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NURSING INFORMATICS AND THE FOUNDATION OF KNOWLEDGE MCGONIGLE TEST BANK UPDATED 2021 ( COMPLETE, COVERS ALL CHAPTERS, 100% CORRECT ANSWERS )

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NURSING INFORMATICS AND THE FOUNDATION OF KNOWLEDGE 4TH EDITION MCGONIGLE TEST BANK Chapter 1 Nursing Science and the Foundation of Knowledge The nurse understands that nursing informatics i... s recognized as a specialty area of practice by which statement? 1. Research priorities for nursing informatics include the development of a standard nursing language and the development of databases for clinical information. 2. A formal educational program at the master's level must be completed before a nurse is eligible to sit for the credentialing examination. 3. As a differentiated practice, nursing informatics is focused upon the client, the environment, health, and the nurse. 4. There is a need for nursing informatics interests to gain representation by work groups and organizations within the United States. Correct Answer: 1 Rationale 1: The development of research priorities is a key point in a specialty practice. Although degrees at the master's level are available, the degree required for credentialing is typically at the bachelor's level and includes experience in the field. Current demands for safer, cost-effective, quality care require evidence of the best practices supported by research. Rationale 2: Such a formal educational program does not necessarily mean a specialty area of practice. Although degrees at the master's level are available, the degree required for credentialing is typically at the bachelor's level and includes experience in the field. The development of research priorities is a key point in a specialty practice. Rationale 3: Your chosen response refers to the entire discipline of nursing. The specialty of nursing informatics integrates nursing science, computer science, and information science to manage and communicate data, information, knowledge, and wisdom into nursing practice. The development of research priorities is a key point in a specialty practice. Rationale 4: There are many work groups in the United States related to informatics that focus on the specialty of informatics practice. One example is the Nursing Informatics Special Interest Group of the International Medical Informatics Association. The development of research priorities is a key point in a specialty practice. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Understanding Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment Learning Outcome: Question 2 Type: MCSA Which statement by the nurse verifies that the nurse is "information literate"? 1. "I understand how to search for a website and evaluate its usefulness for health care needs." 2. "I utilize databases in the health care setting to input client information such as skin condition." 3. "I use email over the Internet to correspond with clients and provide information." 4. "I can use software applications such as word processing, spreadsheets, and presentations." Correct Answer: 1 Rationale 1: Information literacy necessitates that nurses have the ability to find, evaluate, and effectively use information. The other answers are examples of computer literacy but do not have the higher functions of information literacy. Rationale 2: Your chosen response is an example of computer literacy, but it does not have the higher functions of information literacy. Information literacy necessitates that nurses have the ability to find, evaluate, and effectively use information. Rationale 3: Your chosen response is an example of computer literacy but, it does not have the higher functions of information literacy. Information literacy necessitates that nurses have the ability to find, evaluate, and effectively use information. Rationale 4: This answer is an example of computer literacy but, it does not have the higher functions of information literacy. Information literacy necessitates that nurses have the ability to find, evaluate, and effectively use information. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Understanding Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning Learning Outcome: Question 3 Type: MCSA The nurse gathers much data when caring for clients. Which is an example of the higher-level "information" useful in caring for clients? 1. The vital signs are BP of 130/70, HR of 88, RR of 24, temperature of 98.8 degrees F., and oxygen saturation of 98%. 2. Lab work results include an electrolyte panel and complete blood count with differential. 3. The client is a widowed 64-year-old black male admitted with prostatitis. 4. After receiving Rocephin (ceftriaxone sodium) 1.0 gram IV yesterday, the client reported feeling better today. Correct Answer: 4 Rationale 1: Your chosen response is an example of having pieces of data without interpretation. "Information" necessitates that the nurse interpret and structure the results of clinical data into information. Rationale 2: Your chosen response is an example of having pieces of data without interpretation. "Information" necessitates that the nurse interpret and structure the results of clinical data into information. Rationale 3: Your chosen response is an example of having pieces of data without interpretation. "Information" necessitates that the nurse interpret and structure the results of clinical data into information. Rationale 4: "Information" necessitates that the nurse interpret and structure clinical data into information. It can then be used to aid clinical decision making and client monitoring. All other responses included pieces of data without interpretation. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Understanding Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment Learning Outcome: Question 4 Type: MCSA Which statement best distinguishes the difference between information literacy and computer literacy? 1. Information literacy is unnecessary in health care whereas computer literacy provides the basis for computer order entry. 2. Information literacy is the foundation of the EHR whereas computer literacy helps the nurse to access data. 3. A nurse can extrapolate data with computer literacy and not information skills. 4. Information literacy forms the basis for ongoing learning whereas computer literacy refers to a familiarity with the use of personal computers. Correct Answer: 4 Rationale 1: Computer literacy is a popular term used to refer to a familiarity with the use of personal computers, including the use of software tools such as word processing, spreadsheets, databases, presentation graphics, and e-mail. The majority of students admitted to nursing schools now enter with some level of computer literacy. Rationale 2: Computer literacy is a popular term used to refer to a familiarity with the use of personal computers, including the use of software tools such as word processing, spreadsheets, databases, presentation graphics, and e-mail. The majority of students admitted to nursing schools now enter with some level of computer literacy. Rationale 3: Computer literacy is a popular term used to refer to a familiarity with the use of personal computers, including the use of software tools such as word processing, spreadsheets, databases, presentation graphics, and e-mail. The majority of students admitted to nursing schools now enter with some level of computer literacy. Rationale 4: Computer literacy is a popular term used to refer to a familiarity with the use of personal computers, including the use of software tools such as word processing, spreadsheets, databases, presentation graphics, and e-mail. The majority of students admitted to nursing schools now enter with some level of computer literacy. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Analyzing Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment Learning Outcome: Question 5 Type: MCSA Which statement indicates the appropriate level of informatics competencies to the correct nurse? 1. A nurse informatics specialist extrapolates data to develop best practice model for indwelling catheter care. 2. The novice nurse using a spreadsheet to document medication reactions. 3. An experienced staff nurse creates databases employing SNOMED. 