomach are transported tothe small intestine to aid digestion. Enzymes act on fats, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, & proteins. o Bile is secreted by the liver, and can break down fats. It’s storedin the gallbladder between meals. o Small intestine is covered in villi (absorb & increase surface area for interaction with chime.) ▪ Microvilli increases main absorption ➢ Large intestine o Concentrates, mixes, and stores waste material. o Absorbs water ➢ Pancreas o Made up of endocrine and exocrine tissues. o Exocrine- secretes digestive enzymes from pancreatic duct ▪ Pancreatic duct connects to the common bile duct near theduodenum. ▪ Endocrine tissue secrets hormones (insulin) into blood.▪ Blood is supplied from splenic artery, gastroduodenalartery, & superior mesenteric artery. • Roles of Pancreas o Assists in digestion of foods by secreting enzymes, especially fats & proteins. o Precursors of enzymes (zymogens), converted toamylase & pancreatic lipase. o Secretes sodium bicarbonate to neutral stomach acid. o Exocrine functions of pancreas are controlled by hormones secreted by the stomach & duodenum. o Exocrine secretions of pancreas flow into pancreatic duct & are delivered to duodenum through pancreaticduct. ➢ Nervous System o Human nervous system senses, interprets, & issues commands o Action potential: messages sent across the plasma membrane ofneurons. ▪ Messages occur when a neuron is stimulated past anecessary threshold. ▪ Stimulations occur in a sequence from one stimulationpoint of one neuron to its contact with another neuron. ▪ Chemical synapse: Asubstance released that inhibits theaction of the adjoining cell. o Functional Types of Neurons ▪ Three general function of neurons are • sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons. • Sensory neurons: Transmit signals to the central nervous system (CNS) from the sensor receptors associated with touch, pain, temperature, hearing, sight, smell, & taste.• Motor neuron: Transmits signals from the CNS to the rest of the body such as signaling muscles or glands torespond. • Interneurons: Transmit signals between neurons ▪ Neurons consist of three basic parts: • Cell body: Contains the nucleus of the of the neuron. • Axon: Transmits impulses away from cell body. It’s insulated with oligodendrocytes & myelin sheaths with gaps (nodes of Ranvier). Axon terminates at the synapse. • Dendrites: Receive impulses from sensory receptors or interneurons & transmit them toward the cell body. Central Nervous System ➢ Spinal cord: Protects & supports the vertebrae. ➢ Brain: Consists of hindbrain, medulla oblongata, cerebellum, & pons. o Forebrain: cerebrum, thalamus, & hypothalamus. ▪ Frontal lobe: Short term & working memory, information processing, decision making, planning, & judgment. ▪ Parietal lobe: sensory input, touch, pain, pressure ▪ Occipital lobe: Visual input/output & processing. ▪ Temporal lobe: Auditory input, processing, & output.o Cerebellum: Processes & storesimplicit memories. o Midbrain: Visual & hearing o Pons: helps control breathing o Medulla oblongata: Control of consciousness and arousal; regulates breathing, cardiac functions and blood vessels diameters o Peripheral nervous system: These nerves carry information to and from the central nervous system to provide complex body functions. o Autonomic nervous system (Hypothalamus controls this): Maintains homeostasis, controls functions of the internal organs,blood vessels, smooth muscle tissue & glands. ▪ Regulates heart rate, breathing rate, body temperature, &blood pH. • Sympathetic nervous system: Controls body’s reaction to extreme, stressful, & emergency situations. “Fight orFlight” • Parasympathetic nervous system: Controls body’s homeostasis. Relaxes & inhibits high energy functions. ➢ Somatic Nervous System & Reflex Arc o Somatic Nervous System: Voluntary movement of muscles & organs, reflex movement. Voluntary movement, sensory neuronscarry impulses to brain & spinal cord. ▪ Efferent (motor): Brings signals from central nervous system to sensory organs & muscles. ▪ Afferent (sensory): Brings signals from sensory organs & muscles to central nervous system. Muscular System ➢ Three properties of muscles: o Excitability: Electric gradient can reverse when stimulated.o Contraction: Ability to contract, or shorten. o Elongate: Share the capacity to elongate, or relax. ➢ Three types of muscle tissue: Skeletal, Cardiac, & Smooth o Skeletal muscle tissue: Composed of muscle fibers (striated muscle), Voluntary (only one that can move body). o Smooth muscle tissue: Involuntary (found in internal organs), Short/wider & nonstriated. o Cardiac muscle tissue: Involuntary muscle found only in heart. Striated ➢ Skeletal