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PHI 2000 Sophia Ethics Milestones. Introduction to Ethics Final Exam

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1 Many people confuse topics of religion, social etiquette, and law with ethical topics. Select the example related to social etiquette. · Nathan talks loudly on his cell phone while standing in... line at the store. · Anthony follows the flow of traffic, even if he is exceeding the speed limit. · Marcy disapproves of working on Sundays because she was taught it was a day of rest. · Tara installs a wheelchair ramp at her business to meet government regulations. CONCEPT Ethical and Non-Ethical Topics 2 In a famous story, Robin Hood robbed rich travelers and gave the money he acquired to the poor. Robin Hood is usually seen as a good, if not noble, person. How would a deontologist evaluate Robin Hood’s action? · It is ethical because the rich had more than enough money, and the poor did not have enough. · It is ethical because Robin Hood made more people happy than he made unhappy. · It is not ethical because Robin Hood was an arrogant coward who stole from innocent people. · It is not ethical because stealing is always wrong, no matter the circumstances. CONCEPT Sources of Value in Ethical Decisions 3 Which of the following is a deductive argument? · Every time I’ve visited the farmer’s market, I’ve found heirloom tomatoes. So, this week when I go to the farmer’s market, I will find heirloom tomatoes. · It has snowed on my birthday every year since I was born. Therefore, it will snow on my birthday this year. · Traffic is very heavy today. When traffic is heavy, I take the bus to work. I will take the bus to work today. · Helen was seen exiting the alley after a robbery had taken place. It follows that Helen committed the robbery. CONCEPT Deductive and Inductive Inference 4 Which of the following is a key benefit of philosophy? · Philosophy identifies ways we can improve relationships. · Philosophy teaches us about other cultures. · Philosophy helps us understand how people behave. · Philosophy allows us to construct logical arguments. CONCEPT Benefits of Philosophy and Ethics 5 Which of the following observations poses a challenge to the cultural differences argument? · Just because there is an objective truth doesn't mean everyone automatically knows it. · If there were no universal ethical truths, it wouldn't be possible for cultures to have moral values at all. · No culture has ever willingly assimilated to another culture's beliefs and norms. · Some cultures subscribe to ethical frameworks like divine command theory rather than conventionalism. CONCEPT Problems with Conventionalism 6 Why is egoism considered a relativist theory of ethics? · Because it maintains that humans are not inherently selfish. · Because it maintains that there are universal truths most people agree on. · Because right and wrong are subject to the individual agent. · Because it maintains that what is good applies to everyone equally. CONCEPT Egoism 7 Which of the following statements about philosophy is true? · Philosophy is a way to answer questions about the physical universe without observation. · Philosophy is concerned with seeking and recognizing knowledge. · Philosophy is quite interesting, despite having little or no application in other fields. · Philosophy is obsolete due to advances in scientific inquiry. CONCEPT Introduction to Philosophy 8 Which of the following statements is true of ethics? · Ethical principles are just personal opinions. · Objectivity is vital to ethical thought. · Ethics is not subject to the same level of rigor as other philosophical pursuits. · Ethical behavior has little to do with interpersonal interaction. CONCEPT Introduction to Philosophical Ethics 9 Choose the true statement about virtue-based ethics. · According to the principles of virtue-based ethics, people can be judged by the consequences of their actions. · According to the principles of virtue-based ethics, actions are less important than the agent's moral character. · According to the principles of virtue-based ethics, actions are judged against the greater good. · According to the principles of virtue-based ethics, only the actor’s intent is considered when assigning moral value. CONCEPT Virtue-Based Ethics 10 Which of the following statements supports egoism? · Ethical standards are easily upheld when they benefit others. · The rule of law motivates actions for individuals. · A society is more just if it enforces laws for the benefit of everyone. · A flourishing society requires flourishing individuals. CONCEPT Support for Egoism 11 Which of the following statements about divine command theory is true? · Divine command theory states that what is religious is inherently good and what isn't is bad. · Divine command theory states that the ends justify the means. · Divine command theory is a basic principle of all religions. · Divine command theory states that right is right only because God says so. CONCEPT Divine Command Theory 12 Renae has three brothers. Over the course of a weekend, she observed them in different situations with the new neighbors. Her oldest brother, Nick, stepped in front of her when the neighbors’ large dog got loose and started running toward her. Her middle brother, Joe, loudly threatened the neighbors as to what would happen if they did not keep their dog chained up. Her younger brother, Scott, retreated into the house when all the shouting occurred. How might a virtue-based ethicist evaluate Nick’s action? · The action revealed that Nick has the vice of aggressiveness. · The action revealed that Nick has the virtue of courage. · The action revealed that Nick acted without thinking. · The action did not reveal a positive or negative trait. CONCEPT Advantages and Shortcomings of Virtue-Based Ethics 13 Which of the following people would be most satisfied with virtue-based ethics? · Winifred is looking for an ethical system that is based in the Ten Commandments. · Wendy is looking for an ethical framework that allows her to focus on what kind of person she is. · Wycliffe is looking for an ethical framework that evaluates actions based solely on intent. · Walt is looking for an ethical system that respects cultural differences. CONCEPT Support for Virtue-Based Ethics 14 According to Kantian deontology, which of the following would make an act impermissible? · My intention is bad. · The act is illegal. · There is a negative outcome. · My own needs are not met. CONCEPT Commitments of Kantian Deontology 15 "Abortion is morally wrong because it is murder, and murder is forbidden in the Bible." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? · Kantian deontology · Conventionalism · Divine command theory · Virtue-based ethics CONCEPT Case Study: Abortion 16 How might a Kantian deontologist evaluate a jury voting to convict someone they know is innocent because they disagree with his political beliefs? · It is morally wrong because if their motives are obvious, it could hurt their own party's reputation just to prevent just one person from voting against them. · It is morally right because juries decide legal truth and can't be punished for any decisions they make. · It is morally right because the jurors' obligation to their party and their country are more important than one innocent man's freedom. · It is morally wrong because if all juries acted that way, the judicial system would cease to be about justice and become a vehicle for political oppression. CONCEPT Applying Kantian Deontology 17 In Kantian deontology, the __________ must be derived from reason. · command theory · utility principle · categorical imperative · formal maxim CONCEPT Kantian Deontology 18 Which of the following represents rule utilitarianism? · Raj buys a particular brand of computer because it best suits his professional needs. · Rick helps his daughter with her taxes because he thinks parents should help their children. · Rhonda drinks tea instead of coffee because she finds it more soothing. · Renee is honest with her doctor because she wants a correct diagnosis. CONCEPT Act and Rule Utilitarianism 19 Why is utilitarianism an objectivist or relativist theory? · Utilitarianism is relative because what is best for the individual may differ from societal norms. · Utilitarianism is objectivist because although people might act in different ways, they all have one goal: to maximize utility. · Utilitarianism is relative because the good is proportionate to the individual’s intention. · Utilitarianism is objectivist because all people should consider their own happiness first. CONCEPT Utilitarianism 20 The statement, "I will read a book when I get bored so as to improve my mind," is a __________. · universal law · formulation · categorical imperative · maxim CONCEPT The Formulation of Universal Law 21 Which of the following represents a challenge to the voluntarist option of divine command theory? · God has no free choice and is thus just an agent. · God's commands can anticipate any situation. · God's commands are not meant for everyone. · God's commands have no basis in reason. CONCEPT Refutations of Divine Command Theory 22 Which of the following is a philosophical question? · What is the capital of the United States? · How many people live in poverty in the world? · When was the first World Series played? · Can one sport be objectively better than another? CONCEPT Philosophical and Non-Philosophical Inquiry 23 Stephanie volunteers at an organization that collects and distributes clothing to those in need. As she is packing boxes to send overseas, she finds a donated item of clothing that perfectly suits her sense of style and would be a versatile item to add to her own wardrobe. Stephanie sets the item aside to take home with her. According to virtue-based ethics, why is Stephanie's action unethical? · Stealing is always wrong. · She is not following the instructions she was given. · Her action will deprive needy recipients of clothing. · Her action cultivates the vice of greed. CONCEPT Apply Virtue-Based Ethics 24 Which of the following statements reflects conventionalism? · Moral truths differ from culture to culture. · Moral truths do not exist. · Moral truths differ from person to person. · Moral truths are universal. CONCEPT Categorizing Ethical Theories 25 Which of the following represents a difficulty with egoism? · Egoism does not allow the egoist to evaluate others based on his or her perspective. · Socially determined actions are usually more successful than self-determined actions. · Egoism is a core part of human nature, so denying it is denying someone's humanity. · Egoism maximizes each individual's pleasure, which is something everyone wants. 1 Susan is studying the morality of taking terminally ill patients off life support. After thorough research and consideration of many different views, she argues that doctors have a moral obligation to use whatever means are available to preserve a patient's life. Which step of philosophical inquiry has Susan done? · Advance a thesis and justification · Specify your question · Identify positions on the question · Evaluate positions CONCEPT The Philosophical Approach to Inquiry 2 Which of the following statements about philosophy is true? · Philosophy is concerned with seeking and recognizing knowledge. · Philosophy is a way to answer questions about the physical universe without observation. · Philosophy is quite interesting, despite having little or no application in other fields. · Philosophy is obsolete due to advances in scientific inquiry. CONCEPT Introduction to Philosophy 3 Francis believes that every person should have ambition. Which of the following actions is inconsistent with his belief? · Francis commits to learning a new skill every year. · Francis dresses for the job he wants rather than the one he has. · Francis is content to keep his dead-end job. · Francis starts a new company with two friends. CONCEPT Establishing a Consistent Value System 4 Frances, like most people in her culture, avoids making eye contact with strangers. What would a conventionalist call the action of making eye contact with strangers? · Supererogatory · Neutral · Impermissible · Obligatory CONCEPT Commitments of Conventionalism 5 How might a Kantian deontologist evaluate a jury voting to convict someone they know is innocent because they disagree with his political beliefs? · It is morally right because juries decide legal truth and can't be punished for any decisions they make. · It is morally right because the jurors' obligation to their party and their country are more important than one innocent man's freedom. · It is morally wrong because if all juries acted that way, the judicial system would cease to be about justice and become a vehicle for political oppression. · It is morally wrong because if their motives are obvious, it could hurt their own party's reputation just to prevent just one person from voting against them. CONCEPT Applying Kantian Deontology 6 Which of the following observations poses a challenge to the cultural differences argument? · Some cultures are descended from common ancestors. · Even if two cultures disagree, there can still be a right answer. · No two cultures have the same ethical framework. · Morality is objective, so there are universal ethical truths. CONCEPT Problems with Conventionalism 7 Ricardo and Monica volunteered to serve food at their church picnic during the 8-10 AM shift. At the end of their shift, they noticed that the kitchen was still pretty busy, so they continued to help through the next shift. Most people would likely say their decision is an example of a(n) __________ action. · supererogatory · neutral · obligatory · impermissible CONCEPT The Evaluation of Actions 8 Tom passed the same homeless person each day as he walked to work. The homeless person never asked for money, but one day Tom stops and hands the man a $10 bill. According to