4. A beginning nurse utilizes the Internet to integrate multidisciplinary languages. Correct Answer: 1 Rationale 1: The nurse informatics specialist has the ability and education to access data and create a model of excellence based on the findings. Rationale 2: According to research, nurses are graduating from programs without experience with databases, spreadsheets, and statistical packages. There is a learning curve from graduation to comfort with the information system and its capabilities. Rationale 3: An experienced staff nurse does not have the skills to create a database using a standardized language. Rationale 4: Beginning nurses are comfortable with basic skills and should be able to retrieve information from the system, as well as interpret data. Your chosen response is not an example of the competencies required for the informatics specialist; its level is too high. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Understanding Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment Learning Outcome: Question 6 Type: MCSA Which statement regarding pressures that drive the health care delivery system today is not accurate? 1. The current and projected nursing shortage may be eliminated by instituting technology enhancements in the acute care setting. 2. Evidence-based practice is supported with technology that enables the health care provider to utilize up-to-date research findings. 3. Medication errors and adverse events may be reduced with the implementation of computerized physician order entry (CPOE). 4. Managed care may utilize disease management to identify clients with chronic conditions, and treat them effectively to minimize complications and cost. Correct Answer: 1 Rationale 1: Although the nursing shortage may not be eliminated with information technology, the probability that errors may be reduced with the implementation of technology that enables the health care provider to double check medication administration may help with client safety. Rationale 2: Although the nursing shortage may not be eliminated with information technology, the probability that errors may be reduced with the implementation of technology that enables the health care provider to double check medication administration may help with client safety. Rationale 3: Your chosen response is an example of a statement that is indeed accurate. The one statement that is not accurate is the one about eliminating the current and projected nursing shortage by instituting technology enhancements. Although the nursing shortage may not be eliminated with information technology, the probability that errors may be reduced with the implementation of technology that enables the health care provider to double check medication administration may help with client safety. Rationale 4: Your chosen response is an example of a statement that is indeed accurate. The one statement that is not accurate is the one about eliminating the current and projected nursing shortage by instituting technology enhancements. Although the nursing shortage may not be eliminated with information technology, the probability that errors may be reduced with the implementation of technology that enables the health care provider to double check medication administration may help with client safety. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Analyzing Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment Learning Outcome: Question 7 Type: MCSA Describe at least three factors in the current healthcare delivery system that drive the implementation of information technology in the acute care setting. 1. Patient safety 2. Nursing shortage 3. Evidence-based practice 4. Increased numbers of digital natives in nursing practice Correct Answer: 4 Rationale 1: Patient safety, nursing shortage, managed care, and evidenced based practice are all factors that impact the acceptance and implementation of information technology in the acute care setting. Rationale 2: Patient safety, nursing shortage, managed care, and evidenced based practice are all factors that impact the acceptance and implementation of information technology in the acute care setting. Rationale 3: Patient safety, nursing shortage, managed care, and evidenced based practice are all factors that impact the acceptance and implementation of information technology in the acute care setting. Rationale 4: Patient safety, nursing shortage, managed care, and evidenced based practice are all factors that impact the acceptance and implementation of information technology in the acute care setting. Digital natives may be more comfortable with technology, but they are not the driving force toward change. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Understanding Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation Learning Outcome: Question 8 Type: MCSA Which action indicates the nurse is functioning as a knowledge worker? 1. The nurse auscultates hypoactive bowel sounds while doing a client assessment eight hours postoperatively after abdominal surgery and documents the assessment in the electronic medical record. 2. The nurse administers four units of regular insulin to the client whose blood glucose is 240 at 11:30 a.m. per physician's sliding scale orders and documents it on the electronic medical administration record. 3. The nurse auscultates diminished breath sounds in a postoperative client the morning after abdominal surgery and encourages the client to turn, cough, and deep breathe every hour instead of every two hours. 4. The nurse obtains the client's vital signs of BP-120/82, P-112, and R-32, totals up the intake of 1040 ml and the output of 1100 ml, and records these data in the electronic medical record. Correct Answer: 3 Rationale 1: Your chosen response is an example of gathering assessment data and recording same in the EMR. The nurse as knowledge worker interprets and structures clinical data into information that can then be used to aid clinical decision making and patient monitoring over time. In the auscultation with diminished breath sounds choice, the nurse compared the data to the knowledge that the client may be developing atelectasis, and acted upon this by having the client turn, cough, and deep breathe more frequently than the standard practice of every two hours. Rationale 2: Your chosen response is an example of following physician orders. The nurse as knowledge worker interprets and structures clinical data into information that can then be used to aid clinical decision making and patient monitoring over time. In the auscultation with diminished breath sounds choice, the nurse compared the data to the knowledge that the client may be developing atelectasis, and acted upon this by having the client turn, cough, and deep breathe more frequently than the standard practice of every two hours. Rationale 3: The nurse as knowledge worker interprets and structures clinical data into information that can then be used to aid clinical decision making and patient monitoring over time. In this case, the nurse auscultated diminished breath sounds in a postoperative client the morning after abdominal surgery. The nurse compared the data to the knowledge that the client may be developing atelectasis, and acted upon this by having the client turn, cough, and deep breathe more frequently than the standard practice of every two hours. Rationale 4: Your chosen response is an example of gathering assessment data and recording same in the EMR. The nurse as knowledge worker interprets and structures clinical data into information that can then be used to aid clinical decision making and patient monitoring over time. In the auscultation with diminished breath sounds choice, the nurse compared the data to the knowledge that the client may be developing atelectasis, and acted upon this by having the client turn, cough, and deep breathe more frequently than the standard practice of every two hours. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Applying Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Diagnosis Learning Outcome: Question 9 Type: MCSA A disadvantage to the utilization of the electronic medical record (EMR) includes which of the following? 