muscle contraction ➢ Made of muscle fibers: when muscle contract sarcomere contract ➢ Myofibrils: Thick filaments & Thin filaments. o Thick filament: Composed of protein myosin. o Thin filament: Composed of protein actin. ▪ Dark band: thick & thin overlapping. ▪ Light band: thin filaments overlapping. ➢ Sliding filament theory o Myosin heads hydrolyzed ATP and become reoriented andenergized o Myosin heads bind to actin, forming cross bridges o Myosin cross bridges rotate toward center of the sarcomeres(power stroke) o As myosin heads bind ATP, cross bridges detach from actinReproductive system ➢ Male Reproductive System o Function: Produce, maintain, & transfer sperm & secrete male hormone. o Externalstructure: Penis, scrotum, & testes o Scrotum: temperature forspermatogenesis o Testes: Male gonads, produce sperm & testosterone. o Epididymis: Produces sperm & testosterone o Seminal vesicle: Secretes alkaline fluids with proteins & mucus o Prostate gland: Secretes milky white fluid with proteins & enzymes. o Bulbourethral gland: Secretes fluid that neutralizes the acidity of the urethra. o Follicle stimulating hormone: Stimulates spermatogenesiso Luteinizing hormone: Stimulates testosterone production ➢ Female Reproductive System o Function: Produce ova (egg cells), transfer ova to the fallopian tubesfor fertilization,receive the sperm. Provide a protective, nourishing, environment for developing embryo. o Externalstructure: labia major, labia minor, Bartholin’s glands& clitoris. o Bartholin’s gland: Secretes lubricating fluid o Ovaries: Produce ova, secrete estrogen & progesterone o Fallopian tubes: Carry the mature egg towards the uterus.Typically, fertilization occurs here. o Fertilized egg travel to uterus, implants in the uterine wall. o Uterus: Protects & nourishes the developing embryo until birth Integumentary System ➢ Consists of the skin: Sebaceous glands, sweat glands, hair, nails. ➢ Function: Protection, Secretion, & communication. o Protects against bacteria, viruses, & various chemicals fromentering the body. o Sweat glands help rid the body of metabolic wastes. o Sensory receptors: send information to the brain regarding pain,touch, pressure, & temperature. ▪ Protection, secretion, & communication. Skin manufactures vitamin D & absorbs certain chemicals(meds).➢ Layers of skino The stratum basale or stratum germinativum is always the bottom (deepest) layer. Continuous cell division occurs here and produces all theother layers. o The stratum spinosum is a layer of 8–10 keratinocytes o The non-dividing cells of the 3 rd layer (stratum granulosum) are filled with granules of keratin. o The stratum lucidum is the 4th layer but is only present in thick skin (the skin of the fingertips, palms, and soles). o The stratum corneum is always outermost, composed of approximately 20 layers of flat cell-remnants that are like “bags of turtle wax” (dead keratinocytes with no cellular organellesfilled with only keratin protein.) Skin’sinvolvement in temperature homeostasis ➢ Sweat glands to cool off body. Vasodilation of blood vessels. ➢ Shivering heatsthe body. ➢ Sebaceous & sweat glands are exocrine. Secret through ducts. ➢ Sebaceous are holocrine glands, and secrete sebum. o Inhibits water loss from the skin, protects against bacterial &fungal infections. ➢ Sweat glands are either eccrine or apocrine glands. Apocrine arelocated in the armpits, groin, palms, & soles of the feet. Endocrine system ➢ Adrenal cortex: Monitors blood sugar levels; helps in lipid & protein metabolism. ➢ Adrenal medulla: Controls cardiac function; raises blood sugar & controls the size of blood vessels.➢ Thyroid gland: Helps regulate metabolism & functions in growth & development. ➢ Parathyroid: Regulates calcium levels in the blood. ➢ Pancreas islets: Raises & lowers blood sugar; active in carbohydrate metabolism. ➢ Thymus gland: Plays a role in immune responses. ➢ Pineal gland: Has an influence on daily biorhythms & sexual active maity. ➢ Pituitary gland: Plays an important role in growth & development. Endocrine functions of the Pancreas ➢ Pancreas: Produces insulin & glucagon ➢ Insulin lowers glucose ➢ Insulin affects fat metabolism, & can change livers ability to storefat. Thyroid & Parathyroid glands ➢ Thyroid & parathyroid are located below larynx ➢ Thyroid gland: regulates metabolism & secretes hormones Urinary System ➢ Consists of kidneys, urinary ducts, & bladder. ➢ Kidneys: bean-shaped structures located at the back of abdominalcavity o Has three layers: Renal cortex, renal medulla, & renal pelvis. o Kidney receives blood from renal arteries. o Kidneys filter the blood, reabsorb needed materials, secretewastes & excess water in urine. o Blood flows from the renal arteries