virtue-based ethics, Tom’s action is unethical if he __________. · feels satisfied that he has done a good deed · gives the man money out of a sense of superiority · tells the man how to spend the money · values the man’s life more than he values his own CONCEPT Apply Virtue-Based Ethics 9 In Kantian deontology, the categorical imperative must be derived from __________. · duty · possible consequences · reason · moral law CONCEPT Kantian Deontology 10 Which of the following statements would you expect to hear from a conventionalist? · "Some cultures are closer to the objective truth than others." · "Cultures don't differ much in what they call good." · "There are no moral truths that apply universally." · "Some things are always wrong no matter the culture." CONCEPT Conventionalism 11 Henry vandalizes a local school on a friendly dare. How would a utilitarian classify this action? · Supererogatory · Impermissible · Obligatory · Neutral CONCEPT Commitments of Utilitarianism 12 Which of the following examples contains a disagreement between popular thought and divine command theory? · God says to keep the Sabbath holy, so many people don't have to work on the weekend. · God says, "Woe to those who are rich," but many people strive for wealth. · God forbids divorce, so my wife and I didn't make a prenuptial agreement. · God forbids the worship of idols, so I only worship him. CONCEPT Applying Divine Command Theory 13 Which of the following is a key benefit of philosophy? · Philosophy allows us to construct logical arguments. · Philosophy identifies ways we can improve relationships. · Philosophy teaches us about other cultures. · Philosophy helps us understand how people behave. CONCEPT Benefits of Philosophy and Ethics 14 Which of the following represents a challenge to the voluntarist option of divine command theory? · God has no free choice and is thus just an agent. · God's commands have no basis in reason. · God's commands can anticipate any situation. · God's commands are not meant for everyone. CONCEPT Refutations of Divine Command Theory 15 Theo is running for political office. It is a well-known fact that Theo is corrupt— he intends to use his office for his own personal and financial gain, to the detriment of the communities he serves. Yet polls show that he has a considerable lead over his opponents because he can afford aggressive advertising. A group of citizens decides to take matters into its own hands by blackmailing Theo so he will drop out of the election. Most people would agree that this action is immoral. How might it be evaluated by a utilitarian? · Blackmailing Theo is morally wrong because blackmail is always wrong, even if you don’t agree with someone’s values. · Blackmailing Theo is morally right because most citizens do not want him as their leader, even if they have fallen for his advertising. · Blackmailing Theo is morally right because the communities he serves will ultimately be happier with a leader who is not corrupt. · Blackmailing Theo is morally wrong because it’s still possible that he won’t win the election, or that checks and balances will keep him from having too negative an impact. CONCEPT Applying Utilitarianism 16 "Treating animals inhumanely is morally wrong because it shows insensitivity on the part of the farmer." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? · Virtue-based ethics · Kantian deontology · Utilitarianism · Egoism CONCEPT Case Study: Animal Rights 17 Which of the following statements reflects subjectivism? · Dennis says that morality is a personal choice. · Dennis says that morality is dictated by a person's culture. · Dennis says that morality depends on the situation. · Dennis says that morality is universal. CONCEPT Categorizing Ethical Theories 18 Which of the following statements is true of ethics? · The goal of ethics is to search for truths in order to be a better person. · Ethics is about doing whatever it takes to get ahead. · Ethics is only important in the workplace. · Right and wrong are purely subjective. CONCEPT Introduction to Philosophical Ethics 19 An argument is strong and the conclusion is true, but both premises are false. Which of the following terms best describes the argument? · Sound · Cogent · Unsound · Uncogent CONCEPT Evaluating an Argument 20 Which of the following scenarios would be obligatory for an egoist? · Madison brings a wallet she found on the ground to the police station rather than keeping it for herself. · Michelle lets her husband decide what to eat since she's fine either way. · Rather than take his dream vacation, Milo serves as a foster parent so children can have a stable home. · Malachi sees an opportunity to cheat and get ahead at work, so he takes it. CONCEPT Commitments of Egoism 21 Which of the following people would likely be satisfied with Kantian deontology? · Felicity is looking for an ethical framework that is based on accepted societal norms. · Ferdinand is looking for an ethical framework that uses the Bible as a basis for morality. · Frannie is looking for an ethical framework that can evaluate actions beyond just their effects. · Ford is looking for an ethical framework where he can look out for his own wants and needs. CONCEPT Support for Kantian Deontology 22 What is meant by the formulation of humanity? · We shouldn't act in a way that has any harm to society. · Anything agreed on by all humanity is true. · Other people must be treated as ends, not only as means. · We should respect other peoples' points of view. CONCEPT The Formulation of Humanity 23 Which of the following critiques represents a challenge to virtue-based ethics? · Some things seem like virtues, but are actually just feelings. · Self-improvement needs more emphasis. · There are no norms for guiding the interactions between separate cultures. · Consequences of actions get too much attention, and intent doesn't get enough. CONCEPT Problems with Virtue-Based Ethics 24 Which of the following statements displays the speaker's unfair bias? · "I'm voting for Measure 5642 because it will give my family a tax break." · "I'm voting for Measure 5642 because it will balance the city's budget." · "I'm voting for Measure 5642 because it will improve our schools." · "I'm voting for Measure 5642 because it will create new jobs." CONCEPT The Effect of Bias in Moral Decision Making 25 Marcus hurries past a mugging because he doesn't want to get involved. How might a virtue-based ethicist classify this action? · Impermissible · Neutral · Obligatory · Supererogatory CONCEPT Commitments of Virtue-Based Ethics Which of the following examples contains a disagreement between popular thought and divine command theory? · God commands that certain crimes be punished by death, but many people oppose capital punishment. · · God forbade eating pork in the Torah, but in the book of Acts, he got rid of that prohibition. · · God forbids lying, but I lie in pretty much every other sentence I say. · · God commands that we forgive everyone, so I told my brother that I still love him after he broke my car window. · 1 "Capital punishment is morally wrong because killing people is always wrong, no matter what." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? · Virtue-based ethics · Kantian deontology · Divine command theory · Conventionalism CONCEPT Case Study: Capital Punishment 2 Which of the following critiques represents a challenge to virtue-based ethics? · Some things seem like virtues, but are actually just feelings. · There are no norms for guiding the interactions between separate cultures. · Self-improvement needs more emphasis. · Consequences of actions get too much attention, and intent doesn't get enough. CONCEPT Problems with Virtue-Based Ethics 3 Marcus hurries past a mugging because he doesn't want to get involved. How might a virtue-based ethicist classify this action? · Supererogatory · Neutral · Obligatory · Impermissible CONCEPT Commitments of Virtue-Based Ethics 4 Ellie believes that every person should show compassion at all times. Which of the following actions is inconsistent with her belief? · Ellie organizes a new charity that helps the needy develop skills and find jobs. · Ellie spends four hours every month at a nursing home with people whose children don't visit. · Ellie calls the police on a homeless person who's sleeping too close to her storefront. · Ellie works as a public defender so that she can have a positive impact on the lives of people who get into trouble. CONCEPT Establishing a Consistent Value System 5 Choose the true statement about virtue-based ethics. · According to the principles of virtue-based ethics, rules are used to evaluate actions. · According to the principles of virtue-based ethics, character is more important than actions. · According to the principles of virtue-based ethics, right and wrong are assessed using culture as a guide. · According to the principles of virtue-based ethics, the consequences of actions are very important. CONCEPT Virtue-Based Ethics 6 Which of the following people would be most satisfied with virtue-based ethics? · Abner is looking for an ethical system that is about more than just doing good. · Adelaide is looking for an ethical system that evaluates actions based on their effects. · Andrew is looking for an ethical system that puts his own development first. · Abby is looking for an ethical system that is based in cultural norms. CONCEPT Support for Virtue-Based Ethics 7 "Abortion is acceptable if the woman doesn't want to be a mother." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? · Utilitarianism · Conventionalism · Kantian deontology · Egoism CONCEPT Case Study: Abortion 8 Tom passed the same homeless person each day as he walked to work. The homeless person never asked for money, but one day Tom stops and hands the man a $10 bill. According to virtue-based ethics, Tom’s action is unethical if he __________. · gives the man money out of a sense of superiority · feels satisfied that he has done a good deed · values the man’s life more than he values his own · tells the man how to spend the money CONCEPT Apply Virtue-Based Ethics 9 Marcy and Wayne watched from a window as a car without a handicap parking sticker parked in the reserved spot in front of their office building. A woman jumped out and ran into the building. “I’m going to report that to the front desk,” announced Marcy indignantly. “Relax,” said Wayne. “If she’s fast and doesn’t get caught, what’s the harm?” Wayne is most likely a __________. · character ethicist · deontologist · consequentialist · divine command theorist CONCEPT Sources of Value in Ethical Decisions 10 Select the statement that reveals personal interest as a source of bias in ethical evaluation. · The clothing that Middle Eastern women wear is oppressive because it is different from Western clothing. · I think anyone should get a tattoo if they want to because many of my family members have tattoos. · Same-sex marriage makes me uncomfortable because I do not know any same-sex couples. · I call myself a liberal, but I vote for a conservative candidate when his or her policies will benefit me financially. CONCEPT Sources of Bias in Ethical Decisions 11 The ethical position that evaluates the morality of an action solely on the results of that action is __________. · deontology · character ethics · divine command theory · consequentialism CONCEPT Different Considerations for Evaluating Actions 12 Which action, while seemingly good, may reveal a vice rather than a virtue? · Glenn shows up for work every day, even when he's had trouble sleeping the night before. · Sasha cooperates with a colleague she does not like to complete an important project. · Carol gives a homeless man $10 to move away from her office building. · Abraham does not like classical music, but he still takes his mother to the symphony. CONCEPT Advantages and Shortcomings of Virtue-Based Ethics 13 "Giving away excess wealth is obligatory because it brings about a greater good for all of society." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? · Divine command theory · Virtue-based ethics · Conventionalism · Utilitarianism CONCEPT Case Study: Wealth Distribution 14 Which of the following statements displays the speaker's unfair bias? · "I'm voting for Measure 5642 because it will create new jobs." · "I'm voting for Measure 5642 because it will balance the city's budget." · "I'm voting for Measure 5642 because it will improve our schools." · "I'm voting for Measure 5642 because it will give my family a tax break." CONCEPT The Effect of Bias in Moral Decision Making 15 "Eating pork is morally wrong because the Torah forbids it." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? · Virtue-based ethics · Kantian deontology · Conventionalism · Divine command theory 1 Which of the following critiques represents a challenge to virtue-based ethics? · Everyone isn't governed by the same moral norms. · Two people might disagree on whether something is a virtue. · Not enough attention is given to self-improvement. · An agent's ignorance makes it too easy to get away with bad results. CONCEPT Problems with Virtue-Based Ethics 2 Which of the following people would be most satisfied with virtue-based ethics? · Benedict is looking for an ethical system that evaluates actions primarily by the agent's intent. · Brittney is looking for an ethical system that evaluates actions based on the good they bring about. · Bette is looking for an ethical system that values fostering personal improvement. · Bruce is looking for an ethical system that focuses on what's best for him alone. CONCEPT Support for Virtue-Based Ethics 3 "Abortion is acceptable if the woman doesn't want to be a mother." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? · Egoism · Kantian deontology · Utilitarianism · Conventionalism CONCEPT Case Study: Abortion 4 Choose the statement that exemplifies consequentialism. · Lying is impermissible because society demands honesty. · Lying is impermissible because it is intrinsically wrong. · Lying is impermissible because it causes others to mistrust you. · Lying is impermissible because it reveals a dishonest nature. CONCEPT Sources of Value in Ethical Decisions 5 Ogo always gets pepperoni and black olives on his pizza. How might a virtue-based ethicist classify this action? · Supererogatory · Impermissible · Obligatory · Neutral CONCEPT Commitments of Virtue-Based Ethics 6 Which of the following best defines virtue-based ethics? · An ethical theory that asserts that self-oriented interests motivate human actions · An ethical theory that determines moral value by weighing the consequences of actions · An ethical theory that emphasizes the role of character rather than actions · An ethical theory that deems that an action is morally right if the action results in happiness CONCEPT Virtue-Based Ethics 7 Ellie believes that every person should show compassion at all times. Which of the following actions is inconsistent with her belief? · Ellie works as a public defender so that she can have a positive impact on the lives of people who get into trouble. · Ellie organizes a new charity that helps the needy develop skills and find jobs. · Ellie calls the police on a homeless person who's sleeping too close to her storefront. · Ellie spends four hours every month at a nursing home with people whose children don't visit. CONCEPT Establishing a Consistent Value System 8 "Eating pork is morally wrong because the Torah forbids it." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? · Divine command theory · Conventionalism · Kantian deontology · Virtue-based ethics CONCEPT Case Study: Animal Rights 9 Select the basis for moral value used by character ethics. · The inherent value of an action based upon intent · The individual trait being demonstrated by an action · The adherence of an action to divine authority · The ultimate effects of an action CONCEPT Different Considerations for Evaluating Actions 10 Which of the following statements displays the speaker's unfair bias? · "I gave Timmy extra credit because he's my favorite student." · "I gave Timmy extra credit because he did an additional project." · "I gave Timmy extra credit because he works harder than his classmates." · "I gave Timmy extra credit because he went above and beyond on the assignment." CONCEPT The Effect of Bias in Moral Decision Making 11 "Capital punishment is morally wrong because it turns all the state's citizens into killers." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? · Kantian deontology · Virtue-based ethics · Utilitarianism · Conventionalism CONCEPT Case Study: Capital Punishment 12 Which action demonstrates a shortcoming of virtue-based ethics? · Donating to a charity out of a sense of superiority and ego · Lying so that a coworker will lose his job · Refusing to engage in gossip out of a sense of respect for others’ privacy · Participating in an anti-war protest due to personal convictions about the morality of war CONCEPT Advantages and Shortcomings of Virtue-Based Ethics 13 "I always say everyone shouldn't be afraid to try new things. On a recent trip to Spain, I ate all my meals at my favorite place— McDonald's." Which of the following sources of bias is apparent in this quotation? · Self-interest · Upbringing · Religion · Familiarity CONCEPT Sources of Bias in Ethical Decisions 14 Norma gives her elderly mother a ride to the grocery store once a week when she does her own grocery shopping. On a form at work, she lists this as a community service and hides the fact that it's her own mother she's helping because she knows her boss values volunteerism and actively encourages all employees to contribute to the community. When her boss praises her for her commitment to community service, Norma feels pleased and optimistic that she will soon get a raise.\ According to virtue-based ethics, why is Norma's action unethical? · Lying is always wrong. · She is prioritizing monetary gain over honesty. · She is not cultivating any virtues by helping her mother. · She is acting out of a sense of compassion and goodwill. CONCEPT Apply Virtue-Based Ethics 15 "Giving away excess wealth is obligatory because it brings about a greater good for all of society." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? · Virtue-based ethics · Utilitarianism · Conventionalism · Divine command theory CONCEPT Case Study: Wealth Distribution 1 Stephanie volunteers at an organization that collects and distributes clothing to those in need. As she is packing boxes to send overseas, she finds a donated item of clothing that perfectly suits her sense of style and would be a versatile item to add to her own wardrobe. Stephanie sets the item aside to take home with her. According to virtue-based ethics, why is Stephanie's action unethical? · Her action will deprive needy recipients of clothing. · Her action cultivates the vice of greed. · She is not following the instructions she was given. · Stealing is always wrong. CONCEPT Apply Virtue-Based Ethics 2 Ogo always gets pepperoni and black olives on his pizza. How might a virtue-based ethicist classify this action? · Obligatory · Supererogatory · Neutral · Impermissible CONCEPT Commitments of Virtue-Based Ethics 3 Which of the following people would be most satisfied with virtue-based ethics? · Abby is looking for an ethical system that is based in cultural norms. · Andrew is looking for an ethical system that puts his own development first. · Abner is looking for an ethical system that is about more than just doing good. · Adelaide is looking for an ethical system that evaluates actions based on their effects. CONCEPT Support for Virtue-Based Ethics 4 Choose the true statement about virtue-based ethics. · According to the principles of virtue-based ethics, rules are used to evaluate actions. · According to the principles of virtue-based ethics, the consequences of actions are very important. · According to the principles of virtue-based ethics, right and wrong are assessed using culture as a guide. · According to the principles of virtue-based ethics, character is more important than actions. CONCEPT Virtue-Based Ethics 5 Which of the following statements displays the speaker's unfair bias? · "I'm voting for Measure 5642 because it will balance the city's budget." · "I'm voting for Measure 5642 because it will give my family a tax break." · "I'm voting for Measure 5642 because it will create new jobs." · "I'm voting for Measure 5642 because it will improve our schools." CONCEPT The Effect of Bias in Moral Decision Making 6 "I always say everyone shouldn't be afraid to try new things. On a recent trip to Spain, I ate all my meals at my favorite place— McDonald's." Which of the following sources of bias is apparent in this quotation? · Self-interest · Familiarity · Religion · Upbringing CONCEPT Sources of Bias in Ethical Decisions 7 Which of the following critiques represents a challenge to virtue-based ethics? · There are no norms for guiding the interactions between separate cultures. · Some things seem like virtues, but are actually just feelings. · Self-improvement needs more emphasis. · Consequences of actions get too much attention, and intent doesn't get enough. CONCEPT Problems with Virtue-Based Ethics 8 Marcy and Wayne watched from a window as a car without a handicap parking sticker parked in the reserved spot in front of their office building. A woman jumped out and ran into the building. “I’m going to report that to the front desk,” announced Marcy indignantly. “Relax,” said Wayne. “If she’s fast and doesn’t get caught, what’s the harm?” Wayne is most likely a __________. · divine command theorist · consequentialist · deontologist · character ethicist CONCEPT Sources of Value in Ethical Decisions 9 Which action, while seemingly good, may reveal a vice rather than a virtue? · Sasha cooperates with a colleague she does not like to complete an important project. · Glenn shows up for work every day, even when he's had trouble sleeping the night before. · Carol gives a homeless man $10 to move away from her office building. · Abraham does not like classical music, but he still takes his mother to the symphony. CONCEPT Advantages and Shortcomings of Virtue-Based Ethics 10 "Capital punishment is morally wrong because killing people is always wrong, no matter what." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? · Divine command theory · Conventionalism · Virtue-based ethics · Kantian deontology CONCEPT Case Study: Capital Punishment 11 Francis believes that every person should have ambition. Which of the following actions is inconsistent with his belief? · Francis commits to learning a new skill every year. · Francis is content to keep his dead-end job. · Francis dresses for the job he wants rather than the one he has. · Francis starts a new company with two friends. CONCEPT Establishing a Consistent Value System 12 "Giving away excess wealth is obligatory because it brings about a greater good for all of society." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? · Divine command theory · Utilitarianism · Virtue-based ethics · Conventionalism CONCEPT Case Study: Wealth Distribution 13 "Abortion is morally acceptable if it is legal here." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? · Conventionalism · Kantian deontology · Virtue-based ethics · Utilitarianism CONCEPT Case Study: Abortion 14 The ethical position that evaluates the morality of an action solely on the results of that action is __________. · deontology · divine command theory · character ethics · consequentialism CONCEPT Different Considerations for Evaluating Actions 15 "In some places, certain animals are considered divine and have more rights than humans." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? · Utilitarianism · Kantian deontology · Conventionalism · Virtue-based ethics CONCEPT Case Study: Animal Rights Natalie helps her brother move into his new home. How might a virtue-based ethicist classify this action? · Obligatory · Neutral · Supererogatory · Impermissible Which of the following ethical theories defines actions as right or wrong in and of themselves? · Consequentialism · Virtue-based ethics · Deontology · Conventionalism "Treating animals inhumanely is morally wrong because it shows insensitivity on the part of the farmer." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? · Utilitarianism · Kantian deontology · Virtue-based ethics · Egoism Select the statement that reveals upbringing as a source of bias in ethical evaluation. · I ride the packed subway in New York City all the time, but it seems rude to me when I see people in Japan crowd onto full trains. · I call myself a conservative, but I vote for liberal candidates when their policies benefit me financially. · I never talk back to the teacher because, as a child, my parents taught me to respect educators. · I scold a student for allowing his parents to help with an assignment, but I help my own child when I believe the work is too hard for her. "Forced redistribution of wealth is morally wrong because it is a form of stealing, and stealing is always wrong." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? · Utilitarianism · Virtue-based ethics · Kantian deontology · Conventionalism Derreck believes that every person should keep his or her word. Which of the following actions is inconsistent with his belief? · Derreck had promised his wife a trip to Hawaii for their anniversary, so he puts aside money every month to make it happen. · Derreck had promised his friends he would be their designated driver, so he goes out with them and does not drink. · Derreck had promised his daughter a puppy if she got straight As, but he makes up a new condition after the fact so he doesn't have to fulfill the promise. · Derreck had promised his boss that a project would be done by the weekend, so he stays late on Friday to make sure everything is complete. "People who are generous help those in need however they can." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? · Kantian deontology · Virtue-based ethics · Egoism · Conventionalism Which of the following critiques represents a challenge to virtue-based ethics? · Mass chaos would ensue since everyone only cares about him or herself. · Some virtues that are lacking can be hard to develop. · The agent's moral character isn't properly emphasized. · Effects the agent couldn't have anticipated impact his or her guilt. Choose the true statement about virtue-based ethics. · According to the principles of virtue-based ethics, only the actor’s intent is considered when assigning moral value. · According to the principles of virtue-based ethics, actions are judged against the greater good. · According to the principles of virtue-based ethics, people can be judged by the consequences of their actions. · According to the principles of virtue-based ethics, actions are less important than the agent's moral character. "Abortion is morally wrong because it is murder, and murder is forbidden in the Bible." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? · Conventionalism · Virtue-based ethics · Divine command theory · Kantian deontology Which of the following statements displays the speaker's unfair bias? · "We're accepting Kim to our college because her goals align with our school's values." · "We're accepting Kim to our college because her parents are big donors." · "We're accepting Kim to our college because she has a 4.0 GPA." · "We're accepting Kim to our college because her extracurricular involvements are impressive." Which of the following people would be most satisfied with virtue-based ethics? · Wycliffe is looking for an ethical framework that evaluates actions based solely on intent. · Winifred is looking for an ethical system that is based in the Ten Commandments. · Walt is looking for an ethical system that respects cultural differences. · Wendy is looking for an ethical framework that allows her to focus on what kind of person she is. In a famous story, Robin Hood robbed rich travelers and gave the money he acquired to the poor. Robin Hood is usually seen as a good, if not noble, person. How would a deontologist evaluate Robin Hood’s action? · It is not ethical because stealing is always wrong, no matter the circumstances. · It is ethical because Robin Hood made more people happy than he made unhappy. · It is ethical because the rich had more than enough money, and the poor did not have enough. · It is not ethical because Robin Hood was an arrogant coward who stole from innocent people. "Capital punishment is morally acceptable if it prevents more people from being murdered." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? · Utilitarianism · · Virtue-based ethics · · Egoism · · Kantian deontology · 1 Karl receives a call from the local police, who are concerned that his son may be growing and distributing an illegal (but not dangerous) drug. Karl knows this suspicion to be true. If he admits it to the police, his son will be arrested, and their family’s name will be tarnished. If he lies, the police will assume the tip they got was false and go away. Most people are split on this issue. How might it be evaluated by a utilitarian? · Karl’s lying is morally right because he has an obligation to protect his son, even if his son’s actions cause harm to others. · Karl’s lying is morally wrong because his obligation to the state is more important than his son staying out of trouble, even though it would bring about no benefit for the state. · Karl’s lying is morally right because keeping his son out of trouble and his family’s reputation clear will bring about more happiness than if his son is arrested. · Karl’s lying is morally wrong because it is sinful to lie, even when the consequences are less than desirable. CONCEPT Applying Utilitarianism 2 Which of the following represents rule utilitarianism? · Renee is honest with her doctor because she wants a correct diagnosis. · Rick helps his daughter with her taxes because he thinks parents should help their children. · Rhonda drinks tea instead of coffee because she finds it more soothing. · Raj buys a particular brand of computer because it best suits his professional needs. CONCEPT Act and Rule Utilitarianism 3 Which of the following represents a potential problem for Kantian deontology? · A person in one place is subject to different rules than a person elsewhere. · A person can treat other people as means to an end without respect for them. · A person who feels at ease with his or her actions can make them right. · A person who tries and fails to murder someone is just as guilty as someone who succeeds. CONCEPT Problems with Kantian Deontology 4 How would a Kantian deontologist evaluate an action? · By evaluating the relevant maxim · By evaluating the act's morality · By evaluating the categorical imperative · By evaluating the total good and total bad it brings about CONCEPT The Formulation of Universal Law 5 Which of the following considerations is important for a utilitarian when evaluating the morality of an action? · How likely it is to advance one's own needs · How likely it is to bring about happiness · How likely it is to make one a good person · How likely it is to be a violation of God's law CONCEPT Utilitarianism 6 How might a Kantian deontologist evaluate assisted suicide? · It is morally right because it puts a person out of his or her pain. · It is morally wrong because it deprives a person of his or her humanity. · It is morally right because the patient gives his or her consent. · It is morally wrong because too many people would do it if they could. CONCEPT Applying Kantian Deontology 7 Which of the following people would likely be satisfied with utilitarianism? · Walburga is looking for an ethical framework that is based in observable facts. · Walt is looking for an ethical framework that places a high value on his culture's traditions. · Warren is looking for an ethical framework that never allows any kind of theft. · Wendy is looking for an ethical framework that relies on the Torah for moral guidance. CONCEPT Support for Utilitarianism 8 Which statement about Kantian deontology is true? · It is an objectivist theory because ethics must be determined by pure reason and apply to all persons. · It is a relativist theory because it focuses on character rather than on actions. · It is a relativist theory because a commitment to the happiness of the individual ensures happiness for all. · It is an objectivist theory because it uses consequences to evaluate actions for all people. CONCEPT Kantian Deontology 9 According to Kantian deontology, which of the following would make an act impermissible? · My own needs are not met. · My intention is bad. · The act is illegal. · There is a negative outcome. CONCEPT Commitments of Kantian Deontology 10 Jimmy is a nurse who cares for the aging Mr. Buckner in New York City. Mr. Buckner is a very wealthy man who has saved a lot of money over the years. One day, Mr. Buckner takes Jimmy aside and tells him that he has decided what to do with his money after he dies. Mr. Buckner tells Jimmy that he wants Jimmy to give all of the money to the New York Knicks basketball team. He makes Jimmy promise three times that he will do this. Jimmy thinks Mr. Buckner has gone crazy, but Mr. Buckner dies before they can discuss it further. Which action is supported by utilitarianism but intuitively seems unethical? · Jimmy decides to keep Mr. Buckner’s fortune for himself, as payment for all his work. · Jimmy breaks his promise to Mr. Buckner and uses the money to pay for an operation his mother needs. · Jimmy does what he promised and gives Mr. Buckner’s fortune to the New York Knicks. · Jimmy breaks his promise to Mr. Buckner and instead donates the money to a basketball league that helps inner city youth. CONCEPT Advantages and Shortcomings of Utilitarianism 11 Which of the following people would likely be satisfied with Kantian deontology? · Gosia is looking for an ethical framework that is based in a society's laws and rules. · Gerard is looking for an ethical framework that can apply to everyone. · Gina is looking for an ethical framework that is conscious of an act's negative effects. · Gary is looking for an ethical framework that originates outside humanity. CONCEPT Support for Kantian Deontology 12 I come home and my apartment building is on fire. There is a family of five living in the apartment next to mine and only my mother in my apartment. I can only evacuate one apartment. What is a problem with applying utilitarianism to this scenario? · Utilitarianism says I cannot determine which apartment to evacuate because my mother's happiness is equal to the happiness of the five strangers. · Utilitarianism says I have to choose what to do based on who is responsible for starting the fire. · Utilitarianism says I should evacuate the apartment that has five occupants, even though my mother is more important to me. · Utilitarianism says I should evacuate my apartment because that will make me the happiest. CONCEPT Problems with Utilitarianism 13 Which of the following pairs of goods are probably different in kind according to idealist utilitarianism? · My life and the life of my children · A polio vaccine and a syringe · All of the answer choices are correct. · A dog and a cat CONCEPT Hedonic and Idealist Utilitarianism 14 According to Kant, which of the following violates a person's humanity? · Hurting someone's feelings · Disrespecting someone's wishes · Forcing someone to do something · Debating with someone CONCEPT The Formulation of Humanity 15 Ingrid steals from a wealthy neighbor's excess so she can afford shoes for her children. How would a utilitarian classify this action? · Neutral · Supererogatory · Impermissible · Obligatory CONCEPT Commitments of Utilitarianism 1 I come home and my apartment building is on fire. There is a family of five living in the apartment next to mine and only my mother in my apartment. I can only evacuate one apartment. What is a problem with applying utilitarianism to this scenario? · Utilitarianism says I have to choose what to do based on who is responsible for starting the fire. · Utilitarianism says I should evacuate my apartment because that will make me the happiest. · Utilitarianism says I cannot determine which apartment to evacuate because my mother's happiness is equal to the happiness of the five strangers. · Utilitarianism says I should evacuate the apartment that has five occupants, even though my mother is more important to me. CONCEPT Problems with Utilitarianism 2 Ingrid steals from a wealthy neighbor's excess so she can afford shoes for her children. How would a utilitarian classify this action? · Obligatory · Supererogatory · Neutral · Impermissible CONCEPT Commitments of Utilitarianism 3 Which of the following people would likely be satisfied with utilitarianism? · Warren is looking for an ethical framework that never allows any kind of theft. · Walt is looking for an ethical framework that places a high value on his culture's traditions. · Walburga is looking for an ethical framework that is based in observable facts. · Wendy is looking for an ethical framework that relies on the Torah for moral guidance. CONCEPT Support for Utilitarianism 4 Which of the following people would likely be satisfied with Kantian deontology? · Frannie is looking for an ethical framework that can evaluate actions beyond just their effects. · Felicity is looking for an ethical framework that is based on accepted societal norms. · Ford is looking for an ethical framework where he can look out for his own wants and needs. · Ferdinand is looking for an ethical framework that uses the Bible as a basis for morality. CONCEPT Support for Kantian Deontology 5 Emma isn’t sure how she’s going to continue providing for her family. In a moment of desperation, she steals a bag of groceries from the store. Many people would say that stealing is wrong. How might this action be evaluated by a utilitarian? · Emma’s action is morally right because Emma has an obligation to feed her family, even if it results in multiple employees getting laid off. · Emma’s action is morally wrong because the food she steals may not be enough to feed her family for more than a couple days. · Emma’s action is morally right because the overall happiness it brings her family is greater than the decrease in happiness it brings the store. · Emma’s action is morally wrong because stealing is wrong, no matter how desperately she needs the food. CONCEPT Applying Utilitarianism 6 Which of the following pairs of goods are probably different in kind according to idealist utilitarianism? · All of the answer choices are correct. · A dog and a cat · My life and the life of my children · A polio vaccine and a syringe CONCEPT Hedonic and Idealist Utilitarianism 7 According to Kant, which of the following violates a person's humanity? · Debating with someone · Disrespecting someone's wishes · Hurting someone's feelings · Forcing someone to do something CONCEPT The Formulation of Humanity 8 In Kantian deontology, the categorical imperative must be derived from __________. · possible consequences · reason · moral law · duty CONCEPT Kantian Deontology 9 My grandmother gives me $5 and tells me to go to the store to buy her some ice cream. She asks me to promise to get the ice cream, and I agree. Which action is supported by utilitarianism but intuitively seems unethical? · I see five homeless people on the way to the store and I break the promise to my grandmother to give each of them one of the dollars. · I’m not in the mood for ice cream, so I spend the money on cupcakes instead because I know my grandmother likes them, too. · Even though they have my grandmother’s favorite flavor at the grocery store, I buy a flavor that she doesn’t like as much. · On the way to the store, I run into my friends who are going to see a movie; I decide to go with them and get the ice cream later. CONCEPT Advantages and Shortcomings of Utilitarianism 10 According to Kantian deontology, which of the following would make an act permissible? · It is done with good intent. · It is approved by a majority of people. · It brings about the greatest good for the most people. · It is legal in this place. CONCEPT Commitments of Kantian Deontology 11 How would a Kantian deontologist evaluate an action? · By evaluating the act's morality · By evaluating the categorical imperative · By evaluating the total good and total bad it brings about · By evaluating the relevant maxim CONCEPT The Formulation of Universal Law 12 How might a Kantian deontologist evaluate assisted suicide? · It is morally wrong because it deprives a person of his or her humanity. · It is morally right because it puts a person out of his or her pain. · It is morally wrong because too many people would do it if they could. · It is morally right because the patient gives his or her consent. CONCEPT Applying Kantian Deontology 13 Which of the following represents a potential problem for Kantian deontology? · A person may have to follow different rules than others because of his or her circumstances. · A person who isn't aware of committing a crime can't be guilty of it. · A person's intentions aren't given enough consideration. · A person can treat other people as means to an end without respect for them. CONCEPT Problems with Kantian Deontology 14 Which of the following represents rule utilitarianism? · Oswald gives 10% of his income to charity because giving to charity generally brings about greater good. · Odessa saves a drowning man because she knows his family needs him in order to be happy. · Omar breaks into a large store because he needs food and the store's loss will be insignificant. · Opal grows lots of plants and flowers to help offset her carbon footprint. CONCEPT Act and Rule Utilitarianism 15 When a utilitarian evaluates an action, which of the following is most