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Test bank for Psychology 4th Edition by Daniel L. Schacter (Answers key at the end)

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I. Psychology is the scientific study of: A) mind and body. B) mind and behaviour. C) mood and behaviour. D) mood and body. 2. Psychology is the scientific study of mind and behaviour. Behav... iour refers to: A) perceptions, thoughts, memories, and feelings. B) explanations. C) urges. D) observable actions of humans and nonhuman animals. 3. Today, psychologists believe that mental processes: A) arise from electrical and chemical activities of the brain. B) arise from a nonphysical mind interacting with the pineal gland in the brain. C) are not proper subject matter for science research. D) usually are not adaptive in helping us function effectively in the world. 4. Today, most psychologists would agree with which statement concerning mental processes? A) The scientific method cannot be applied to mental processes. B) Mental processes are nonphysical entities that control the brain and body. C) Mental processes arise from brain functioning. D) Mental processes are the only subject matter worthy of study in psychology. 5. Using __ , Krings et al. (2000) demonstrated that the brains of professional piano players were __ active than novice players when both groups made finger movements like those involved in piano play. A) fMRl; more B) tMRl; less C) CT scans; more D) CT scans; less 6. The case of Elliot, as documented by Damasio ( 1994), suggests that: A) cognitive functioning can be severely impaired while emotion remains unaffected. B) emotions usually interfere with adaptive behaviour. Page I Test bank for Psychology 4th Edition by Daniel L. Schacter C) even negative emotions such as anxiety and sorrow have adaptive functions. D) emotion and intelligence share a common neural substrate. 7. William James (1890) believed that the influence of __ could help explain absentmindedness. A) habit B) sleep deprivation C) emotions D) personality 8. Which is the primary reason why modern psychologists study lapses, errors, and mistakes in behaviour and cognition? A) They are more intriguing than normal psychological functioning. B) They allow us to learn about the normal operations of mental life and behaviour. C) They provide a window into the sexual urges of the unconscious. D) They vividly illustrate the fact that most psychological functioning is not adaptive. 9. The early roots of psychology are firmly planted in physiology and in: A) anatomy. B) logic. C) dualism. D) philosophy. IO. Some early philosophers believed that certain kinds of knowledge were innate or inborn, a theory known as: A) functionalism. B) nativism. C) philosophical empiricism. D) structuralism. 11. Which early philosopher was interested in certain kinds of knowledge as being innate or inborn? A) Hippocrates B) Plato C) Aristotle D) Descartes Page2 Test bank for Psychology 4th Edition by Daniel L. Schacter 12. The older position of nativism is reflected in psychological views that emphasize the effect of on behaviour. A) nurture B) intuition C) schemas D) nature 13. Plato is to as Aristotle is to A) philosophical structuralism; nativism B) nativism; philosophical empiricism C) nativism; dualism D) dualism; nativism 14. Nature is to nurture as nativism is to: A) experience. B) adaptation. C) behaviourism. D) phrenology. 15. Some early philosophers believed that all knowledge was acquired through experience, an idea now known as: A) functionalism. B) philosophical empiricism. C) structuralism. D) nativism. 16. The notion that the mind at birth is a tabula rasa is consistent with the views of: A) Plato. B) Descartes. C) Aristotle. D) Gall. 17. The fact that very young children almost universally master the basics of language without formal training is most consistent. with: A) Plato's nativism. B) Gall's phrenology. C) Aristotle's philosophical empiricism. D) Locke's tabula rasa. Page 3 Test bank for Psychology 4th Edition by Daniel L. Schacter l8. The major limitation of the works of the classical Greek philosophers to an understanding of human behaviour is that: A) much of these works remains lost to history. B) differences among translations have fueled misunderstanding and debate. C) the works tended to underestimate the role of nurture in shaping human behaviour. D) these philosophers did not develop ways to test their theories. l9. __ believed that the mind and body are different from each other, and linked by the pineal gland. A) Gall. B) Hobbes. C) Descartes. D) Aristotle. 20. Descartes believed that the mind influences the body through the: A) pituitary gland. B) hippocampus. C) prefrontal cortex. D) pineal gland. 21. A spiritual leader believes that the soul and the body are fundamentally different from each other, but are linked via a special structure in the brain. His beliefs are similar to those of: A) Gall. B) Descartes. C) Hobbes. D) Broca. 22. The modem view that the subjective experience of having a mind is the result of brain activity can be traced to which philosopher? A) Hobbes B) Plato C) Descartes D) James 23. The problem of dualism refers to how: A) different areas in the brain control different types of behaviour and cognition. B) mental activity can be reconciled and coordinated with physical behaviour. Page4 Test bank for Psychology 4th Edition by Daniel L. Schacter C) brain activity produces consciousness. D) both genetic and environmental factors influence human behaviour. 24. Phrenology suggested that specific mental abilities and characteristics were located in specific regions of the brain. It was developed by: A) Descartes. B) Flourens. C) Gall. D) Broca. 25. Dr. Quack touches specific bumps on a patient's skull and then indicates specific character traits for the patient, for example, "This patient is cautious." Dr. Quack is engaging in: A) structuralism. B) phrenology. C) mesmensm. D) psychoanalysis. 