1. Accessibility from several different locations simultaneously and by different levels of providers 2. The intensive training in the beginning needed to prepare staff members to use the EMR 3. Less time available for client care because more time is required for documentation activity 4. Inability to incorporate diagnostic images into the EMR because of space limitations Correct Answer: 2 Rationale 1: It is actually an advantage that the EMR can be accessed from several different locations simultaneously, as well as by different levels of providers. The disadvantage is the amount of time needed in the beginning for training on the computer records. However, once staff members are trained, more time is available for client care because less time is needed for documentation activity. Rationale 2: There is a considerable amount of time needed in the beginning for the training on usage of computerized records. However, once staff members are trained, more time is available for client care because less time is needed for documentation activity. The EMR improves things such as: access to information, number of errors, communication, and redundancy of data entry. Rationale 3: Actually, once staff members are trained, more time is available for client care because less time is required for documentation activity, though. The amount of time needed in the beginning for the training on usage of computerized records is a disadvantage. Rationale 4: Diagnostic images are actually a part of the record and can be viewed from various locations. A disadvantage is the amount of time needed in the beginning for training on the computer records. However, once staff members are trained, more time is available for client care because less time is needed for documentation activity. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Applying Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Learning Outcome: Question 10 Type: MCSA A nurse manager wishes to hire a new nurse who has just graduated from nursing school. At the beginning level of informatics competencies, the nurse should be able to do which of the following? 1. Attain informatics nurse certification within six months of beginning practice. 2. Input vital signs and intake and output data in the electronic medical record. 3. Utilize the Internet to review trends in health care information technology. 4. Use an electronic spreadsheet to create staffing rotations. Correct Answer: 2 Rationale 1: Your chosen response is not a beginning level competency for nurses entering the profession. Inputting data into the electronic medical record is a beginning level competency for nurses entering the profession; the other choices are at higher levels. Rationale 2: Inputting data into the electronic medical record is a beginning level competency for nurses entering the profession; the other choices are at higher levels. Rationale 3: Your chosen response is not a beginning level competency for nurses entering the profession. Inputting data into the electronic medical record is a beginning level competency for nurses entering the profession; the other choices are at higher levels. Rationale 4: Novice nurses do not have the computer literacy skills to employ a spreadsheet to create schedules. This is a more advanced competency. The novice nurse is beginning to learn to use the system to input data. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Understanding Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Learning Outcome: Question 11 Type: MCSA In which way does medical informatics overlap with nursing informatics? 1. Medical and nursing informatics focus on the areas of information retrieval. 2. Medical and nursing informatics focus on patients' families. 3. Medical and nursing informatics focus on hospital complications. 4. Medical and nursing informatics focus on hospital complications. Correct Answer: 1 Rationale 1: Informatics has subsequently emerged as an area of specialization within the various health care disciplines and is one of the fastest growing career fields in health care. Overlap occurs among medical, dental, and nursing informatics primarily in the areas of information retrieval, ethics, patient care, decision support, human to computer interactions, information systems, imaging, computer security, and computerized health records (Guenther & Caruth, 2006). Rationale 2: Informatics has subsequently emerged as an area of specialization within the various health care disciplines and is one of the fastest growing career fields in health care. Overlap occurs among medical, dental, and nursing informatics primarily in the areas of information retrieval, ethics, patient care, decision support, human to computer interactions, information systems, imaging, computer security, and computerized health records (Guenther & Caruth, 2006). Rationale 3: Informatics has subsequently emerged as an area of specialization within the various health care disciplines and is one of the fastest growing career fields in health care. Overlap occurs among medical, dental, and nursing informatics primarily in the areas of information retrieval, ethics, patient care, decision support, human-to computer interactions, information systems, imaging, computer security, and computerized health records (Guenther & Caruth, 2006). Rationale 4: Informatics has subsequently emerged as an area of specialization within the various health care disciplines and is one of the fastest growing career fields in health care. Overlap occurs among medical, dental, and nursing informatics primarily in the areas of information retrieval, ethics, patient care, decision support, human-to computer interactions, information systems, imaging, computer security, and computerized health records (Guenther & Caruth, 2006). Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Remembering Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Learning Outcome: Question 12 Type: MCSA Health care consumers have all the information and tools to make health care choices because they can easily compare quality and cost of care. Which of the following is correct? 1. This statement is true because the tool has been invented. 2. The statement is false because the tool has not been developed. 3. The statement is true because most consumers have Internet access. 4. The statement is true because of the steep learning curve associated with searching the Internet. Correct Answer: 2 Rationale 1: There is an identified need for health care consumers to have the information and tools they needed to make the health care choices right for them by making it easier to compare quality and cost of care. This need has not yet been met. Rationale 2: There is an identified need for health care consumers to have the information and tools they needed to make the health care choices right for them by making it easier to compare quality and cost of care. This need has not yet been met. Rationale 3: There is an identified need for health care consumers to have the information and tools they needed to make the health care choices right for them by making it easier to compare quality and cost of care. This need has not yet been met. Rationale 4: There is an identified need for health care consumers to have the information and tools they needed to make the health care choices right for them by making it easier to compare quality and cost of care. This need has not yet been met. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Understanding Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Learning Outcome: Question 13 Type: MCSA The role of the informatics nurse does not include assessing the usability of devices for health care consumers. This statement is false because of which of the following reasons? 1. The informatics nurse approves the usability of devices. 2. The development of policy regarding usability is an important part of the informatics nurse’s role. 3. The informatics nurse is concerned more with the actual device than the usability. 4. The informatics nurse’s role is to work only with the nursing staff and not patients. Correct Answer: 2 Rationale 1: Informatics nurses do have a role in assessing the usability of devices for health care consumers, including the development of health policy. Rationale 2: Informatics nurses do have a role in assessing the usability of devices for health care consumers, including the development of health policy. Rationale 3: Informatics nurses do have a role in assessing the usability of devices for health care consumers, including the development of health policy. Rationale 4: Informatics nurses do have a role in assessing the usability of devices for health care consumers, including the development of health policy. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Applying Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Learning Outcome: Question 14 Type: MCSA Over the next few years, nursing informatics and other health informatics disciplines will crisscross, resulting in more interdisciplinary projects. This statement is true because of which of the following reasons? 1. Nurse informatics specialists will work collaboratively with other disciplines to develop user- friendly systems. 2. Nurse informatics specialists will work with other disciplines in an attempt to gain control over the use of the health care technology. 3. Nurse informatics specialists understand all of the disciplines and are able to effect changes in technology. 4. Nurse informatics specialists are knowledgeable about the needs of the typical consumer of technology. Correct Answer: 1 Rationale 1: Nursing informatics will change rapidly over the next few years. There will be a continued blur between nursing informatics and other health informatics specialties, including more interdisciplinary projects. Rationale 2: Nursing informatics will change rapidly over the next few years. There will be a continued blur between nursing informatics and other health informatics specialties, including more interdisciplinary projects. Rationale 3: Nursing informatics will change rapidly over the next few years. There will be a continued blur between nursing informatics and other health informatics specialties, including more interdisciplinary projects. Rationale 4: Nurse informatics will change rapidly over the next few years. There will be a continued blur between nursing informatics and other health informatics, including more interdisciplinary projects. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Analyzing Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Learning Outcome: Question 15 Type: MCSA he best estimate of the number of informatics nurses needed over the next few years is which of the following? 1. 500 to 1500 2. 6000 to 12,000 3. 2000 to 5000 4. 15,000 to 25,000 Correct Answer: 2 Rationale 1: Your chosen response is too low. Projections for the number of informatics nurses needed over the next few years range from 6000 to 12,000. Nursing, health care, clinical informatics graduate programs, and biomedical informatics programs collectively lag behind projected needs. Rationale 2: Projections for the number of informatics nurses needed over the next few years range from 6000 to 12,000. Nursing, health care, clinical informatics graduate programs, and biomedical informatics programs collectively lag behind projected needs. Rationale 3: Your chosen response is too low. Projections for the number of informatics nurses needed over the next few years range from 6000 to 12,000. Nursing, health care, clinical informatics graduate programs, and biomedical informatics programs collectively lag behind projected needs. Rationale 4: Your chosen response is too high. Projections for the number of informatics nurses needed over the next few years range from 6000 to 12,000. Nursing, health care, clinical informatics graduate programs, and biomedical informatics programs collectively lag behind projected needs. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Remembering Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Learning Outcome: Question 16 Type: MCSA There are no available nursing informatics programs including doctoral degrees; therefore, nurses prepare for advanced practice through medical informatics curriculum. This answer is false because of which of the following reasons? 1. There are a number of accredited advanced nursing education programs in informatics in the United States. 2. Advanced degrees in nursing informatics are available only online in the United States. 3. There is limited interest in advanced education in nursing informatics. 4. There are advanced degrees available in nursing informatics, however, with technology experience there is no need for advanced theoretical education. Correct Answer: 1 Rationale 1: Doctoral degree programs are now available in nursing informatics. Also available are master's degree and certificate programs. Rationale 2: Doctoral degree programs are available on ground and online in nursing informatics. Also available are master's degree and certificate programs. Rationale 3: Doctoral degree programs are available in nursing informatics. Also available are master's degree and certificate programs. There is more interest in advanced education in nursing as health care and technology become more sophisticated. Rationale 4: Doctoral degree programs are indeed now available in nursing informatics. Also available are master's degree and certificate programs. There is more interest in advanced education in nursing as health care and technology become more sophisticated. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Remembering Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Learning Outcome: Question 17 Type: MCMA Knowledge management is a structured process for the generation, storage, distribution, and application of what kind of knowledge in the organization? Standard Text: Select all that apply. 1. Chronological knowledge 2. Redundant knowledge 3. Tacit knowledge (personal experience) 4. Generational knowledge 5. Explicit knowledge (evidence) Correct Answer: 3,5 Rationale 1: Knowledge management refers to the creation of systems that enable organizations to tap into the knowledge, experiences, and creativity of their staff to improve their performance. It is a structured process for the generation, storage, distribution, and application of both tacit knowledge (personal experience) and explicit knowledge (evidence) in organizations. Chronological, redundant, and generational are not types of knowledge used in any organization. Rationale 2: Knowledge management refers to the creation of systems that enable organizations to tap into the knowledge, experiences, and creativity of their staff to improve their performance. It is a structured process for the generation, storage, distribution, and application of both tacit knowledge (personal experience) and explicit knowledge (evidence) in organizations. Chronological, redundant, and generational are not types of knowledge used in any organization. Rationale 3: Knowledge management refers to the creation of systems that enable organizations to tap into the knowledge, experiences, and creativity of their staff to improve their performance. It is a structured process for the generation, storage, distribution, and application of both tacit knowledge (personal experience) and explicit knowledge (evidence) in organizations. Chronological, redundant, and generational are not types of knowledge used in any organization. Rationale 4: Knowledge management refers to the creation of systems that enable organizations to tap into the knowledge, experiences, and creativity of their staff to improve their performance. It is a structured process for the generation, storage, distribution, and application of both tacit knowledge (personal experience) and explicit knowledge (evidence) in organizations. Chronological, redundant, and generational are not types of knowledge used in any organization. Rationale 5: Knowledge management refers to the creation of systems that enable organizations to tap into the knowledge, experiences, and creativity of their staff to improve their performance. It is a structured process for the generation, storage, distribution, and application of both tacit knowledge (personal experience) and explicit knowledge (evidence) in organizations. Chronological, redundant, and generational are not types of knowledge used in any organization. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Remembering Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Learning Outcome: Question 18 Type: MCMA The American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) incorporated the foundation provided by the American Nurses Association (ANA) in its definition of nursing informatics and scope and standards of practice. Applicants for the Informatics Nurse credentialing examination are required to meet which of the following minimum criteria? Standard Text: Select all that apply. 