important? · The action's rejection by society · The action's inherent sinfulness · The action's effects on the agent · The action's total effects on everyone What is meant by the formulation of universal law? · Acting according to a maxim that brings about the greatest possible good · Acting according to a maxim that is defined by the global community · Acting according to a maxim that respects an act's inherent goodness · Acting according to a maxim that, if applied to everyone, does not entail contradiction How might a Kantian deontologist evaluate cheating on an assignment? · It is morally right because it can prevent you from failing a class, losing the tuition, and getting in trouble with your parents. · It is morally wrong because lying to the teacher deprives her of information she needs. · It is morally right because it doesn't violate your freedom or ability to reason. · It is morally wrong because it violates the humanity of the person you cheated off of. In Kantian deontology, the __________ must be derived from reason. · categorical imperative · command theory · utility principle · formal maxim Theo is running for political office. It is a well-known fact that Theo is corrupt— he intends to use his office for his own personal and financial gain, to the detriment of the communities he serves. Yet polls show that he has a considerable lead over his opponents because he can afford aggressive advertising. A group of citizens decides to take matters into its own hands by blackmailing Theo so he will drop out of the election. Most people would agree that this action is immoral. How might it be evaluated by a utilitarian? · Blackmailing Theo is morally right because the communities he serves will ultimately be happier with a leader who is not corrupt. · Blackmailing Theo is morally right because most citizens do not want him as their leader, even if they have fallen for his advertising. · Blackmailing Theo is morally wrong because it’s still possible that he won’t win the election, or that checks and balances will keep him from having too negative an impact. · Blackmailing Theo is morally wrong because blackmail is always wrong, even if you don’t agree with someone’s values. What is meant by the formulation of humanity? · We should respect other peoples' points of view. · Anything agreed on by all humanity is true. · Other people must be treated as ends, not only as means. · We shouldn't act in a way that has any harm to society. According to Kantian deontology, which of the following would make an act impermissible? · It doesn't meet my own needs. · It violates applicable regulations. · It is done with bad intent. · Most people find it morally bad. Which of the following pairs of goods are directly comparable according to hedonic utilitarianism? · A car and a motorcycle · All of the answer choices are correct. · $20 and a sandwich platter · My life and my wife's life I try to hurt my roommate by hitting him in the back, but I actually help his chronic back pain instead. What problem with utilitarianism does this situation demonstrate? · An agent is equally responsible for actions he chooses to take or not take. · The intent of an action determines the morality of the action. · Utilitarianism is committed to treating everyone’s happiness equally. · Intent isn't a factor for the utilitarian, so this action is good, even though I meant to cause harm. Jerome gets injured helping a distressed swimmer. Jerome dies, but the swimmer lives. How would a utilitarian classify Jerome's action? · Supererogatory · Impermissible · Obligatory · Neutral Which of the following people would likely be satisfied with Kantian deontology? · Hank is looking for an ethical system that will put him most ahead. · Henrietta is looking for an ethical system that weighs the odds of certain consequences. · Houghton is looking for an ethical system that is relative. · Helen is looking for an ethical framework that respects the freedom of others. Which of the following people would likely be satisfied with utilitarianism? · Zoe is looking for an ethical framework that makes sure she is always happy. · Zach is looking for an ethical framework that applies evenly to everyone. · Zephaniah is looking for an ethical framework that fits well with religious belief. · Zelie is looking for an ethical framework that says animal cruelty is always wrong. When a utilitarian evaluates an action, which of the following is most important? · The action's total effects on everyone · The action's effects on the agent · The action's rejection by society · The action's inherent sinfulness On which of the following statements would a hedonic utilitarian and an idealist utilitarian disagree? · Some goods are preferable to others. · Some goods can be compared. · Consequences are the only important consideration. · Some goods can't be directly compared. Which of the following represents a potential problem for Kantian deontology? · A person can get away with doing harm if he or she isn't caught. · A person can justify any action based on its consequences. · A person can't use feelings to help guide his or her reasoning. · A person can get away with doing harm if it's culturally accepted. Claire is helping her elderly neighbor, Ms. Flannigan, with some yard work. Ms. Flannigan has no close family and tells Claire that she is beginning to wonder who will get the small bundles of cash she has hidden throughout her large house. Ms. Flannigan even remarks that she cannot remember where she has hidden them all. After helping Ms. Flannigan, Claire goes inside to freshen up. In the bathroom she notices a large wad of cash tucked inside the medicine cabinet. Which action is supported by utilitarianism but intuitively seems unethical? · Claire takes the money and donates it to the food kitchen that feeds the community’s homeless population. · Claire leaves the money, and tells Ms. Flannigan that she will take her to the bank the following week to deposit it. · Claire leaves the money, but tells her friends about Mrs. Flannigan’s forgetfulness and where she had found the money. · Claire takes the money and puts it in a savings account that she will not touch for 10 years. For Kant, what makes someone human? · The government's recognition of personhood · The ability to have emotions and feel pain · Freedom and the ability to reason · A person's genetic code Which of the following represents act utilitarianism? · Pierre bikes to work because he believes in not wasting gas. · Penelope works because she needs money for rent and food. · Patty looks out for her family because she believes it's her duty. · Percy rescues a stranger from a burning car because he would do that for anyone. I can change the lives of three foster children by adopting them and giving them a safe and stable home. If I adopt them, I must ask my 18-year-old son to move out because there isn't enough room in the house for everyone. What is a problem with applying utilitarianism to this scenario? · Utilitarianism says I cannot adopt the foster children because my son's happiness is equal to theirs. · Utilitarianism says I have to make my decision based on finding another home for my son. · Utilitarianism says I should adopt the three foster children, even though my son still relies on me for food and shelter. · Utilitarianism says I should adopt the foster children because that will make me the happiest. Why is utilitarianism an objectivist or relativist theory? · Utilitarianism is objectivist because although people might act in different ways, they all have one goal: to maximize utility. · Utilitarianism is objectivist because all people should consider their own happiness first. · Utilitarianism is relative because the good is proportionate to the individual’s intention. · Utilitarianism is relative because what is best for the individual may differ from societal norms. Which of the following people would likely be satisfied with utilitarianism? · Abner is looking for an ethical framework that allows for cultural differences in morality. · Athena is looking for an ethical framework that helps her look out for her own needs. · Andrew is looking for an ethical framework that does not allow blood transfusion. · Adelaide is looking for an ethical framework that takes future generations into consideration. Which of the following represents a potential problem for Kantian deontology? · A person can treat other people as means to an end without respect for them. · A person who tries and fails to murder someone is just as guilty as someone who succeeds. · A person who feels at ease with his or her actions can make them right. · A person in one place is subject to different rules than a person elsewhere. Henry vandalizes a local school on a friendly dare. How would a utilitarian classify this action? · Impermissible · Obligatory · Supererogatory · Neutral 1 Which of the following examples contains a disagreement between popular thought and divine command theory? · God says to support the poor, so there are a lot of religious charities. · God forbids wearing mixed fibers, but most people aren't concerned with what their clothes are made of. · God commands people to be generous, so I give 10% of my paycheck to an organization that helps at-risk youth in my community. · God says to love him above all else, a fact of which my mother often reminds me. CONCEPT Applying Divine Command Theory 2 Which of the following statements supports egoism? · A society is more just if it distributes rewards to everyone equally. · All actions should be aimed at the greater good of society. · Self-determined ethics are more successful than ethics dictated by others. · Working to meet the demands of the larger society can lead to prosperity. CONCEPT Support for Egoism 3 Which of the following statements about divine command theory is true? · Divine command theory states that the intention justifies the action. · Divine command theory states that if God says nothing about an action, that action is forbidden. · Divine command theory is just another name for religion. · Divine command theory states that God's commands are universal ethical truths. CONCEPT Divine Command Theory 4 Which of the following represents a challenge to divine command theory? · Divine command theory is too relative. · Divine command theory doesn't give a compelling reason for being good. · Divine command theory does not offer a firm basis for morality. · Divine command theory relies on sacred texts that are silent on some issues. CONCEPT Refutations of Divine Command Theory 5 Stefan is from Spain and is visiting Denmark. He finds himself very popular among native Danes because they like his casual and relaxed nature. When Stefan is invited to a local family’s home for dinner, he arrives late and is surprised that his hosts have seemingly taken offense. “This is how we do it in Spain,” he explained with a smile. “Dinner times are approximate and we arrive when we can.” “That is not how we do it in Denmark,” replied his host, rather stiffly. According to conventionalism, who has the stronger ethical stance— Stefan or his host? · Stefan, because his casual nature is why the Danes like him. · The host, because society functions best when individuals are punctual. · The host, because in Denmark, everyone is expected to arrive on time. · Stefan, because by Spanish standards, he had arrived early. CONCEPT Applying Conventionalism 6 The idea that people ought to act only in their own self interest is part of what kind of egoism? · Philosophical egoism · Ethical egoism · Psychological egoism · Logical egoism CONCEPT Egoism 7 Which of the following represents a difficulty with egoism? · Because good is determined by self-interest, the egoist cannot judge the actions of others. · Cooperating with others is a social skill that egoists do not have an opportunity to learn. · Socially determined actions are usually more successful than self-determined actions. · Individuals pursuing personal excellence often help a society to progress. CONCEPT Problems with Egoism 8 Which of the following statements would you expect to hear from a conventionalist? · "Conventionalism is a loose term that applies to many individual theories." · "Conventionalism is rooted in the idea that all cultures strive toward the same good." · "Conventionalists profess belief in objective morality." · "Conventionalism provides a framework for comparing diverse cultures." CONCEPT Conventionalism 9 Which of the following people would most likely be satisfied with conventionalism? · Martin is looking for an ethical framework that says, "You do you." · Malie is looking for an ethical framework that says, "Greed is good." · Mara is looking for an ethical framework that can account for changing cultural attitudes. · Meriwether is looking for an ethical framework that values the world culture over local groups. CONCEPT Support for Conventionalism 10 Most people in Dave's culture volunteer an hour every other week at a local food shelf. In addition to this, Dave also helps coordinate volunteers and fills in for people who can't make their hour. What would a conventionalist call Dave's actions? · Impermissible · Supererogatory · Neutral · Obligatory CONCEPT Commitments of Conventionalism 11 Which of the following scenarios would be neutral for an egoist? · Lamar lies about having done his homework so that he won't get in trouble with his parents. · Luna joins the armed forces so she can give something back to her nation and guarantee a future for her society. · Larry refuses to participate in his neighborhood watch because it takes too much of his time and energy. · Leah has a hard time deciding between the University of Minnesota and Notre Dame, but she picks Notre Dame in the end. CONCEPT Commitments of Egoism 12 Which of the following observations poses a challenge to the cultural differences argument? · A lot of cultures agree that murder, stealing, and lying are wrong. · Each culture thinks