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Midterm 2A Study Guide and Notes

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1. Know: Diagram of bladder (a receptor) – 1) Effect of sympathetic stimulation, alpha or beta adrenergic receptors. Relaxation of muscular wall (beta 2); contraction of internal urethral sphincter ... (alpha 1). 2) Effect of parasympathetic stimulation (muscarinic ACH receptors): Contraction of muscular wall; relaxation of internal urethral sphincter. 2. Water soluble hormone steps 3. Lipid soluble hormone steps 4. Folia in cerebellar cortex Outside of cerebellum, consists of grey matter in series of folds 5. Chromaffin cells Alternatively, in some autonomic pathways, the first motor neuron extends to spe- cialized cells called chromaffin cells in the adrenal medullae (inner portions of the adrenal glands) rather than an autonomic ganglion. Chromaffin cells secrete the neurotransmitters epineph- rine and norepinephrine (NE). All somatic motor neurons release only acetylcholine (ACh) as their neurotransmitter, but autonomic motor neurons release either ACh or norepinephrine (NE) All sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons release ACh. Most sympathetic postganglionic neurons release NE; those to most sweat glands release ACh. All parasympathetic postganglionic neurons release ACh. Chromaffin cells of adrenal medullae release epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE 6. Hemispheric lateralization Physiological differences also ex- ist; although the two hemispheres share performance of many functions, each hemisphere also specializes in performing cer- tain unique functions. This functional asymmetry is termed hemispheric lateralization. Despite some dramatic differences in functions of the two hemispheres, there is considerable variation from one person to another. Also, lateralization seems less pronounced in fe- males than in males, both for language (left hemisphere) and for visual and spatial skills (right hemisphere). For instance, females are less likely than males to suffer aphasia after damage 7. Voltage gated channels -- specifically ones that use sodium ions Gated channels that open in response to voltage stimulus (change in membrane potential). Axons of all types of neurons. Ie threshhod stimulus causes voltage gated na+ channels to open causing depolarization of cell and propagation of action potential down axon 8. astigmatism, near sightedness and far sightedness astigmatism is when they eye does no refract light evenly on the retina, leads to blurred vision at any distance near sightedness: Can see close, cant see far. AKA Myopia. Due to issue with refracting the light, in near sightednees image gets focused in front of retina not on it far sightedness: Can see far things, but not close things. AKA hyperopia. Visual image gets focused behinf retina 9. CNS & PNS 10. Resting membrane potential voltage [Show More]

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