1. Advanced graduate education in nursing informatics (or related field) 2. Equivalent of two years of full-time professional practice 3. Professional clinical practice for at least 500 hours 4. Baccalaureate or higher degree in nursing (or relevant field baccalaureate) 5. Current, active license as a professional nurse Correct Answer: 2,4,5 Rationale 1: The certified informatics nurse (IN) has experience or interest in the area but no formal informatics preparation. This person has earned the credential RN-BC (Registered Nurse, Board Certified). Therefore, advanced graduate education in nursing informatics (or related field) is not required. The informatics nurse specialist (INS) has this education and may also hold ANCC certification. Both the IN and INS may work under a variety of different titles and in various settings. Rationale 2: The certified informatics nurse (IN) is an RN who works in the area of informatics. This person had the equivalent of two years of full-time professional practice in order to be eligible for certification. (There are also required practice hour requirements.) Rationale 3: Having 500 hours of professional clinical practice is insufficient. Practice requirements are met by having practiced one of these: either a minimum of 2000 hours in informatics nursing within the last three years; or a minimum of 1000 hours in informatics nursing in the last three years and completed a minimum of 12 semester hours of academic credit in informatics courses that are a part of a graduate level informatics nursing program; or completing a graduate program in nursing informatics containing a minimum of 200 hours of faculty supervised practicum in informatics. Rationale 4: The certified informatics nurse (IN) is an RN who works in the area of informatics. This person has experience or interest in the area but no formal informatics preparation and has the credential RN-BC (Registered Nurse, Board Certified). Therefore, advanced graduate education in nursing informatics (or related field) is not required. The informatics nurse specialist (INS) has this education and may also hold ANCC certification. Both the IN and INS may work under a variety of different titles and in various settings. Rationale 5: The certified informatics nurse (IN) holds a current, active license as a professional nurse and works in the area of informatics. This person has experience or interest in the area but no formal informatics preparation and has the credential RN-BC (Registered Nurse, Board Certified). Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Understanding Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Learning Outcome: Question 19 Type: MCSA Nursing informatics employs information and computer technology to support all aspects of nursing practice, including research. Which is an example of supporting research? 1. Development of a standardized nursing language 2. Identifying evidence of best clinical nursing practices 3. Familiarity with spreadsheets and statistics software and analysis 4. Housing collected client data within automated record systems Correct Answer: 1 Rationale 1: Development of a standard language for use within nursing would allow nurses, from different regions of a country or the world, to establish that they were describing the same phenomenon as well as conduct studies that could be replicated. Rationale 2: Your chosen response is an example of identifying clinical evidence; however, that does not mean supporting research. Current demands for safer, cost-effective, quality care do require evidence, supported by research, of the best practices. Development of a standard language for use within nursing would allow nurses, from different regions of a country or the world, to establish that they were describing the same phenomenon as well as conduct studies that could be replicated. Rationale 3: Your chosen response is an example of utilizing informatics tools that may or may not support research. Nurses do need familiarity with spreadsheets and statistics software and analysis for use in quality improvement activities, the creation and monitoring of budgets, and to better understand research findings. Development of a standard language for use within nursing would allow nurses, from different regions of a country or the world, to establish that they were describing the same phenomenon as well as conduct studies that could be replicated. Rationale 4: Your chosen response is an example of data collection that may or may not support research. However, data collected and housed within automated record systems would make available information that could be used by health care professionals at the bedside. Development of a standard language for use within nursing would allow nurses, from different regions of a country or the world, to establish that they were describing the same phenomenon as well as conduct studies that could be replicated. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Applying Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Learning Outcome: Question 20 Type: MCSA Which of the following is not associated with information literacy? 1. Recognizing when information is needed 2. Ability to find, evaluate, and effectively use information 3. Familiarity with the use of personal computers and software 4. Understanding ethical issues surrounding the use of information Correct Answer: 3 Rationale 1: Your chosen response is an example of information literacy. Information literacy is defined as the ability to recognize when information is needed as well as the skills to find, evaluate, and use needed information effectively. It includes a fundamental understanding of ethical issues surrounding the access and use of information. The information literate nurse can weigh the quality and significance of research findings for clinical practice. Rationale 2: Your chosen response is an example of information literacy. Information literacy is defined as the ability to recognize when information is needed as well as the skills to find, evaluate, and use needed information effectively. It includes a fundamental understanding of ethical issues surrounding the access and use of information. The information literate nurse can weigh the quality and significance of research findings for clinical practice. Rationale 3: Familiarity with the use of personal computers and software is an example of computer literacy. Information literacy is defined as the ability to recognize when information is needed as well as the skills to find, evaluate, and use needed information effectively. It includes a fundamental understanding of ethical issues surrounding the access and use of information. All other responses are associated with information literacy. The information literate nurse can weigh the quality and significance of research findings for clinical practice. Rationale 4: Your chosen response is an example of information literacy. Information literacy is defined as the ability to recognize when information is needed as well as the skills to find, evaluate, and use needed information effectively. It includes a fundamental understanding of ethical issues surrounding the access and use of information. The information literate nurse can weigh the quality and significance of research findings for clinical practice. Chapter 2 Introduction to Information, Information Science, and Information Systems Question 1 Type: MCSA Which statement concerning "thin client technology" is correct? 1. System processing occurs on both the server and on the local PC. 2. A thin client consists of a display with keyboard and requires its own storage device. 3. Software exists on the server, therefore upgrades are done in one step for all clients. 4. When implemented, older PCs formerly used in networking must be replaced. Correct Answer: 3 Rationale 1: All system processing occurs on the server, rather than on the thin client or local PC, as seen in traditional client/server technology. When using thin client technology, software resides on the server requiring only one upgrade on the server rather than a physical visit to each PC or client. Security is also enhanced because users cannot locally run foreign disks/memory sticks that may contain a virus. Rationale 2: A thin client is primarily a display, keyboard, and mouse or other pointing device and does not require local drives or storage devices. When using thin client technology, software resides on the server requiring only one upgrade on the server rather than a physical visit to each PC or client. Security is also enhanced because users cannot locally run foreign disks/memory sticks that may contain a virus. Rationale 3: When using thin client technology, software resides on the server requiring only one upgrade on the server rather than a physical visit to each PC or client. Security is also enhanced because users cannot locally run foreign disks/memory sticks that may contain a virus. Rationale 4: Any PC can serve as a thin client. System processing occurs on the server; therefore, older equipment may be utilized as a client with the addition of a pointing device. When using thin client technology, software resides on the server requiring only one upgrade on the server rather than a physical visit to each PC or client. Security is also enhanced because users cannot locally run foreign disks/memory sticks that may contain a virus. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Applying Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Teaching and Learning Learning Outcome: Question 2 Type: MCSA Which health risk related to computer use has been best documented? 1. Miscarriage or sterility 2. Ulnar nerve syndrome 3. Carpal tunnel syndrome 4. Cataracts Correct Answer: 3 Rationale 1: Research has not established any clear links between computer use and miscarriage or sterility. Carpal tunnel syndrome, a repetitive-stress injury, has been researched and documented as occurring with computer use. Rationale 2: Research has not established any clear links between computer use and ulnar nerve syndrome. Carpal tunnel syndrome, a repetitive-stress injury, has been researched and documented as occurring with computer use. Rationale 3: Correct. Carpal tunnel syndrome, a repetitive-stress injury, has been researched and documented as occurring with computer use. Rationale 4: Research has not established any clear links between computer use and cataracts. Carpal tunnel syndrome, a repetitive-stress injury, has been researched and documented as occurring with computer use. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Applying Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Communication and Documentation Learning Outcome: Question 3 Type: MCSA Health care information plans include adding super users to the hospital staff. Which person is most appropriate for this role? 1. An experienced staff nurse who has been employed at the institution for three years 2. An informatics nurse specialist with a master's degree and informatics certification 3. A newly hired charge nurse who has practiced for ten years in an intensive care unit 4. A clinical nurse specialist for three departments, employed at the institution for six years Correct Answer: 1 Rationale 1: Correct. An experienced staff nurse who has clinical experience in the institution would be very useful as a resource person. Rationale 2: An informatics nurse specialist with a master's degree and certification in informatics would not know the clinical area well enough or be able to answer questions from users about the hospital. An experienced staff nurse who has clinical experience in the institution would be very useful as a resource person. Rationale 3: A newly hired charge nurse who has practiced for ten years in an intensive care unit would not know the clinical area well enough or be able to answer questions from users about the hospital computer system. An experienced staff nurse who has clinical experience in the institution would be very useful as a resource person. Rationale 4: The clinical nurse specialist for three departments who has been employed at the institution for six years would not know the clinical area well enough or be able to answer questions from users about the hospital. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Applying Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Teaching and Learning Learning Outcome: Question 4 Type: MCSA Which example best fits the description of a local area network (LAN)? 1. One server communicates with multiple PCs and printers 2. Office computers are connected through the use of the Internet 3. Client computers are interconnected with multiple servers 4. Internet technology is used to communicate with hospital suppliers Correct Answer: 1 Rationale 1: A local area network connects multiple PCs and printers to create a shared system. Rationale 2: The Internet actually consists of thousands of interconnected networks. A LAN is confined to a single building or campus and has only one server. Rationale 3: Networks with multiple servers are known as wide area networks (WANs). A LAN has only one server. Rationale 4: The Internet actually consists of thousands of interconnected networks. A LAN is confined to a single building or campus and has only one server. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Understanding Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Communication and Documentation Learning Outcome: Question 5 Type: MCSA In which instance is using a wireless device an advantage for health care provider staff? 1. More memory is needed to input data for glucose monitoring and insulin coverage. 2. Error reduction is needed to input data, such as vital signs from a client's isolation room. 3. A larger screen is needed to track data, such as medication administration times with vital signs. 4. An increase in security is needed to prevent physician orders from being intercepted on the Intranet. Correct Answer: 2 Rationale 1: A wireless device is an advantage for a client's isolation room. Wireless technology may be used at the bedside to facilitate data entry at the point-of-care. However, disadvantages of wireless devices include the potential for data interception, less available memory, and smaller screens. Rationale 2: Correct. A wireless device is an advantage for a client's isolation room. Wireless technology may be used at the bedside to facilitate data entry at the point-of-care. However, disadvantages of wireless devices include the potential for data interception, less available memory, and smaller screens. Rationale 3: A wireless device is an advantage for a client's isolation room. Wireless technology may be used at the bedside to facilitate data entry at the point-of-care. However, disadvantages of wireless devices include the potential for data interception, less available memory, and smaller screens. Rationale 4: A wireless device is an advantage for a client's isolation room. Wireless technology may be used at the bedside to facilitate data entry at the point-of-care. However, disadvantages of wireless devices include the potential for data interception, less available memory, and smaller screens. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Applying Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Communication and Documentation Learning Outcome: Question 6 Type: MCSA Which of these is the most flexible and reliable secondary storage device? 1. DVD drive 2. Magnetic tape drive 3. CD-ROM drive 4. Zip drive Correct Answer: 1 Rationale 1: Correct. The most flexible and reliable secondary storage device is DVD drives; they can read CD disks as well. Zip drives are used to store and transfer data but storage is limited. Magnetic tape drives store data and can be used to back up or transfer data. Rationale 2: The most flexible and reliable secondary storage device is DVD drives; they can read CD disks as well. Zip drives are used to store and transfer data but storage is limited. Magnetic tape drives store data and can be used to back up or transfer data. Rationale 3: The most flexible and reliable secondary storage device is DVD drives; they can read CD disks as well. Zip drives are used to store and transfer data but storage is limited. Magnetic tape drives store data and can be used to back up or transfer data. Rationale 4: The most flexible and reliable secondary storage device is DVD drives; they can read CD disks as well. Zip drives are used to store and transfer data but storage is limited. Magnetic tape drives store data and can be used to back up or transfer data. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Analyzing Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Communication and Documentation Learning Outcome: Question 7 Type: MCSA Which of these is an advantage in the use of personal digital assistants (PDAs) in the health care setting? 1. PDAs may be synchronized with any network without the use of special equipment or software. 2. PDAs minimize the chance of interception of data transmission. 