its own moral framework is universal. · Some cultures are utilitarian, while others are egoist. · Many cultures disagree on the ultimate purpose of morality. CONCEPT Problems with Conventionalism 13 Which of the following statements in support of divine command theory is true? · Divine command theory cannot provide clear motivations for being moral. · Divine command theory does not provide a clear basis for ethics. · Divine command theory can be a source of comfort. · The ultimate basis for divine command theory ethics can be found in the empirical world. CONCEPT Support for Divine Command Theory 14 According to an egoist, working hard to succeed in order to take care of oneself and one’s needs is good because __________. · societal standards demand it · hard work is valued by all · individual flourishing is the sole basis for ethics · it sets a positive example for others CONCEPT Applying Egoism 15 After moving to a new city, Rachel continues to support her hometown's baseball team. A friend tells her she has to support her new city's team, but Rachel points out that God hasn't said anything on the matter. In Rachel's view, her action is __________ according to divine command theory. · obligatory · impermissible · supererogatory · neutral CONCEPT Commitments of Divine Command Theory 1 Which of the following statements supports egoism? · Working to meet the demands of the larger society can lead to prosperity. · A society is more just if it distributes rewards to everyone equally. · All actions should be aimed at the greater good of society. · Self-determined ethics are more successful than ethics dictated by others. CONCEPT Support for Egoism 2 The idea that people ought to act only in their own self interest is part of what kind of egoism? · Psychological egoism · Ethical egoism · Philosophical egoism · Logical egoism CONCEPT Egoism 3 Stefan is from Spain and is visiting Denmark. He finds himself very popular among native Danes because they like his casual and relaxed nature. When Stefan is invited to a local family’s home for dinner, he arrives late and is surprised that his hosts have seemingly taken offense. “This is how we do it in Spain,” he explained with a smile. “Dinner times are approximate and we arrive when we can.” “That is not how we do it in Denmark,” replied his host, rather stiffly. According to conventionalism, who has the stronger ethical stance— Stefan or his host? · Stefan, because by Spanish standards, he had arrived early. · Stefan, because his casual nature is why the Danes like him. · The host, because society functions best when individuals are punctual. · The host, because in Denmark, everyone is expected to arrive on time. CONCEPT Applying Conventionalism 4 Which of the following statements would you expect to hear from a conventionalist? · "Conventionalism is rooted in the idea that all cultures strive toward the same good." · "Conventionalists profess belief in objective morality." · "Conventionalism is a loose term that applies to many individual theories." · "Conventionalism provides a framework for comparing diverse cultures." CONCEPT Conventionalism 5 Which of the following people would most likely be satisfied with conventionalism? · Meriwether is looking for an ethical framework that values the world culture over local groups. · Mara is looking for an ethical framework that can account for changing cultural attitudes. · Malie is looking for an ethical framework that says, "Greed is good." · Martin is looking for an ethical framework that says, "You do you." CONCEPT Support for Conventionalism 6 Which of the following represents a difficulty with egoism? · Egoism does not allow the egoist to evaluate others based on his or her perspective. · Socially determined actions are usually more successful than self-determined actions. · Egoism is a core part of human nature, so denying it is denying someone's humanity. · Egoism maximizes each individual's pleasure, which is something everyone wants. CONCEPT Problems with Egoism 7 Quentin's faith teaches that God commands everyone to give at least ten percent of their income to the poor. Quentin usually gives fifteen percent. According to divine command theory, Quentin's action is __________. · obligatory · neutral · supererogatory · impermissible CONCEPT Commitments of Divine Command Theory 8 Which of the following represents a challenge to the intellectualist option of divine command theory? · The intellectualist option states that ethics are not outside or above God, but ethics must be interpreted by God. · “God makes commands because they are good” implies that something beyond God’s free command makes things good. · The intellectualist option places a false dichotomy between ethics and religion, thereby saying God has no ethical authority. · The intellectualist option is subjective, whereas divine command theory is supposed to be objective. CONCEPT Refutations of Divine Command Theory 9 Which of the following statements in support of divine command theory is true? · Divine command theory does not provide a clear basis for ethics. · The ultimate basis for divine command theory ethics can be found in the empirical world. · Divine command theory cannot provide clear motivations for being moral. · Divine command theory can be a source of comfort. CONCEPT Support for Divine Command Theory 10 Which of the following observations poses a challenge to the cultural differences argument? · If there were no universal ethical truths, it wouldn't be possible for cultures to have moral values at all. · Just because there is an objective truth doesn't mean everyone automatically knows it. · No culture has ever willingly assimilated to another culture's beliefs and norms. · Some cultures subscribe to ethical frameworks like divine command theory rather than conventionalism. CONCEPT Problems with Conventionalism 11 Which of the following statements about divine command theory is true? · Divine command theory states that right is right only because God says so. · Divine command theory states that what is religious is inherently good and what isn't is bad. · Divine command theory is a basic principle of all religions. · Divine command theory states that the ends justify the means. CONCEPT Divine Command Theory 12 According to an egoist, working hard to succeed in order to take care of oneself and one’s needs is good because __________. · it sets a positive example for others · societal standards demand it · hard work is valued by all · individual flourishing is the sole basis for ethics CONCEPT Applying Egoism 13 Which of the following scenarios would be impermissible for an egoist? · Keith gives up the comfort of home to realize his dream of playing in the NBA. · Katie picks up litter on the street because she wants to live in a clean neighborhood. · Krysta has some time to kill, so she sits in the mall and watches people go by. · Kevin works late, even though he doesn't get paid and has nothing to gain from it. CONCEPT Commitments of Egoism 14 Which of the following examples contains a disagreement between popular thought and divine command theory? · God says to keep the Sabbath holy, so many people don't have to work on the weekend. · God says, "Woe to those who are rich," but many people strive for wealth. · God forbids the worship of idols, so I only worship him. · God forbids divorce, so my wife and I didn't make a prenuptial agreement. CONCEPT Applying Divine Command Theory 15 Erika, like most people in her culture, grows flowers in her yard. What would a conventionalist call Erika's action? · Supererogatory · Neutral · Impermissible · Obligatory CONCEPT Commitments of Conventionalism 1 Which of the following statements would you expect to hear from a conventionalist? · "Conventionalism is rooted in the idea that all cultures strive toward the same good." · "Conventionalism is a loose term that applies to many individual theories." · "Conventionalists profess belief in objective morality." · "Conventionalism provides a framework for comparing diverse cultures." CONCEPT Conventionalism 2 Why is egoism considered a relativist theory of ethics? · Because right and wrong are subject to the individual agent. · Because it maintains that what is good applies to everyone equally. · Because it maintains that there are universal truths most people agree on. · Because it maintains that humans are not inherently selfish. CONCEPT Egoism 3 Which of the following represents a challenge to divine command theory? · Divine command theory relies on sacred texts that are silent on some issues. · Divine command theory does not offer a firm basis for morality. · Divine command theory is too relative. · Divine command theory doesn't give a compelling reason for being good. CONCEPT Refutations of Divine Command Theory 4 Quentin's faith teaches that God commands everyone to give at least ten percent of their income to the poor. Quentin usually gives fifteen percent. According to divine command theory, Quentin's action is __________. · obligatory · supererogatory · neutral · impermissible CONCEPT Commitments of Divine Command Theory 5 Which of the following examples contains a disagreement between popular thought and divine command theory? · God says to love him above all else, a fact of which my mother often reminds me. · God forbids wearing mixed fibers, but most people aren't concerned with what their clothes are made of. · God commands people to be generous, so I give 10% of my paycheck to an organization that helps at-risk youth in my community. · God says to support the poor, so there are a lot of religious charities. CONCEPT Applying Divine Command Theory 6 Mai has moved to the United States from Myanmar. She does not know how to drive and is frightened by the freeways and traffic congestion. Her husband insists that she learn to drive because they live in a suburb with no public transportation. “No,” says Mai firmly. “I am 38 years old and I have always been able to reach my destination without driving a car.” According to conventionalism, who has the stronger ethical stance— Mai or her husband? · Mai, because she does not want to learn to drive. · Her husband, because he cannot transport Mai everywhere she needs to go. · Her husband, because driving is a societal norm in the United States. · Mai, because driving is not valued in her society like it is in the United States. CONCEPT Applying Conventionalism 7 Which of the following scenarios would be neutral for an egoist? · Lamar lies about having done his homework so that he won't get in trouble with his parents. · Leah has a hard time deciding between the University of Minnesota and Notre Dame, but she picks Notre Dame in the end. · Luna joins the armed forces so she can give something back to her nation and guarantee a future for her society. · Larry refuses to participate in his neighborhood watch because it takes too much of his time and energy. CONCEPT Commitments of Egoism 8 Which of the following represents a difficulty with egoism? · Egoism does not account for the agent's pain. · Egoism promotes the common good by putting individuals first. · Egoism does not allow for inherent human dignity. · Egoism is focused on positive effects for the agent. CONCEPT Problems with Egoism 9 Which of the following observations poses a challenge to the cultural differences argument? · Each culture thinks its own moral framework is universal. · A lot of cultures agree that murder, stealing, and lying are wrong. · Some cultures are utilitarian, while others are egoist. · Many cultures disagree on the ultimate purpose of morality. CONCEPT Problems with Conventionalism 10 Which of the following statements about divine command theory is true? · Divine command theory states that right is right only because God says so. · Divine command theory states that the ends justify the means. · Divine command theory is a basic principle of all religions. · Divine command theory states that what is religious is inherently good and what isn't is bad. CONCEPT Divine Command Theory 11 According to egoism, what might an egoist consider when faced with the issue of world hunger? · Governments of poor nations are obligated to feed their citizens. · We are obligated to do a better job distributing food. · We all have an obligation to ensure all people have access to food. · Individuals are obligated to feed themselves. CONCEPT Applying Egoism 12 Which of the following people would most likely be satisfied with conventionalism? · Karin is looking for an ethical framework that has a basis outside of humanity. · Keith is looking for an ethical framework that focuses on his own character. · Kelly is looking for an ethical framework that respects diverse traditions. · Kayden is looking for an ethical framework that says, "Right is right, even if nobody is right." CONCEPT Support for Conventionalism 13 Which of the following statements supports egoism? · A society is more just if it enforces laws for the benefit of everyone. · A flourishing society requires flourishing individuals. · The rule of law motivates actions for individuals. · Ethical standards are easily upheld when they benefit others. CONCEPT Support for Egoism 14 Which of the following statements in support of divine command theory is true? · Divine command theory can be a source of comfort. · Divine command theory cannot provide clear motivations for being moral. · Divine command theory does not provide a clear basis for ethics. · The ultimate basis for divine command theory ethics can be found in the empirical world. CONCEPT Support for Divine Command Theory 15 Most people in Dave's culture volunteer an hour every other week at a local food shelf. In addition to this, Dave also helps coordinate volunteers and fills in for people who can't make their hour. What would a conventionalist call Dave's actions? · Supererogatory · Obligatory · Impermissible · Neutral CONCEPT Commitments of Conventionalism 1 Which of the following scenarios would be neutral for an