into arterioles into the glomerulus where its filtered. Glomerular filtrate enters the proximal convoluted tubule where water, glucose, ions, & otherorganic molecules are reabsorbed back into the bloodstream.o Urea & drugs are removed from the blood in the distalconvoluted tubule. opH of the blood can be adjusted in distal convoluted tubule by secretion of hydrogen ions. o Unabsorbed materials flow out of collecting tubule ▪ URINE is drained from the kidneys through the uretersto urinary bladder. Expelled through urethra. Immune System ➢ Protects body against invading pathogensincluding bacteria, viruses, fungi, & protists. o Immune system includes: lymphatic system (lymph, lymph capillaries, lymph vessels, & lymph nodes) o Lymph nodes are located in the neck, armpits, & groin area. o Thymusis a maturation chamber for immature T-cellsthat areformed in bone marrow. o Spleen cleans the blood of dead cells, & pathogens. ➢ The body’s general immune defenses include o Skin: Intact epidermis & dermis form a form a formidable barrier against bacteria, o Ciliated mucous membranes: Cilia sweep pathogens out of the respiratory tract. o Glandular Secretions: Secretions from exocrine glands destroy bacteria. o Gastric secretions: Gastric acid destroys pathogens. o Normal Bacterial populations: compete with pathogens in the gut & vag. o Phagocytes & inflammation reponses mobilize white blood cells & chemical reactions to stop infection. ➢ Three types of whte blood cellso Macrophage: Phagocytes that alert T cells to presence offoreign substances. o T lymphocytes: These directly attack cells infected by viruses & bacteria o B lymphocytes: These cells target specific bacteria for destruction. ➢ Types of leukocytes o Leukocytes are produced in red bone marrow. ▪ Leukocytes are macrophages. (engulf & destroy pathogens). ▪ Granulocytes(neutrophils, basophils & eosinophils) • (Neutrophil: respond quickly to invaders) • (Basophil: alert body of invasion) • Eosinophils: large, long-living phagocytesthat defend against multicellular invaders. ▪ T lymphocytes (help the body fight infections by producing antibodies & other chemicals.) ▪ B lymphocytes (natural killers) (Produce antibodies) ➢ Antigen & Typical Immune Response o Antigen: proteins on the surfaces of bacteria, viruses, & fungi ▪ Drugs, Toxins, & foreign particles o Plasma cells: produce antibodies specific to that pathogens o Antibodies bind to antigens on the surface of pathogens &mark them for destruction by other phagocytes. oMemory cells remain in the blood stream to protectagainst future infections. Active & Passive immunity ➢ Adaptive immunity: reacts to pathogens that have encounterinfection or has an immunization. ➢ Adaptive & passive immunity can come naturally or artificially➢ Naturally acquired passive immunityis natural, happens during pregnancy -> passes it to the baby. ➢ Artificially acquired passive immunity: immunization acquired Skeletal System ➢ Over 200 bones in human body ➢ Axial skeleton: Skull, sternum, ribs, & vertebral column o Skull: Cranium, Face o Hyoid, Auditory ossicles o Vertebral column o Thorax o Sternum Ribs ➢ Appendicularskeleton: Arms, legs, hips & shoulders • Appendicular Skeleton: o Shoulder girdle: Clavicle & Scapula ▪ Upper limbs: Humerus, Radius, Carpals, Metacarpals, Phalanges o Pelvic Girdle: ▪ Hip, Pelvic, or Coxal bone o Lower Limbs: ▪ Femur, Patella, Fibula, Tibia, Tarsals, Metatarsals, and Phalanges o Flat bones: There are flat bones in the skull (occipital, parietal, frontal, nasal, lacrimal, and vomer), the thoracic cage (sternumand ribs), and the pelvis (ilium, ischium, and pubis).o Long bones: Tibia, fibula, femur, metatarsals, phalanges, clavicle, humerus, radius, ulna, metacarpals, phalanges o Short bones: Tarsals, carpals, o Irregular bones: Vertebrae,sacrum o Sesamoid bones: Patella. ➢ Skeletal system function o Movement, mineral storage, support, protection, & blood cellformation (RBC’s produced in bone marrow).Life and physicalsciences Macromolecules ➢ 4 basic organic macromolecules: carbohydrates (polysaccharides), nucleic acids, proteins, & lipids. ➢ 4 basic building blocks: monosaccharides (glucose), amino acids, fatty acids (glycerol), nucleotides. Carbohydrates ➢ Primary source of energy & responsible for providing energy ➢ Simple sugars: Monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, & sucrose), & disaccharides. Lipids ➢ Lipids are hydrophobic ➢ Function: energy storage, & structural function ➢ Phospholipids are lipids that have phosphate group ➢ Glycerides are formed from fatty acids Proteins ➢ Proteins are macromolecules from amino acids o Peptidesresult of condensation reactions o A peptide is a compound of two or more amino acids [Show More]