3. Current medication information may be easily stored and compared to actual client data. 4. Data loss is minimized due to long battery life and ease of backups. Correct Answer: 3 Rationale 1: An advantage in the use of PDAs is that current medication information may be easily stored and compared to actual client data. Synchrony with other computers may require special equipment. Information may still be intercepted, and battery life varies greatly. Rationale 2: An advantage in the use of PDAs is that current medication information may be easily stored and compared to actual client data. Even though a PDA only transmits data over short distances, synchrony with other computers may require special equipment. Information may still be intercepted, and battery life varies greatly. Rationale 3: Correct. An advantage in the use of PDAs is that current medication information may be easily stored and compared to actual client data. Synchrony with other computers may require special equipment. Information may still be intercepted, and battery life varies greatly. Rationale 4: An advantage in the use of PDAs is that current medication information may be easily stored and compared to actual client data. Synchrony with other computers may require special equipment. Information may still be intercepted, and battery life varies greatly. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Analyzing Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Communication and Documentation Learning Outcome: Question 8 Type: MCSA Research best supports the use of which ergonomic device? 1. Ergonomic mouse to reduce wrist and hand pain 2. Support brace used while typing to prevent carpal tunnel syndrome 3. Lumbar back support to maintain natural curves of the back 4. Wrist rests to support the wrists while inputting data and typing Correct Answer: 3 Rationale 1: Only the lumbar back support has been documented to reduce strain and minimize back pain. The others have not consistently tested as helpful. Rationale 2: Only the lumbar back support has been documented to reduce strain and minimize back pain. The others have not consistently tested as helpful. Rationale 3: Correct. Only the lumbar back support has been documented to reduce strain and minimize back pain. The others have not consistently tested as helpful. Rationale 4: Only the lumbar back support has been documented to reduce strain and minimize back pain. The others have not consistently tested as helpful. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Analyzing Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment Learning Outcome: Question 9 Type: MCSA Many workstations house clinical information systems and provide Internet access in the acute care setting. Which type of software program is most likely to be used by the health care staff providing direct patient care? 1. A programming language such as Java to access the Internet 2. A virus checker to increase security for Internet connections 3. A programming language such as COBOL to create databases 4. A programming language such as Visual Basic to enter data Correct Answer: 2 Rationale 1: A virus checker to increase security for Internet connections is the most likely to be used by health care staff providing direct patient care. Utility programs may be used to increase security and prevent data from falling into the wrong hands. Programming languages such as Visual Basic, COBOL, or Java are used in specialty applications. (Reference: textbook Table 2-2 Examples of Ergonomic Devices.) Rationale 2: Correct. A virus checker to increase security for Internet connections is the most likely to be used by health care staff providing direct patient care. Utility programs may be used to increase security and prevent data from falling into the wrong hands. Programming languages such as Visual Basic, COBOL, or Java are used in specialty applications. (Reference: textbook Table 2-2 Examples of Ergonomic Devices.) Rationale 3: A virus checker to increase security for Internet connections is the most likely to be used by health care staff providing direct patient care. Utility programs may be used to increase security and prevent data from falling into the wrong hands. Programming languages such as Visual Basic, COBOL, or Java are used in specialty applications. (Reference: textbook Table 2-2 Examples of Ergonomic Devices.) Rationale 4: A virus checker to increase security for Internet connections is the most likely to be used by health care staff providing direct patient care. Utility programs may be used to increase security and prevent data from falling into the wrong hands. Programming languages such as Visual Basic, COBOL, or Java are used in specialty applications. (Reference: textbook Table 2-2 Examples of Ergonomic Devices.) Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Applying Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Communication and Documentation Learning Outcome: Question 10 Type: FIB is the science and technology of engineering devices at the molecular level. Standard Text: Correct Answer: Nanotechnology Rationale : Nanotechnology is the science and technology of engineering devices at the molecular level. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Understanding Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Communication and Documentation Learning Outcome: Question 11 Type: MCSA Which statement best describes the role of the chief privacy officer (CPO)? 1. Duties include protection of the personal health information of patients, both electronic and paper 2. Duties include strategic planning, information security, and overall management of the information system 3. Duties include assigning and monitoring system access identification codes and passwords 4. Duties include design, maintenance, and security of materials placed on the Internet, intranet, and extranet Correct Answer: 1 Rationale 1: Correct. A CPO is mandated by federal legislation to protect personal health information of patients; this includes both paper and electronic information. CPO duties include strategic planning, information security, and overall management of the information system. A webmaster is responsible for the design, maintenance, and security of materials placed on the Internet. The security officer's duties include assigning and monitoring system access identification codes and passwords. Rationale 2: A CPO is mandated by federal legislation to protect personal health information of patients; this includes both paper and electronic information. CPO duties include strategic planning, information security, and overall management of the information system. A webmaster is responsible for the design, maintenance, and security of materials placed on the Internet. The security officer's duties include assigning and monitoring system access identification codes and passwords. Rationale 3: A CPO is mandated by federal legislation to protect personal health information of patients; this includes both paper and electronic information. CPO duties include strategic planning, information security, and overall management of the information system. A webmaster is responsible for the design, maintenance, and security of materials placed on the Internet. The security officer's duties include assigning and monitoring system access identification codes and passwords. Rationale 4: A CPO is mandated by federal legislation to protect personal health information of patients; this includes both paper and electronic information. CPO duties include strategic planning, information security, and overall management of the information system. A webmaster is responsible for the design, maintenance, and security of materials placed on the Internet. The security officer's duties include assigning and monitoring system access identification codes and passwords. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Understanding Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Teaching and Learning Learning Outcome: Question 12 Type: MCSA What is the one byte binary code representation for the Arabic number 8? 1. 1000 2. 00001000 3. 2222 4. 