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NCLEX NURS 2500 Chapter 05: Theoretical Foundations of Nursing Practice Potter et al: Canadian Fundamentals of Nursing, 6th Edition

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Chapter 05: Theoretical Foundations of Nursing Practice Potter et al: Canadian Fundamentals of Nursing, 6th Edition MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. How is the idea of a theory best explained? 2. Differen... t types of theories may be used by nurses seeking to study the basis of nursing practice. The theory about wNhy pRhenIomeGna Boc.cCur isMwhich of the following? a. Prescriptive. 3. A body of knowledge that encompasses definitions of person, environment, health, and nursing is referred to as which of the following? 4. Within a health care system that is based on Betty Neuman’s theory, what is the nurse’s goal in caring for a patient who is having difficulty breathing and requires oxygen and medication? NURSINGTB.COM 5. Although the different nursing theories have similarities, key elements distinguish one from another. What is the emphasis of Jean Watson’s conceptual model? 6. A community health nurse is working with a variety of patients and decides to use a systems theory approach to help them to meet their health care needs. When using systems theory, the nurse focuses on which of the following? 7. While working on a postoperative unit, the nurse is applying elements of self-care theory and is assisting a patient to attain and manage self-care in wound management. Who was the nursing pioneer who developed this theory? 8. What is an element that is key to the framework for practice in Martha Rogers’s theory? The framework for practice, according to Rogers’s theory, consisted of presenting the patient of nursing not simply as a person but as an energy field in constant interaction with the environment, which itself was also an irreducible energy field, coextensive with the universe. Nursing’s role was to focus upon the life process of a human being along a time–space continuum. Rosemarie Parse, in her theory of human becoming (1997), viewed the individual as a unitary being who is “indivisible, unpredictable, and ever-changing” and “a freely choosing being who can be recognized through paradoxical patterns co-created all-at-once in mutual process with the universe.” Nightingale’s theory includes manipulation of the patient’s environment (i.e., appropriate noise, nutrition, hygiene, light, comfort, socialization, and hope) in the framework for practice. Dorothy Johnson’s theory includes seven categories of behaviour and behavioural balance in the framework for practice. DIF: Understand REF: 71 OBJ: Describe selected theories of nursing practice and differentiate between them. TOP: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance 9. Whose theory is most pertinent in assisting the nurse who is helping a patient focus on stress reduction? a. Hildegard Peplau’s. b. Virginia Henderson’s. c. Betty Neuman’s. d. Rosemarie Parse’s. ANS: C Neuman’s theory focuses on stress reduction as the goal of the systems model of nursing practice. Peplau’s theory focuses on interpersonal relationships between nurses and patients and the interactive, therapeutic nature of the nursing process. Henderson’s theory focuses on the 14 basic human needs. ParsUe’sStheoNry TfocusesOon the notion of nurses’ engagement with, and care of, people in a continuous process of making choices and changing health priorities. DIF: Apply REF: 69-71 OBJ: Describe selected theories of nursing practice and differentiate between them. TOP: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance 10. What does the theorizing term proposition mean? a. A purposeful set of assumptions. b. A declarative assertion. c. The process of formulating concepts. d. The structure that links concepts together. ANS: B A proposition is a declarative assertion. A purposeful set of assumptions is a theory. The process of formulating concepts is conceptualization. The structure that links concepts together is a conceptual framework. DIF: Understand REF: 64 (Table 5-1) OBJ: Describe relationships between theorizing and other forms of nursing knowledge. TOP: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment 11. What is a characteristic of complexity science? a. Patterns of knowledge application. b. A rigid approach for describing experiences. c. Reducing phenomena to smallest properties. d. Orientation toward studying the nature of people’s needs. ANS: C Complexity science consists of dynamic and interactive phenomena reduced to the smallest properties that can be observed within their natural context so that their interactions can be interpreted with as little interference as possible from prior assumptions. Patterns of knowledge application are not characteristic of complexity science. Complexity science is not a rigid approach for describing experiences, and it is not characterized by an orientation toward studying the nature of people’s needs. DIF: Understand REF: 67 OBJ: Interpret current debates surrounding various theories of nursing practice. TOP: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment 12. What is a current concern with the use of the nursing diagnoses approved by the North American Nursing Diagnoses Association (NANDA)? a. NANDA’s list stifles critical thinking. b. NANDA’s list should replace conceptual nursing models. c. NANDA’s list is an inherent barrier to individualized care. d. NANDA’s list does not reflect practical diagnoses. ANS: C NANDA’s list of nursing diagnoses is recognized by many nurses as a system that relies entirely upon an agreement about what constitutes average wellness and illness experiences. As such, it can create worrisome barriers to the individualized care of patients. NANDA’s list of nursing diagnoses may stifNle cRriticIal tGhinkBin.gC, buMt this has not been recognized as a concern; it is often considered to be less thorough than conceptual models of nursing, as it involves only one aspect of caring for patients; and it does reflect practical diagnoses. DIF: Understand REF: 67 OBJ: Describe challenges inherent in theorizing about nursing practice. TOP: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment 13. In the late 1980s, the shift in scholarly work regarding nursing theories challenged nurses when theorizing to include consider what type of knowledge? a. Clinical. b. Intuitive. c. Theoretical. d. Substantive. ANS: D Afaf Meleis (1987) challenged nurses to direct their theorizing away from the processes by which nurses use knowledge and toward the equally challenging issues associated with the substance of that knowledge—that is, to include substantive knowledge. Neither clinical knowledge nor intuitive knowledge was related to this challenge. Theoretical knowledge had been the focus of theorizing for many years before the late 1980s. DIF: Understand REF: 71 OBJ: Appreciate the role of “theorizing” about the essence of nursing. TOP: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. Interactionist theories focused on the relationships between nurses and their patients. Which of the following were interactionist theorists? (Select all that apply.) a. Hildegard Peplau b. Dorothea Orem c. Joyce Travelbee d. Evelyn Adam e. Betty Neuman ANS: A, C, D Hildegard Peplau, Joyce Travelbee, and Evelyn Adam were all interactionist theorists. Dorthea Orem was a needs theorist, and Betty Neuman was a systems theorist. DIF: Apply REF: 69-70 OBJ: Describe selected theories of nursing practice and differentiate between them. TOP: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance NURSINGTB.COM [Show More]

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