*NURSING > EXAM > Test Bank; Biology Concepts and Applications, 9th Edition Cecie Starr. Chapter 1-44. Questions & Ans (All)

Test Bank; Biology Concepts and Applications, 9th Edition Cecie Starr. Chapter 1-44. Questions & Answers And Rationals. 893 Pages

Document Content and Description Below

Test Bank; Biology Concepts and Applications, 9th Edition Cecie Starr. Chapter 1-44. Q&A and Reference. 893 Pages . The smallest unit of life that can survive and reproduce on its own is a(n): a. at o... m b. cell c. molecule d. organ e. population ANSWER: b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.1 How do living things differ from non-living things? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.1 - Describe the successive levels of organization in living things. TOPICS: Bloom's: Remember 2. All of the coyotes (Canis latrans) living in the Mojave Desert constitute a(n): a. ecosystem b. community c. biosphere d. organism e. population ANSWER: e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.1 How do living things differ from non-living things? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.1.2 - Using suitable examples, describe the successive levels of organization in living things from atoms to the biosphere. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand 3. What term describes "all populations of all species living in the same area"? a. ecosystem b. community c. biosphere d. organism e. population ANSWER: b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.1 How do living things differ from non-living things? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.1 - Describe the successive levels of organization in living things. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 4. Organisms designated as producers usually obtain their energy from: a. other producers b. dead consumers c. decomposers d. the environmentChapter 01—INVITATION TO BIOLOGY Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 2 e. themselves ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.2 How are all living things alike? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.2.1 - Distinguish between producers and consumers. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 5. As energy is transferred among organisms, some escapes from the environment as ____ energy. a. electrical b. heat c. light d. mechanical e. nuclear ANSWER: b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.2 How are all living things alike? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.2.2 - Define homeostasis and explain why it is important for sustaining life. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 6. What is the process used by living things to maintain an internal environment within a tolerable range? a. metabolism b. homeostasis c. development d. physiology e. thermoregulation ANSWER: b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.2 How are all living things alike? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.2.2 - Define homeostasis and explain why it is important for sustaining life. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 7. About 12 to 24 hours after the last meal, a person's blood sugar level normally varies from 60 to 90 mg per 100 ml of blood, although it may rise to 130 mg per 100 ml after meals high in carbohydrates. That the blood sugar level is maintained within a fairly narrow range, despite uneven intake of sugar, is due to the bodily process called: a. adaptation b. homeostasis c. inheritance d. metabolism e. development ANSWER: b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.2 How are all living things alike?Chapter 01—INVITATION TO BIOLOGY Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 3 LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.2.2 - Define homeostasis and explain why it is important for sustaining life. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Application NOTES: Modified 8. Hereditary instructions for growth and development are carried in: a. proteins b. carbohydrates c. DNA d. energy e. lipids ANSWER: c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.2 How are all living things alike? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.2.3 - List some functions that are guided by an organism’s DNA. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 9. What term refers to an increase in number, size, or volume in the cells of an organism? a. growth b. development c. reproduction d. evolution e. inheritance ANSWER: a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.2 How are all living things alike? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.2.3 - List some functions that are guided by an organism’s DNA. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 10. What term describes the process of transformation of the first cell of a new individual into an adult? a. inheritance b. genetics c. reproduction d. development e. sex ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.2 How are all living things alike? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.2.3 - List some functions that are guided by an organism’s DNA. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 11. Which domain or domains are made up of organisms without nuclei? a. archaea only b. bacteria onlyChapter 01—INVITATION TO BIOLOGY Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 4 c. eukarya d. both archaea and bacteria e. both bacteria and eukarya ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.3 How are living things different? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.3 - Classify organisms on the basis of presence or absence of a nucleus. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand 12. Which organisms are multicellular eukaryotes, with the majority being photosynthetic producers? a. plants b. animals c. fungi d. bacteria e. archaea ANSWER: a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.3 How are living things different? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.3.2 - What are the four main kingdoms of eukaryotes? KEYWORDS: Bloom's Remember NOTES: New 13. Which is the correct format for a scientific name? a. Homo Sapiens b. Homo Sapiens c. homo sapiens d. Homo sapiens e. Homo sapiens ANSWER: e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.4 What is a species? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.4.1 - How are organisms named in the Linnaean system? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand 14. A scientific name consists of which of the following? a. family name only b. genus name only c. species designation only d. family name and genus name e. genus name and specific epithet ANSWER: e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.4 What is a species? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.4.1 - How are organisms named in the Linnaean system?Chapter 01—INVITATION TO BIOLOGY Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 5 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 15. What is the most diverse and inclusive classification group? a. domain b. genus c. kingdom d. phylum e. species ANSWER: a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.4 What is a species? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.4.3 - List the taxa of the Linnaean classification system from species to domain. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 16. The eighteenth-century naturalist Carolus Linnaeus is known for creating: a. the theory of natural selection b. a system for naming and classifying organisms c. the biological species concept d. the first microscope e. the scientific method ANSWER: b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.4 What is a species? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.4.1 - How are organisms named in the Linnaean system? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 17. Critical thinking is the process of: a. finding fault in yourself b. unconditionally accepting information from a trusted source c. designing a scientific experiment d. making a hypothesis e. judging the quality of information before accepting it ANSWER: e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5 - Explain the scientific method. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 18. A testable explanation for a natural phenomenon is a(n): a. experiment b. hypothesis c. prediction d. model e. conclusive descriptionChapter 01—INVITATION TO BIOLOGY Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 6 ANSWER: b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5.2 - Explain a few ways of testing a prediction. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 19. Arriving at a conclusion based upon one’s observations is known as: a. inductive reasoning b. deductive reasoning c. critical thinking d. logic e. the scientific method ANSWER: a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5.1 - Differentiate between inductive and deductive reasoning. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 20. A scientist is investigating the results of varying temperature on the growth rate of a bacterial culture. In this experiment, temperature is the: a. dependent variable b. independent variable c. control d. model e. hypothesis ANSWER: b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5.3 - Using a suitable example, distinguish between dependent and independent variables. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Application 21. In order to arrive at a solution to a problem, a scientist usually proposes and tests: a. laws b. theories c. hypotheses d. principles e. facts ANSWER: c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5.2 - Explain a few ways of testing a prediction. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: RememberChapter 01—INVITATION TO BIOLOGY Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 7 22. In an experiment, the experimental group is: a. not subjected to experimental error b. not exposed to experimental treatments c. maintained under strict laboratory conditions d. treated exactly the same as the control group, except for one independent variable e. statistically the most important part of the experiment ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5.4 - How does an experimental group differ from a control group? KEYWORDS: | Bloom's: Understand 23. The control group in an experiment: a. makes the experiment valid b. is an additional replicate for statistical purposes c. reduces the experimental errors d. minimizes experimental inaccuracy e. allows a standard of comparison for the experimental group ANSWER: e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5.4 - How does an experimental group differ from a control group? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand Selecting the Exception 24. An experimenter is involved in four of the five tasks below. Select the exception. a. revises a hypothesis as a result of data collected b. manipulates dependent variables c. reviews other research results obtained by other scientists d. examines the effects of independent variables e. draws conclusions based only on appropriate experimental data ANSWER: b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5.5 - List the steps of the scientific method. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand 25. Four of the five answers listed below are necessary characteristics to the life of an individual. Select the exception. a. energy use b. homeostasis c. development d. response to stimuli e. diversity ANSWER: eChapter 01—INVITATION TO BIOLOGY Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 8 POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.2 How are all living things alike? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.2 - Describe the three key features that all living things share. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand OTHER: Selecting the Exception 26. Four of the five answers listed below are names of kingdoms. Select the exception. a. Animalia b. Protista c. Eukarya d. Fungi e. Plantae ANSWER: c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.4 What is a species? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.4.3 - List the taxa of the Linnaean classification system from species to domain. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember OTHER: Selecting the Exception 27. Four of the five answers listed below are aspects of the scientific method. Select the exception. a. observation b. hypothesis c. experimentation d. philosophy e. conclusion ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5.5 - List the steps of the scientific method. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand OTHER: Selecting the Exception NOTES: Modified Exhibit 1-1 A scientist randomly divided a group of 100 lab rats into two groups of 50. One group was fed regular rat chow while the other was fed the same amount of rat chow with added DDT. Both groups were housed in the same room with the same environmental conditions. At the end of the experiment, rats were weighed and the mean difference calculated. 28. Refer to the accompanying narrative. What variable or variables were manipulated by the scientist? a. DDT only b. temperature only c. weight differences only d. both DDT and weight differences e. both temperature and weight differencesChapter 01—INVITATION TO BIOLOGY Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 9 ANSWER: a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5.3 - Using a suitable example, distinguish between dependent and independent variables. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Apply | Analyze 29. Refer to the accompanying narrative. What dependent variable was measured? a. DDT b. temperature c. weight d. amount of food e. day length ANSWER: c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5.3 - Using a suitable example, distinguish between dependent and independent variables. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Apply 30. In order to reduce bias, scientists usually prefer experiments that lead to what kind of results? a. ambiguous b. imprecise c. quantitative d. qualitative e. subjective ANSWER: c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.7 What are some potential pitfalls in scientific inquiry? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5 - Explain the scientific method. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand 31. Suppose that in an experiment, different results are obtained from a subset than the results obtained from the whole. What term would best explain this? a. probability b. trend c. variable d. statistically significant e. sampling error ANSWER: e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.7 What are some potential pitfalls in scientific inquiry? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.7.2 - How can sampling error be minimized? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: UnderstandChapter 01—INVITATION TO BIOLOGY Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 10 NOTES: Modified 32. An experimenter surveyed one-half acre of a desert preserve and found three cactus wren nests. Assuming that the habitat is fairly uniform, how many nests would he expect to be in the entire 200-acre preserve? a. 6 b. 200 c. 600 d. 1200 e. 6000 ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.7 What are some potential pitfalls in scientific inquiry? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.7.3 - When are experimental results said to be statistically significant? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Apply 33. An experimental result that is statistically significant is: a. likely to occur by chance alone b. unlikely to occur by chance alone c. scientifically significant or important d. the result of an experiment with only one variable e. influenced by sampling error ANSWER: b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.7 What are some potential pitfalls in scientific inquiry? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.7.3 - When are experimental results said to be statistically significant? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand 34. A hypothesis that has been repeatedly and rigorously tested and supported is known as a: a. model b. testable prediction c. scientific method d. scientific theory e. result ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.8 What is a theory? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.8.1 - When does a hypothesis become a scientific theory? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand 35. Which statement could be considered a scientific theory? a. Beauty pageant contestants are becoming increasingly more beautiful. b. Chemistry and physics are more exact sciences than biology. c. Change occurs in the inherited traits of a population over generations. d. The growth of a plant is faster in a growth chamber than in a greenhouse.Chapter 01—INVITATION TO BIOLOGY Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 11 e. Leaves bend toward the light because they know light is needed to grow. ANSWER: c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.8 What is a theory? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.8.3 - Explain how a scientific theory is different from a speculation or a law of nature. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Apply NOTES: Modified 36. _____ is the transmission of DNA to offspring. a. Reproduction b. Development c. Homeostasis d. Inheritance e. Differentiation ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.2 How are all living things alike? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.2.4 - Explain how DNA forms the basis for similarities and differences between organisms. NOTES: Modified 37. Populations within California's Antelope Valley interact with their physical environment (e.g., sunlight and water) to sustain life. Which level of life's organization is appropriate for this scenario? a. population b. community c. biosphere d. ecosystem e. organism ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.1 How do living things differ from non-living things? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.1.2 - Using suitable examples, describe the successive levels of organization in living things from atoms to the biosphere. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Apply NOTES: New 38. Plants use energy from the sun to produce nutrients. Plants are therefore: a. consumers b. reproducers c. producers d. decomposers e. developers ANSWER: cChapter 01—INVITATION TO BIOLOGY Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 12 POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.2 How are all living things alike? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.2.1 - Distinguish between producers and consumers. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: New 39. Grass growing in a field is eaten by a deer. Later on, the deer dies and its body is decomposed, in part, by bacteria. Which organism(s) are consumers? a. grass only b. deer only c. bacteria only d. grass and bacteria e. deer and bacteria ANSWER: e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.2 How are all living things alike? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.2.1 - Distinguish between producers and consumers. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Apply NOTES: New 40. Which eukaryotes break down food externally and then absorb nutrients? a. bacteria b. plants c. fungi d. animals e. protists ANSWER: c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.3 How are living things different? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.3.2 - What are the four main kingdoms of eukaryotes? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: New 41. What term describes a consistent natural phenomenon for which there is an incomplete scientific explanation? a. scientific theory b. law of nature c. hypothesis d. scientific law e. scientific method ANSWER: b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.8 What is a theory? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.8 - Explain the nature of a scientific theory. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: RememberChapter 01—INVITATION TO BIOLOGY Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 13 NOTES: New Figure 1.9 "Does Olestra cause cramps?" experiment. 42. Refer to the accompanying figure. If only 50 test subjects had been used in this study and it was determined that 40% of people in the experimental group get cramps (rather than 15.8%), what is the most likely reason for the different results? a. The researcher was biased in their data analysis. b. The data was collected incorrectly. c. The Olestra potato chips were given to the wrong group. d. There is a sampling error due to a small sample size. e. The statistical probability was not calculated. ANSWER: c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.7 What are some potential pitfalls in scientific inquiry? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.7.2 - How can sampling error be minimized? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Analyze NOTES: New 43. Refer to the accompanying figure. What was the independent variable in this experiment? a. The consumption of potato chips b. The number of bags of potato chips eaten c. The amount of time given to consume the bag of potato chips d. The previous exposure of test subjects to Olestra in their diet before the experiment e. The presence of Olestra in the potato chips ANSWER: a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.7.2 - How can sampling error be minimized?Chapter 01—INVITATION TO BIOLOGY Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 14 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: New 44. Refer to the accompanying figure. What was the dependent variable in this experiment? a. The presence of intestinal cramps b. The amount of chips eaten c. The taste of Olestra versus regular chips d. The final weight of the test subjects e. The presence of general adverse health reports ANSWER: a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5.3 - Using a suitable example, distinguish between dependent and independent variables. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: New Matching Answer the question(s) by matching the statement to the most appropriate function, process, or trait listed below. a. metabolism b. reproduction c. photosynthesis d. growth e. homeostasis REFERENCES: Section 1.2 How are all living things alike? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.2 - Describe the three key features that all living things share. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand OTHER: Classification Questions NOTES: Modified 45. A process found only in producers ANSWER: c POINTS: 1 46. Organisms exhibit this characteristic, which tends to buffer the effects of environmental change ANSWER: e POINTS: 1 47. The capacity to acquire, store, and use energy ANSWER: a POINTS: 1 48. Process in which one generation replaces another ANSWER: b POINTS: 1Chapter 01—INVITATION TO BIOLOGY Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 15 Match the terms with the most suitable description. a. statement of what a hypothesis leads you to expect b. measure of chance c. testable explanation d. time-tested hypothesis REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? Section 1.8 What is a theory? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5 - Explain the scientific method. BCA.SES.1.8 - Explain the nature of a scientific theory. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: Modified 49. hypothesis ANSWER: c POINTS: 1 50. probability ANSWER: b POINTS: 1 51. scientific theory ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 52. prediction ANSWER: a POINTS: 1 Imagine that a researcher for a large food company believes that he has developed a new drug that increases appetite. He names the drug "EatMore" and designs an experiment to test his hypothesis. He used two groups of mice; one group is given the drug and the other group given a placebo sugar pill. The appetite levels were measured based on the amount of food consumed by mice in each group for one week. At the end of the experiment, he reported that on average, mice that received the "EatMore" drug consumed 2.5g of food/day and mice that received the placebo consumed 5g of food/day. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the difference was statistically significant. Match the following terms with the conditions related to the accompanying experiment: a. independent variable b. dependent variable c. experimental group d. control group REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5 - Explain the scientific method. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Apply NOTES: New 53. The amount of food consumed ANSWER: bChapter 01—INVITATION TO BIOLOGY Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 16 POINTS: 1 54. The mice that received the placebo ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 55. The treatment of the "EatMore" drug ANSWER: a POINTS: 1 56. The mice that received the "EatMore" drug ANSWER: c POINTS: 1 Match the following terms with the appropriate level of organization: a. atom b. cell c. organ system d. population e. community f. ecosystem REFERENCES: Section 1.1 How do living things differ from nonliving things? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.1 - Describe the successive levels of organization in living things. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Apply NOTES: New 57. all arctic animals, plants, etc. interacting with their physical environment ANSWER: f POINTS: 1 58. red blood ANSWER: b POINTS: 1 59. arctic foxes, polar bears, fish, mosses, shrubs (all species in the arctic tundra) ANSWER: e POINTS: 1 60. oxygen ANSWER: a POINTS: 1 61. group of arctic foxes in the arctic tundra ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 62. circulatory systemChapter 01—INVITATION TO BIOLOGY Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 17 ANSWER: c POINTS: 1 Subjective Short Answer 63. The cell theory states that all organisms consist of one or more cells, the cell is the basic unit of life, and all cells arise from existing cells. This is a scientific theory. How could the cell theory be disproven? ANSWER: Like all hypotheses, a scientific theory can be disproven by one observation or result that is inconsistent with it. Therefore, if a scientist discovered a living organism that did not consist of a cell or if they discovered a cell that spontaneously formed on its own, the theory would be disproven. POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.8 What is a theory? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.8.2 - When does a scientific theory get disproven? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Analyze NOTES: New Figure 1.9 "Does Olestra cause cramps?" experiment. 64. Refer to the accompanying figure. What are some variables that were not controlled for in this experiment that may affect the results? ANSWER: The test subjects were not controlled for their gender, age, weight, health status, medication use, etc. POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.7 What are some potential pitfalls in scientific inquiry? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.7 - Describe some limitations of the scientific method. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Analyze Imagine that a researcher for a large food company believes that he has developed a new drug that increases appetite. He names the drug "EatMore" and designs an experiment to test his hypothesis. He used two groups of mice; one group isChapter 01—INVITATION TO BIOLOGY Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 18 given the drug and the other group given a placebo sugar pill. The appetite levels were measured based on the amount of food consumed by mice in each group for one week. At the end of the experiment, he reported that on average, mice that received the "EatMore" drug consumed 2.5g of food/day and mice that received the placebo consumed 5g of food/day. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the difference was statistically significant. 65. Answer the following questions about the accompanying experiment. a. What is the researcher's hypothesis? b. What would be the researcher's prediction? c. Why may this experiment be performed with a model organism, rather than on humans? d. Was the researcher's hypothesis correct? e. What may be some alternate explanations for the outcome? ANSWER: a. The researcher's hypothesis is that the "EatMore" drug increases appetite. b. The researcher's prediction would be that "if the EatMore drug increases appetite; then mice that receive the drug will eat more food than control mice that do not receive the drug." c. The researcher performed the experiment using a model organism rather than humans for several reasons. One is that it is easier to control other variables in mice that may affect the outcome. For example, the researcher can select mice of the same age, sex, genetic background, etc. He can also control exactly what mice eat and measure it directly, which he could not do as easily with human subjects. Another reason would be that the drug is not approved by government regulations to be tested on humans if he just developed it. d. No, the researcher's hypothesis is not correct. Mice that received the "EatMore" drug ate less food and therefore did not have an increased appetite. e. Some alternate explanations for the outcome may be that the drug had side effects that influenced how much food the mice ate. Perhaps it made the mice feel sick and not want to eat, or perhaps it made them drowsy, which made them eat less. POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? Section 1.7 What are some potential pitfalls in scientific inquiry? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5 - Explain the scientific method. BCA.SES.1.7 - Describe some limitations of the scientific method. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Analyze | Evaluate OTHER: Critical thinking NOTES: New 66. Arrange the following terms in order from least complex to most complex: a. biosphere b. cell c. atom d. population e. organ f. community g. ecosystem ANSWER: c, b, e, d, f, g, a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.1 How do living things differ from nonliving things? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.1 - Describe the successive levels of organization in living things. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: NewChapter 01—INVITATION TO BIOLOGY Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 19 67. You are interviewing a researcher. She states that she does not publish her data from experiments because she does not trust other scientists. How would you respond? (Hint: think about one of the main steps of the scientific method). ANSWER: A necessary part of science is reporting one’s results and conclusions in a standard way, such as in a peer-reviewed journal article. The communication gives other scientists an opportunity to evaluate the information for themselves, both by checking the conclusions drawn and by repeating the experiments. The scientific community consists of critically thinking people trying to poke holes in one another’s ideas. Their collective efforts make science a self-correcting endeavor. POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5.5 - List the steps of the scientific method. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Analyze NOTES: New Essay 68. A person is declared to be dead upon the irreversible cessation of spontaneous body functions: brain activity, or blood circulation and respiration. However, only about 1% of a person’s cells have to die in order for all of these things to happen. How can someone be dead when 99% of his or her cells are still alive? ANSWER: A person can be considered dead with only a small fraction of their cells being dead, as those cells are responsible for coordinating the action of all the other cells, and for ultimately maintaining the homeostasis of the organism as a whole. POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.2 How are all living things alike? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.2.2 - Define homeostasis and explain why it is important for sustaining life. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Analyze OTHER: Critical thinking 69. Why would you think twice about ordering from a cafe menu that lists the genus name but not the specific epithet of its offerings? Hint: Look up Homarus americanus, Ursus americanus, Ceanothus americanus, Bufo americanus, Lepus americanus, and Nicrophorus americanus. ANSWER: When understanding the complete scientific name, you can see that the genus defines what each of these organisms is: American black bear, New Jersey tea, garden toad, or a snowshoe hare. At a café, you are probably interested in the tea (Ceanothus americanus)! POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.4 What is a species? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.4 - How are organisms classified into various taxa? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Analyze OTHER: Critical thinking 70. Once there was a highly intelligent turkey that had nothing to do but reflect on the world’s regularities. Morning always started out with the sky turning light, followed by the master’s footsteps, which were always followed by the appearance of food. Other things varied, but food always followed footsteps. The sequence of events was so predictable that it eventually became the basis of the turkey’s theory about the goodness of the world. One morning, after more than 100 confirmations of the goodness theory, the turkey listened for the master’s footsteps, heard them, and had its head chopped off. Any scientific theory is modified or discarded upon discovery of contradictory evidence. The absence of absolute certainty has led some people to conclude that “facts are irrelevant—facts change.” If that is so, should we stopChapter 01—INVITATION TO BIOLOGY Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 20 doing scientific research? Why or why not? ANSWER: “Facts change.” That is true in scientific research because science is open to new data and new interpretations of old data, which can lead to discarding or modifying formerly-held tenets. This is a strength of science, not a weakness. It is this willingness to accept change that makes the phrase “scientific creationism” meaningless. Creationists have accepted as fact a set of immutable ideas, which are then supported by carefully chosen facts from the realm of science. POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.5: How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5 - Explain the scientific method. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Analyze OTHER: Critical thinking 71. In 2005, researcher Woo-suk Hwang reported that he had made immortal stem cells from human patients. His research was hailed as a breakthrough for people affected by degenerative diseases, because stem cells may be used to repair a person’s own damaged tissues. Hwang published his results in a peer-reviewed journal. In 2006, the journal retracted his paper after other scientists discovered that Hwang’s group had faked their data. Does the incident show that results of scientific studies cannot be trusted? Or does it confirm the usefulness of a scientific approach, because other scientists discovered and exposed the fraud? ANSWER: It is unfortunate that the respectable journal did not catch any experimental fraud; however, this is an example of “facts change.” The process of science did work, and when the results could not be confirmed the article was retracted. It is important to hold scientists accountable for their work, and this scientist was held accountable and lost his research privileges. As in all professions, just because one person is unethical it is not fair to judge the work of everyone in that profession based on one person’s actions. POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.7 What are some potential pitfalls in scientific inquiry? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.7.4 - Explain how bias can be minimized in scientific studies. OTHER: Critical thinkingChapter 02—LIFE'S CHEMICAL BASIS Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 1 Multiple Choice 1. What are the fundamental building blocks of all matter? a. atoms b. compounds c. ions d. molecules e. electrons ANSWER: a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 2.1 What are the basic building blocks of all matter? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.2.1 - Describe a few properties of atoms and elements. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 2. Negatively charged subatomic particles are known as: a. neutrons b. protons c. electrons d. elements e. atoms ANSWER: c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 2.1 What are the basic building blocks of all matter? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.2.1.1 - What is an atom composed of? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified Selecting the Exception 3. Four of the five answers are elements. Select the exception: a. water b. oxygen c. carbon d. chlorine e. hydrogen ANSWER: a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 2.1 What are the basic building blocks of all matter? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.2.1 - Describe a few properties of atoms and elements. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: Modified 4. Four of the five answers below are correct statements about electrons. Select the exception. a. Electrons closest to the nucleus are at the lowest energy level.Chapter 02—LIFE'S CHEMICAL BASIS Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 2 b. No more than two electrons can occupy a single orbital. c. Electrons cannot move out of their assigned orbital space. d. The innermost orbital holds two electrons. e. At the second energy level, there are four possible orbitals with a total of eight electrons. ANSWER: c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 2.2 Why do atoms interact? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.2.2.1 - Explain how electrons are organized in orbitals. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 5. Four of the five answers listed below possess electrons in the third energy level. Select the exception. a. sodium (11) b. magnesium (12) c. chlorine (17) d. neon (10) e. argon (18) ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 2.2 Why do atoms interact? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.2.2.2 - Explain the shell model of electrons with an example. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Apply OTHER: Selecting the Exception 6. Four of the five answers listed below are characteristics of water. Select the exception. a. Water stabilizes temperature. b. Water is an excellent solvent. c. Water has cohesion and surface tension. d. Water produces salts. e. Water is less dense when solid. ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 2.4 What are the life-sustaining properties of water? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.2.4.3 - Why is water a good solvent? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember OTHER: Selecting the Exception 7. Which of the following is a positive subatomic particle? a. neutron only b. proton only c. electron only d. neutron and proton e. proton and electron ANSWER: bChapter 02—LIFE'S CHEMICAL BASIS Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 3 POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 2.1 What are the basic building blocks of all matter? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.2.1.1 - What is an atom composed of? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 8. Which of the following is a neutral subatomic particle? a. neutron b. proton c. electron d. neutron and proton e. electron and neutron ANSWER: a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 2.1 What are the basic building blocks of all matter? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.2.1.1 - What is an atom composed of? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 9. The atomic number is determined by the number of: a. neutrons and protons b. neutrons and electrons c. protons and electrons d. protons only e. neutrons only ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 2.1 What are the basic building blocks of all matter? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.2.1.3 - Describe how atoms are arranged in the periodic table. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 10. All atoms of an element have the same number of: a. ions b. protons only c. neutrons only d. electrons. e. protons and neutrons ANSWER: b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 2.1 What are the basic building blocks of all matter? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.2.1.2 - What is an element? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 11. The nucleus of an atom contains: a. neutrons and protons b. neutrons and electronsChapter 02—LIFE'S CHEMICAL BASIS Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 4 c. protons and electrons d. protons only e. neutrons only ANSWER: a POINTS: 1 Show Less [Show More]

Last updated: 1 year ago

Preview 1 out of 893 pages

Add to cart

Instant download

Reviews( 0 )

$17.00

Add to cart

Instant download

Can't find what you want? Try our AI powered Search

OR

REQUEST DOCUMENT
112
0

Document information


Connected school, study & course


About the document


Uploaded On

Jul 20, 2021

Number of pages

893

Written in

Seller


seller-icon
FallonCarrington

Member since 2 years

31 Documents Sold


Additional information

This document has been written for:

Uploaded

Jul 20, 2021

Downloads

 0

Views

 112

Document Keyword Tags

More From FallonCarrington

View all FallonCarrington's documents »

Recommended For You

Get more on EXAM »

$17.00
What is Browsegrades

In Browsegrades, a student can earn by offering help to other student. Students can help other students with materials by upploading their notes and earn money.

We are here to help

We're available through e-mail, Twitter, Facebook, and live chat.
 FAQ
 Questions? Leave a message!

Follow us on
 Twitter

Copyright © Browsegrades · High quality services·