egoist? · Leah has a hard time deciding between the University of Minnesota and Notre Dame, but she picks Notre Dame in the end. · Lamar lies about having done his homework so that he won't get in trouble with his parents. · Larry refuses to participate in his neighborhood watch because it takes too much of his time and energy. · Luna joins the armed forces so she can give something back to her nation and guarantee a future for her society. CONCEPT Commitments of Egoism 2 Sadie goes into work on the Sabbath, despite God's commandment against doing so. According to divine command theory, Sadie's action is __________. · neutral · obligatory · impermissible · supererogatory CONCEPT Commitments of Divine Command Theory 3 Which of the following represents a difficulty with egoism? · Egoism does not account for the agent's pain. · Egoism promotes the common good by putting individuals first. · Egoism does not allow for inherent human dignity. · Egoism is focused on positive effects for the agent. CONCEPT Problems with Egoism 4 Which of the following statements in support of divine command theory is true? · Divine command theory does not tend to fulfill people’s emotional needs. · Divine command theory cannot provide clear motivations for being moral. · Divine command theory is reflective in that reason plays a role in determining right and wrong. · Divine command theory helps make sense of humanity's place in the world. CONCEPT Support for Divine Command Theory 5 Which of the following examples contains a disagreement between popular thought and divine command theory? · God forbids wearing mixed fibers, but most people aren't concerned with what their clothes are made of. · God says to love him above all else, a fact of which my mother often reminds me. · God commands people to be generous, so I give 10% of my paycheck to an organization that helps at-risk youth in my community. · God says to support the poor, so there are a lot of religious charities. CONCEPT Applying Divine Command Theory 6 Which of the following statements about divine command theory is true? · Divine command theory states that God's command is the only way to know right from wrong. · Divine command theory states that good and evil are determined by the conventions of each particular religion. · Divine command theory is inherently relativist. · Divine command theory is central to all religious practice. CONCEPT Divine Command Theory 7 Which of the following people would most likely be satisfied with conventionalism? · Karin is looking for an ethical framework that has a basis outside of humanity. · Kelly is looking for an ethical framework that respects diverse traditions. · Keith is looking for an ethical framework that focuses on his own character. · Kayden is looking for an ethical framework that says, "Right is right, even if nobody is right." CONCEPT Support for Conventionalism 8 Which of the following statements supports egoism? · Advancing the greater good over self-interest creates progress. · Rewarding all athletic participants equally leads to more competitive play. · The rule of law motivates actions for individuals. · Individual entrepreneurs often benefit society. CONCEPT Support for Egoism 9 Which of the following represents a challenge to the voluntarist option of divine command theory? · God's commands can anticipate any situation. · God's commands are not meant for everyone. · God's commands have no basis in reason. · God has no free choice and is thus just an agent. CONCEPT Refutations of Divine Command Theory 10 Which of the following observations poses a challenge to the cultural differences argument? · Morality is objective, so there are universal ethical truths. · No two cultures have the same ethical framework. · Even if two cultures disagree, there can still be a right answer. · Some cultures are descended from common ancestors. CONCEPT Problems with Conventionalism 11 Why is egoism unique among ethical theories? · It is the only theory to acknowledge conflicting interests as harmful to a system of ethics. · It is the only theory to explain the way things ought to be in regards to what is right and wrong. · It is the only theory to maintain that there are no universal truths regarding what is good. · It is the only theory to equate what is good to what is performed in the name of self-interest. CONCEPT Egoism 12 Mai has moved to the United States from Myanmar. She does not know how to drive and is frightened by the freeways and traffic congestion. Her husband insists that she learn to drive because they live in a suburb with no public transportation. “No,” says Mai firmly. “I am 38 years old and I have always been able to reach my destination without driving a car.” According to conventionalism, who has the stronger ethical stance— Mai or her husband? · Mai, because she does not want to learn to drive. · Her husband, because he cannot transport Mai everywhere she needs to go. · Mai, because driving is not valued in her society like it is in the United States. · Her husband, because driving is a societal norm in the United States. CONCEPT Applying Conventionalism 13 Which of the following statements would you expect to hear from a conventionalist? · "Cultures don't differ much in what they call good." · "Some things are always wrong no matter the culture." · "Some cultures are closer to the objective truth than others." · "There are no moral truths that apply universally." CONCEPT Conventionalism 14 Most people in Dave's culture volunteer an hour every other week at a local food shelf. In addition to this, Dave also helps coordinate volunteers and fills in for people who can't make their hour. What would a conventionalist call Dave's actions? · Obligatory · Impermissible · Supererogatory · Neutral CONCEPT Commitments of Conventionalism 15 According to egoism, what might an egoist consider when faced with the issue of world hunger? · We are obligated to do a better job distributing food. · We all have an obligation to ensure all people have access to food. · Governments of poor nations are obligated to feed their citizens. · Individuals are obligated to feed themselves. CONCEPT Applying Egoism Mai has moved to the United States from Myanmar. She does not know how to drive and is frightened by the freeways and traffic congestion. Her husband insists that she learn to drive because they live in a suburb with no public transportation. “No,” says Mai firmly. “I am 38 years old and I have always been able to reach my destination without driving a car.” According to conventionalism, who has the stronger ethical stance— Mai or her husband? · Her husband, because he cannot transport Mai everywhere she needs to go. · Mai, because she does not want to learn to drive. · Mai, because driving is not valued in her society like it is in the United States. · Her husband, because driving is a societal norm in the United States. Frances, like most people in her culture, avoids making eye contact with strangers. What would a conventionalist call the action of making eye contact with strangers? · Impermissible · Neutral · Supererogatory · Obligatory Which of the following statements would you expect to hear from a conventionalist? · "The most important culture is the world's culture." · "The effects of an action on the culture determine its morality." · "Morality cannot be compared across cultural borders." · "A culture's customs are unrelated to ethical truths." According to egoism, what might an egoist think about when compelled to serve on a jury? · It is a fair system when a panel of ordinary citizens are obligated to pass judgment. · I have an important project at work I am obligated to complete this week. · The criminal justice system is obligated to work for all people. · We are obligated to honor the Constitution and its directive that everyone has a right to face a jury. Which of the following scenarios would be obligatory for an egoist? · Madison brings a wallet she found on the ground to the police station rather than keeping it for herself. · Michelle lets her husband decide what to eat since she's fine either way. · Malachi sees an opportunity to cheat and get ahead at work, so he takes it. · Rather than take his dream vacation, Milo serves as a foster parent so children can have a stable home. Which of the following people would most likely be satisfied with conventionalism? · Lee is looking for an ethical framework that requires newcomers to assimilate. · · Laura is looking for an ethical framework that uses consequences to justify actions. · · Levi is looking for an ethical framework that judges actions based on the kind of people who do them. · · Lucy is looking for an ethical framework that provides a sense of final justice. · Michelle is visiting a Muslim country. She doesn't know what to expect because she knows that some Muslim societies expect women to wear a head-scarf when they are outdoors. When she gets off of the airplane, Michelle immediately notices that all the women in the airport are wearing head-scarves. According to conventionalism, which action would be most appropriate for Michelle to take? · Buy a head scarf and keep it in her purse in case someone tells her to put it on. · Let her hair show because she isn’t Muslim. · Buy a head-scarf and put it on. · Tie her hair back and put on a baseball cap. 1 Ingrid believes local businesses have obligations to their community. Which branch of ethics does Ingrid's belief represent? · Descriptive ethics · Normative ethics · Metaethics CONCEPT Branches of Ethics 2 Which of the following is a deductive argument? · Traffic is very heavy today. When traffic is heavy, I take the bus to work. I will take the bus to work today. · It has snowed on my birthday every year since I was born. Therefore, it will snow on my birthday this year. · Every time I’ve visited the farmer’s market, I’ve found heirloom tomatoes. So, this week when I go to the farmer’s market, I will find heirloom tomatoes. · Helen was seen exiting the alley after a robbery had taken place. It follows that Helen committed the robbery. CONCEPT Deductive and Inductive Inference 3 Which of the following is an argument? · If I go to Washington D.C. next weekend, then I'll get you a souvenir. · I begin my day with a one-mile run, a shower, and a healthy breakfast. · Janet studies every day and takes notes in class. She will probably do well in the class for that reason. · Not getting enough sleep on a regular basis is a problem for many adults. CONCEPT Introduction to Arguments 4 Susan is studying the morality of taking terminally ill patients off life support. After thorough research and consideration of many different views, she argues that doctors have a moral obligation to use whatever means are available to preserve a patient's life. Which step of philosophical inquiry has Susan done? · Advance a thesis and justification · Specify your question · Evaluate positions · Identify positions on the question CONCEPT The Philosophical Approach to Inquiry 5 Which of the following considerations is ethically relevant to a person who's buying a new car? · Does a convertible make sense in my city's climate zone? · Will driving this car make people think I'm having a midlife crisis? · Can I afford a new car, or do I have to buy used? · Will this car keep my family and me safe on the road? CONCEPT Actions and Events 6 Which of the following is a benefit of philosophy? · Philosophy maintains society's collective memory. · Philosophy defends what is traditional in society. · Philosophy is useful as a tool to justify personal opinions. · Philosophy improves understanding of argumentation. CONCEPT Benefits of Philosophy and Ethics 7 Russ plays the bassoon. Most bassoon players can easily learn the saxophone. It's therefore likely that Russ could easily learn the saxophone. Which type of argument is this? · Invalid deductive · Weak inductive · Valid deductive · Strong inductive CONCEPT Evaluating the Structure of an Argument 8 An argument is valid, and its premises are true. Which of the following terms best describes the argument? · Unsound · Sound · Cogent · Uncogent CONCEPT Evaluating an Argument 9 Many people confuse topics of religion, social etiquette, and law with ethical topics. Select the example related to law. · I am the only insured driver, so my daughter cannot drive the rental car. · We tipped the server 25% because he did an excellent job. · Nancy was baptized when she was a baby. · Jack allows a woman with children to board the airplane first. CONCEPT Ethical and Non-Ethical Topics 10 Which of the following is a philosophical question? · Will you continue with your college education? · What time does the movie start on Friday? · How many people are religious? · What is the best system of morality? CONCEPT Philosophical and Non-Philosophical Inquiry 11 Because she is a teacher who works with children, Yuki is required by law to report suspected abuse. One day a student says that his dad frequently hits him after having a drink. Despite the boy's insistence that it's a secret, Yuki informs the school office, which calls the authorities. Yuki's decision constitutes a(n) __________ action. · obligatory · neutral · impermissible · supererogatory CONCEPT The Evaluation of Actions 12 Which of the following statements is true of ethics? · Right and wrong are purely subjective. · The goal of ethics is to search for truths in order to be a better person. · Ethics is only important in the workplace. · Ethics is about doing whatever it takes to get ahead. CONCEPT Introduction to Philosophical Ethics 13 Which of the following is the best definition for philosophy? · The pursuit of truths that cannot be determined empirically · A method of explaining the fundamental nature of existence · The study of using argumentation and logic to persuade others · A set of beliefs that is accepted as true without evidence CONCEPT Introduction to Philosophy 14 Which of the following statements reflects objectivism? · Stealing