11111111 Correct Answer: 2 Rationale 1: Binary code is a series of 1s and 0s called bits, and one byte contains 8 bits. The binary system is positional with each position's value increasing by the power of 2. The right most position value is 20 or 1 and continuing to the left the values would be 21 = 2, 22 = 4, 23 = 8 and so on. The Arabic number represented is the sum of the powers of 2 represented by the 0s and 1s. The sum of the powers of binary 00001000 is 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 8 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 8, so the correct choice for representing the Arabic number 8 is the binary code 00001000. The binary code 1000 represents the Arabic number 8 but is not a byte. (Reference: textbook Figure 2-3 [Internal view of a PC] will show some items that may be inside a computer cabinet.) Rationale 2: Binary code is a series of 1s and 0s called bits, and one byte contains 8 bits. The binary system is positional with each position's value increasing by the power of 2.The right most position value is 20 or 1 and continuing to the left the values would be 21 = 2, 22 = 4, 23 = 8 and so on. The Arabic number represented is the sum of the powers of 2 represented by the 0s and 1s. The sum of the powers of binary 00001000 is 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 8 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 8, so the correct choice for representing the Arabic number 8 is the binary code 00001000. (Reference: textbook Figure 2-3 [Internal view of a PC] will show some items that may be inside a computer cabinet.) Rationale 3: Binary code is a series of 1s and 0s called bits, and one byte contains 8 bits. The binary system is positional with each position's value increasing by the power of 2. The right most position value is 20 or 1 and continuing to the left the values would be 21 = 2, 22 = 4, 23 = 8 and so on. The Arabic number represented is the sum of the powers of 2 represented by the 0s and 1s. The sum of the powers of binary 00001000 is 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 8 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 8, so the correct choice for representing the Arabic number 8 is the binary code 00001000. The numeral 2 is not used in writing binary code. (Reference: textbook Figure 2-3 [Internal view of a PC] will show some items that may be inside a computer cabinet.) Rationale 4: Binary code is a series of 1s and 0s called bits, and one byte contains 8 bits. The binary system is positional with each position's value increasing by the power of 2. The right most position value is 20 or 1 and continuing to the left the values would be 21 = 2, 22 = 4, 23 = 8 and so on. The Arabic number is the sum of the powers of 2 represented by the 0s and 1s. The sum of the powers of binary 11111111 is 128 + 64 + 32 + 16 + 8 + 4 + 2 + 1 = 255. The sum of the powers of binary 00001000 is 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 8 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 8, so the correct choice for representing the Arabic number 8 is the binary code 00001000. (Reference: textbook Figure 2-3 [Internal view of a PC] will show some items that may be inside a computer cabinet.) Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Remembering Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Teaching and Learning Learning Outcome: Question 13 Type: FIB is defined as an electronic circuitry that executes computer instructions. Standard Text: Correct Answer: Central Processing Unit (CPU) Rationale : Central Processing Unit (CPU) is defined as electronic circuitry that executes computer instructions. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Understanding Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Teaching and Learning Learning Outcome: Question 14 Type: MCSA Which of the following is not a common input device? 1. Network 2. Keyboard 3. Webcamera 4. Joystick Correct Answer: 1 Rationale 1: Input devices allow the user to feed data into the computer. Common input devices include the keyboard, mouse and trackball, touch sensitive screen, stylus, microphone, bar code reader, fax modem card, joystick, image scanner, fingerprint scanner, digital camera, and webcam. A network is not an input device. Rationale 2: Input devices allow the user to feed data into the computer. Common input devices include the keyboard, mouse and trackball, touch sensitive screen, stylus, microphone, bar code reader, fax modem card, joystick, image scanner, fingerprint scanner, digital camera, and webcam. Rationale 3: Input devices allow the user to feed data into the computer. Common input devices include the keyboard, mouse and trackball, touch sensitive screen, stylus, microphone, bar code reader, fax modem card, joystick, image scanner, fingerprint scanner, digital camera, and webcam. Rationale 4: Input devices allow the user to feed data into the computer. Common input devices include the keyboard, mouse and trackball, touch sensitive screen, stylus, microphone, bar code reader, Fax modem card, joystick, image scanner, fingerprint scanner, digital camera, and webcam. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Understanding Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Teaching and Learning Learning Outcome: Question 15 Type: MCSA Which of the following best describes RAID technology? 1. The computer shuts down when a single disk fails. 2. Community clinics use a primary data storage drive. 3. RAID costs more than using one large disk drive. 4. Duplicate disks mirror copies of data. Correct Answer: 4 Rationale 1: RAID is a secondary storage technology that uses duplicate disks to mirror copies of data. Using RAID may be less costly than using one large disk drive. In the event that an individual disk fails, the remaining RAID would permit the computer to continue working uninterrupted. Rationale 2: RAID is secondary storage technology that uses duplicate disks to mirror copies of data. Using RAID may be less costly than using one large disk drive. In the event that an individual disk fails, the remaining RAID would permit the computer to continue working uninterrupted. Rationale 3: RAID is a secondary storage technology that uses duplicate disks to mirror copies of data. Using RAID may be less costly than using one large disk drive. In the event that an individual disk fails, the remaining RAID would permit the computer to continue working uninterrupted. Rationale 4: RAID is secondary storage technology that uses duplicate disks to mirror copies of data. Using RAID may be less costly than using one large disk drive. In the event that an individual disk fails, the remaining RAID would permit the computer to continue working uninterrupted. Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: Understanding Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment Client Need Sub: Management of Care Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Communication and Documentation Learning Outcome: Question 16 Type: MCSA Which of the following best describes an intranet? 1. The largest and best known electronic network in the world 2. Limited to systems affiliated with education and government agencies 3. A network outside of the hospital system for use by customers or suppliers 4. A private hospital system that is protected from outside access Correct Answer: 4 Rationale 1: Intranets are private company networks that are protected from outside access. A network outside of the company system for use by customers or suppliers would be an extranet. The largest and best known network in the world is the Internet. The Internet was once limited to individuals affiliated with educational institutions and government agencies, but access is now available to the public. Rationale 2: Intranets are private company networks that are protected from outside access. A network outside of the company system for use by customers or suppliers would be an extranet. The largest and best known network in the world is the Internet. The Internet was once limited to individuals affiliated with educational institutions and government agencies, but access is now available to the public. Rationale 3: Intranets are private company networks that are protected from outside access. A network outside of the company system for use by customers or suppliers would be an extranet. The largest and best known network in the world is the Internet. The Internet was once limited to individuals affiliated with educational institutions and government agencies, but access is now available to the public. Rationale 4: Intranets are private company networks that are protected from outside access. A network outside of the company system for use by customers or suppliers would be an extranet. The largest and best known network in the world is the Internet. The Internet was once limited to individuals affiliated with educational institutions and government agencies, but access is now available to the public. 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