Last updated: 1 year ago

Preview 1 out of 33 pages

Reviews( 0 )

Recommended For You

 *NURSING> QUESTIONS and ANSWERS > ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE (All)

preview
ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE

ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE Science Cell ➢ Cell: basic organizational unit of all living things. One thing in common is they all have membranes (phospholipids). ➢ Cell structure organization: All...

By Good grade , Uploaded: Apr 15, 2021

$10

 *NURSING> QUESTIONS and ANSWERS > ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE (All)

preview
ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE

ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE Science Cell  Cell: basic organizational unit of all living things. One thing in common is they all have membranes (phospholipids).  Cell structure organization: All cell...

By Victor , Uploaded: Jul 08, 2021

$9.5

 Health Care> QUESTIONS and ANSWERS > ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE: LATEST-2021, COMPLETE GUIDE (All)

preview
ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE: LATEST-2021, COMPLETE GUIDE

Cell: basic organizational unit of all living things. One thing in common is they all have membranes (phospholipids). ? Cell structure organization: All cells contain DNA, and RNA & can synthesize pro...

By QUIZDASH , Uploaded: Jul 04, 2021

$10

 Health Care> QUESTIONS and ANSWERS > ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE: LATEST-2021, COMPLETE GUIDE (All)

preview
ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE: LATEST-2021, COMPLETE GUIDE

Cell: basic organizational unit of all living things. One thing in common is they all have membranes (phospholipids). ? Cell structure organization: All cells contain DNA, and RNA & can synthesize pro...

