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AQA AS-Level Biology notes ( BEST STUDY NOTES , DOWNLOAD TO SCORE A+ ) GUARANTEED GRADES

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Topic 1: Biological Molecules: 1.1-Monomers and polymers:  Monomers and polymers: o Monomers are small units which are the components of larger molecules, examples include monosaccharides such ... as glucose, amino acids and nucleotides o Polymers are molecules made from many monomers joined together o Monomers are joined by a chemical bond in a condensation reaction whereby a water molecule is eliminated o Hydrolysis is the opposite of a condensation reaction and is when water is added to break a chemical bond between two molecules 1.2-Carbohydrates:  Carbohydrates: o Carbohydrates are molecules which consist only of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and they are long chains of sugar units called saccharides o A single monomer is called a monosaccharide with a pair of monomers being called a disaccharide o Combining many monosaccharides results in the formation of a polysaccharide o These are all joined together with a glycosidic bond formed in a condensation reaction o Monosaccharides:  Glucose is a monosaccharide containing six carbon atoms in each molecule, and is the main substrate for respiration and therefore of great importance  It has two isomers – alpha and beta glucose with structures being seen below  Common monosaccharides include glucose, galactose and fructose  These are typically sweet tasting, soluble substances which have the general formula (CH2O)n where n can any number from three to seven o Disaccharides:  Two monosaccharides can join together in a condensation reaction to form a disaccharide  In this process a molecule of water is produced  The diagram below shows the formation of a 1,4 glycosidic bond between two alpha glucose molecules in order to form a molecule of maltose [Show More]

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