can be right or wrong depending on the individual. · The same ethical standards apply to all cultures. · Ethical truths can change as circumstances change. · It is not possible to generalize one universal standard for morality. CONCEPT Categorizing Ethical Theories 15 Consider the following argument: (1) Mortgage rates are at an all time low. (2) It is therefore a good time to buy a home. (3) Also, property values have been increasing over the last five years, and (4) a number of new homes in my neighborhood are for sale. Which of the four numbered statements is the conclusion? · 3 · 1 · 4 · 2 CONCEPT Premises and Conclusions 1 The following statements are all part of one argument. Which one is the conclusion? · Children who haven't seen their mothers in more than a week miss their mothers. · A month is longer than a week. · Jenny hasn't seen her mother in a month. · Jenny misses her mother. CONCEPT Premises and Conclusions 2 What is the goal of philosophy? · To pursue truth · To justify beliefs · To persuade others · To gain self-knowledge CONCEPT Introduction to Philosophy 3 Which of the following is a philosophical question? · How do we define what counts as art? · On average, how many babies are born a day? · Would you rather see a movie or a play? · What is the average top speed of a cheetah? CONCEPT Philosophical and Non-Philosophical Inquiry 4 Ingrid believes local businesses have obligations to their community. Which branch of ethics does Ingrid's belief represent? · Descriptive ethics · Normative ethics · Metaethics CONCEPT Branches of Ethics 5 Which of the following statements is true of ethics? · Ethics is concerned with right and wrong. · Ethical behavior is restricted to professional contexts. · The good and the bad are always self-evident. · The goal of ethics is to justify your own behavior. CONCEPT Introduction to Philosophical Ethics 6 Which of the following is an inductive argument? · Mary is on vacation. If Mary is on vacation, then she will not be able to attend the baby shower today. Therefore, Mary will not be able to attend the baby shower today. · There are two cans of cat food in the cupboard beneath the kitchen sink. There are three cans of cat food in the cupboard next to the sink. There is no other cat food in the house. Therefore, there are five cans of cat food. · My new car has a built-in GPS. My friend’s new car has a built-in GPS, and so does my mom’s new car. It follows that all new cars have a built-in GPS. · Jane, David, and Luke are a small family. Jane has brown eyes. David and Luke have brown eyes, too. Thus, all members of the family have brown eyes. CONCEPT Deductive and Inductive Inference 7 Which of the following is a valid deductive argument? · For over five decades, fantasy fiction has been very popular. It will probably continue to be popular in the coming decade. · Smith is one of the most common last names in the United States. My friend Todd is a very common person. Therefore, Todd's last name is Smith. · All cyclists are health-conscious. Byron is health-conscious. Therefore, Byron is a cyclist. · Every time it snows, the roads need to be plowed. It is supposed to snow later today. Therefore, the roads will need to be plowed later today. CONCEPT Evaluating the Structure of an Argument 8 Which of the following is an argument? · Donuts are the best breakfast food. I had one this morning. · If you don't water your plants, they will wilt. If you water them, they will be healthy. If you fertilize them, they will be healthier. · I got eight hours of sleep and ate a healthy breakfast. Therefore, I am going to have a great day. · Every time your phone rings, your brain releases a chemical called dopamine. CONCEPT Introduction to Arguments 9 Which of the following considerations is ethically relevant to a person who's buying a new car? · Will this car keep my family and me safe on the road? · Will driving this car make people think I'm having a midlife crisis? · Does a convertible make sense in my city's climate zone? · Can I afford a new car, or do I have to buy used? CONCEPT Actions and Events 10 Ricardo and Monica volunteered to serve food at their church picnic during the 8-10 AM shift. At the end of their shift, they noticed that the kitchen was still pretty busy, so they continued to help through the next shift. Most people would likely say their decision is an example of a(n) __________ action. · obligatory · neutral · impermissible · supererogatory CONCEPT The Evaluation of Actions 11 Susan is studying the morality of taking terminally ill patients off life support. After thorough research and consideration of many different views, she argues that doctors have a moral obligation to use whatever means are available to preserve a patient's life. Which step of philosophical inquiry has Susan done? · Specify your question · Identify positions on the question · Advance a thesis and justification · Evaluate positions CONCEPT The Philosophical Approach to Inquiry 12 Many people confuse topics of religion, social etiquette, and law with ethical topics. Select the example related to law. · Beth approves of same-sex marriage, but her mother says it is a sin. · Don masks his income to avoid paying income taxes for twenty years. · Kendra neglects to RSVP to an invitation to a close friend’s small wedding. · Grandpa always chews with his mouth open at family gatherings. CONCEPT Ethical and Non-Ethical Topics 13 Which of the following is a benefit of philosophy? · Philosophy more easily explains social problems. · Philosophy harnesses passion to reveal truths. · Philosophy improves critical thinking skills. · Philosophy makes everyone's opinion equal. CONCEPT Benefits of Philosophy and Ethics 14 An argument is strong and the conclusion is true, but both premises are false. Which of the following terms best describes the argument? · Cogent · Uncogent · Sound · Unsound CONCEPT Evaluating an Argument 15 Which of the following statements reflects subjectivism? · Dennis says that morality depends on the situation. · Dennis says that morality is a personal choice. · Dennis says that morality is universal. · Dennis says that morality is dictated by a person's culture. Which of the following is an inductive argument? · My new cell phone charges to full capacity in 30 minutes. My best friend’s new cell phone does the same thing, and so does my sister’s. It follows that all new cell phones recharge in 30 minutes. · Michael and Laura and their two children make a family of four. Michael and Laura have blond hair. Their children have blond hair, too. Thus, all members of the family have blond hair. · Bruce is not feeling well. If Bruce is ill, he will not be able to attend classes today. Therefore, Bruce will not attend classes today. · There are seven employees that are on assignment today. There are two employees that are in the office. There are no other employees. Therefore, there are nine employees. Which of the following is an argument? · There's not a cloud in the sky today, so you should wear sunscreen if you go outside. · If I don't go out tonight, I won't be crabby tomorrow. · My coworkers are all eating lunch. I'm not eating lunch, though. · Everyone should try learning an instrument at some point. Which of the following considerations is relevant to a person whose elderly parents are sick but refuse to make an appointment at the doctor? · Does she have medical expertise? · Is it her place to make decisions for her parents? · Which days of the week are appointments available? · Who has treated their illnesses in the past? Judy owns a bookstore/cafe that has always done pretty well. However, a new competitor recently opened a block away, and Judy's business has decreased. Which of the following decisions would likely constitute an impermissible action on Judy's part? · Judy buys stock in the competitor's business until she's the majority shareholder. · Judy invents a distasteful rumor about her competitor and tells it to her customers. · Judy launches a marketing campaign focused on her business' benefit to the local community. · Judy writes a letter to her competitors asking why they opened their store so close to hers. Kevin has thoroughly researched whether artificial intelligence can have free will. In order to continue his philosophical inquiry, what should Kevin's next step be? · Kevin should reframe his question to be about whether humans have free will. · Kevin should choose a side and look for arguments that support it. · Kevin should choose a side based on how many arguments there are in favor of it. · Kevin should carefully consider each argument for or against artificial intelligence having free will. Jerome conducts a survey to see how many of his neighbors believe they have a moral duty to report suspicious activity to the police. He finds that 8 in 10 believe they have such a duty. Which branch of ethics do the results of Jerome's survey represent? · Metaethics · Normative ethics · Descriptive ethics Consider the following argument: (1) I should get a raise (2) because I complete all my projects prior to the deadline, (3) I arrive at work early and stay late, (4) and I always receive positive comments on my work. Which of the four numbered statements is the conclusion? · 4 · 1 · 2 · 3 An argument is invalid, but the conclusion is true. Which of the following terms best describes the argument? · Uncogent · Cogent · Sound · Unsound Which of the following is a philosophical question? · Can one sport be objectively better than another? · What is the capital of the United States? · How many people live in poverty in the world? · When was the first World Series played? Which of the following actions represents the step, "Identify positions on the question"? · A law student weighs arguments on the interpretation of a particular law against decisions from the Supreme Court. · An undergraduate argues that funding for school-sponsored clubs should be based on the number of active members. · A medical student asks a professor whether a certain drug is effective against the flu. · A graduate student spends several hours in the library reading books on a particular ethical issue. Which of the following statements is true of ethics? · Objectivity is vital to ethical thought. · Ethical principles are just personal opinions. · Ethics is not subject to the same level of rigor as other philosophical pursuits. · Ethical behavior has little to do with interpersonal interaction. Which of the following statements about philosophy is true? · Philosophy is a way to answer questions about the physical universe without observation. · Philosophy is quite interesting, despite having little or no application in other fields. · Philosophy is concerned with seeking and recognizing knowledge. · Philosophy is obsolete due to advances in scientific inquiry. Which of the following statements is an example of metaethics? · Killing whales is always wrong, no matter the reasoning. · Boy Scouts have a moral obligation to help the elderly cross the street. · Kantian deontology is the correct ethical theory. · Most people believe in some form of utilitarianism. Which of the following is a key benefit of philosophy? · Philosophy teaches us about other cultures. · Philosophy identifies ways we can improve relationships. · Philosophy helps us understand how people behave. · Philosophy allows us to construct logical arguments. Which of the following considerations is ethically relevant to a person who's been asked for money on the street? · Have I given money to beggars before? · What is the beggar's race? · Do I have cash on me right now? · Is giving money the best way to help? Many people confuse topics of religion, social etiquette, and law with ethical topics. Select the example related to social etiquette. · Nathan talks loudly on his cell phone while standing in line at the store. · Tara installs a wheelchair ramp at her business to meet government regulations. · Anthony follows the flow of traffic, even if he is exceeding the speed limit. · Marcy disapproves of working on Sundays because she was taught it was a day of rest. Which of the following is a weak inductive argument? · Krista's favorite composer is Tchaikovsky. Jason also likes Tchaikovsky. Jason and Krista probably have a lot in common. · · Most nurses are good people. Andrew is a nurse. Andrew is probably a good person. · · Things that are blue are sad. The sky is blue, so it must be sad. · · People who like wine think they're a big deal. Aaron thinks he's a big deal, so he must like wine. · Consider the following argument: (1) Mortgage rates are at an all time low. (2) It is therefore a good time to buy a home. (3) Also, property values have been increasing over the last five years, and (4) a number of new homes in my neighborhood are for sale. Which of the four numbered statements is the conclusion? · 3 · · 4 · · 2 · · 1 · Consider the following argument: (1) I should get a raise (2) because I complete all my projects prior to the deadline, (3) I arrive at work early and stay late, (4) and I always receive positive comments on my work. Which of the four numbered statements is the conclusion? · 3 · 4 · 2 · 1 An argument is valid, and its premises are true. Which of the following terms best describes the argument? · Sound · Cogent · Unsound · Uncogent "Treating animals inhumanely is morally wrong because it shows insensitivity on the part of the farmer." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? · Virtue-based ethics · Utilitarianism · Egoism · Kantian deontology Natalie helps her brother move into his new home. How might a virtue-based ethicist classify this action? · Supererogatory · Neutral · Impermissible · Obligatory [Show More]

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In Browsegrades, a student can earn by offering help to other student. Students can help other students with materials by upploading their notes and earn money.

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