By QUIZDASH , Uploaded: Jul 04, 2021

$10

 Health Care> QUESTIONS and ANSWERS > ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE: LATEST-2021, COMPLETE GUIDE (All)

preview
ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE: LATEST-2021, COMPLETE GUIDE

Cell: basic organizational unit of all living things. One thing in common is they all have membranes (phospholipids). ? Cell structure organization: All cells contain DNA, and RNA & can synthesize pro...

By QUIZDASH , Uploaded: Jul 04, 2021

$10

 *NURSING> QUESTIONS and ANSWERS > ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE ALL THE POINTS YOU NEED TO KNOW FOR THE ATI TEAS EXAM SCIENCE (All)

preview
ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE ALL THE POINTS YOU NEED TO KNOW FOR THE ATI TEAS EXAM SCIENCE

➢ Cell: basic organizational unit of all living things. One thing in common is they all have membranes (phospholipids). ➢ Cell structure organization: All cells contain DNA, and RNA & can synthesize...

By destinyd , Uploaded: Jun 11, 2021

$9.5

 *NURSING> QUESTIONS and ANSWERS > Walden university-ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE (All)

preview
Walden university-ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE

ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDEWalden university-ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE

By ben richardson , Uploaded: May 20, 2021

$10

 *NURSING> QUESTIONS and ANSWERS > ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE ALL EXAM TIPS YOU NEED TO REVISE (All)

preview
ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE ALL EXAM TIPS YOU NEED TO REVISE

ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE Science Cell  Cell: basic organizational unit of all living things. One thing in common is they all have membranes (phospholipids).  Cell structure organization: All...

By STUDY-GUIDENOTES , Uploaded: May 05, 2021

$15

 *NURSING> QUESTIONS and ANSWERS > ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE (Latest Updated) Rated A. (All)

preview
ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE (Latest Updated) Rated A.

ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE (Latest Updated) Rated A.

By A+ Solutions , Uploaded: Apr 28, 2021

$12

 *NURSING> QUESTIONS and ANSWERS > ATI TEAS 6 EXAM REVIEW TEST2020/2021 EXAM FILES(with answer sheets)/containing all TEAS SECTION WITH A GUARANTEE OF AN A+ (All)

preview
ATI TEAS 6 EXAM REVIEW TEST2020/2021 EXAM FILES(with answer sheets)/containing all TEAS SECTION WITH A GUARANTEE OF AN A+

ATI TEAS 6 EXAM REVIEW TEST2020/2021 EXAM FILES(with answer sheets)/containing all TEAS SECTION WITH A GUARANTEE OF AN A+

By topnurse , Uploaded: Apr 11, 2021

$15.5

$10.00

Add to cart

Instant download

Can't find what you want? Try our AI powered Search

OR

GET ASSIGNMENT HELP
92
0

Document information


Connected school, study & course



About the document


Uploaded On

Jul 02, 2021

Number of pages

33

Written in

Seller


seller-icon
QuizMaster

Member since 3 years

11 Documents Sold


Additional information

This document has been written for:

Uploaded

Jul 02, 2021

Downloads

 0

Views

 92

Document Keyword Tags

THE BEST STUDY GUIDES

Avoid resits and achieve higher grades with the best study guides, textbook notes, and class notes written by your fellow students

custom preview

Avoid examination resits

Your fellow students know the appropriate material to use to deliver high quality content. With this great service and assistance from fellow students, you can become well prepared and avoid having to resits exams.

custom preview

Get the best grades

Your fellow student knows the best materials to research on and use. This guarantee you the best grades in your examination. Your fellow students use high quality materials, textbooks and notes to ensure high quality

custom preview

Earn from your notes

Get paid by selling your notes and study materials to other students. Earn alot of cash and help other students in study by providing them with appropriate and high quality study materials.


$10.00

WHAT STUDENTS SAY ABOUT US


What is Browsegrades

In Browsegrades, a student can earn by offering help to other student. Students can help other students with materials by upploading their notes and earn money.

We are here to help

We're available through e-mail, Twitter, Facebook, and live chat.
 FAQ
 Questions? Leave a message!

Follow us on
 Twitter

Copyright © Browsegrades · High quality services·