26. After suffering a stroke, Lisa was able to understand what people said to her but was unable to speak to them. The stroke probably damaged her: A) pineal gland. B) Broca's area. C) hippocampus. D) temporal lobe. 27. The research ofFlourens and Broca: A) established phrenology as a true science. B) confirmed Descartes' belief that the mind and body were linked via the pineal gland. C) is consistent with the view of the mind held by Thomas Hobbes. D) demonstrated that mental processes can occur independently of brain activity. 28. The study of biological processes, especially those of the human body, is called: A) psychology. B) anatomy. C) phrenology. D) physiology. Page 5 Test bank for Psychology 4th Edition by Daniel L. Schacter 29. Penny wanted to find out how long it would take her sister Cathy to remove her finger from the flame of a lighted match. Penny is studying what type of process? A) classical conditioning B) introspection C) reaction time D) stimulus time 30. Hermann von Helmholtz is most remembered for: A) debunking phrenology. B) opening the fost laboratory to conduct purely psychological experiments. C) being the first to measure the speed of a nervous impulse. D) discovering the relation between emotion and the amygdala. 31. An acupuncturist asks you to respond as soon as you feel a pinprick as she stimulates your upper thigh, hamstring, calf, and foot with a needle. Based on Helmholtz's research, you will react most quickly when the __ is stimulated. A) upper thigh B) hamstring C) calf D) foot 32. Hermann von Helmholtz is to as Wilhelm Wundt is to A) phrenology; functionalism B) reaction time; structuralism C) reaction time; functionalism D) phrenology; structuralism 33. Historians generally credit the emergence of psychology as a science to: A) Wundt. B) Helmholtz. C) Watson. D) Titchener. 34. The first laboratory devoted exclusively to psychology as an independent field of study opened in: A) Paris in 1859. B) Leipzig in 1879. C) Berlin in 1889. D) Cornell University in 1909. Page 6 Test bank for Psychology 4th Edition by Daniel L. Schacter 35. Wundt believed that scientific psychology should focus on analyzing the basic elements comprising consciousness, an approach he called: A) functionalism. B) psychoanalysis. C) structuralism. D) dualism. 36. The analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind is: A) psychoanalysis. B) functionalism. C) structuralism. D) consciousness. 37. A person's subjective experience of the world and the mind is: A) empiricism. B) dualism. C) structuralism. D) consciousness. 38. What technique did psychologists who studied structuralism use? A) conditioning B) introspection C) psychoanalysis D) hypnosis 39. Presented with a stimulus, student observers in Wundt's lab were asked to report on their "raw" sensory experience, a technique known as: A) inspection. B) circumspection. C) retrospection. D) introspection. 40. A participant seated in an otherwise dark room stares at the flickering of a lit candle and reports on her subjective experiences, such as the visual experience of the candle flickering and the hepatic sensation of warmth. The psychologist conducting this experiment is most likely to be and the method being used is __ . A) Wundt; psychoanalysis Page 7 Test bank for Psychology 4th Edition by Daniel L. Schacter B) Wundt; introspection C) James; functionalism D) Titchener; functionalism 4 I. In one experiment, Wundt instructed participants in one group to concentrate on perceiving a tone when it sounded before pressing a button. Participants in another group were simply instructed to press the button as soon as the tone sounded. Wundt found that participants in the fust group responded slightly more slowly. Th.is experiment was designed to distinguish between: A) the sensation and perception of a stimulus. B) reaction time and accuracy. C) the perception and interpretation of a stimulus. D) the sensation of a stimulus and reaction time. 42. Which psychologist established the structuralism school of psychology in the United States? A) John Watson B) Edward Titchener C) G. Stanley Hall D) William James 43. Edward Titchener is known for: A) establishing structuralism in the United States. B) writing a devastating critique of the functionalist works of John Watson. C) establishing the behaviourist concentration within psychology. D) writing Beyond Freedom and Dignity. 44. Whereas Wundt was interested in the relationship between the elements of consciousness, Titchener was interested in identifying the: A) basic elements themselves. B) functional value of those elements. C) behavioural correlates of those elements. D) cross-cultural differences in those elemental relationships. 45. The unpredictable nature of results from introspection contributed to the decline of: A) empiricism. B) functionalism. C) humanism. D) structuralism. Page 8 Test bank for Psychology 4th Edition by Daniel L. Schacter 46. The major reason why structuralism ultimately failed as a school of psychology was that: A) by associating itself with Darwin it drew harsh criticism from some religious authorities. B) there was no evidence suggesting that Freud's theories were accurate. C) the methods used by structuralists did not produce replicable observations. D) it denied the existence of the mind. 47. William James was a noted: A) structuralist. B) behaviourist. C) functionalist. D) empiricist. 48. The study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling us to adapt to our environment is called: A) structuralism. B) social Darwinism. C) functionalism. D) behaviourism. 49. William James is to as Wilhelm Wundt is to A) functionalism; behaviourism B) functionalism; structuralism C) structuralism; behaviourism D) structuralism; functionalism 50. Which school of psychology was most concerned with the adaptive importance of mental processes? A) structuralism B) functionalism C) behaviourism D) empmc1sm 51. William James's school of functionalism was most influenced by the works of: A) B. F. Skinner. B) Wilhelm Wundt. Page 9 Test bank for Psychology 4th Edition by Daniel L. Schacter C) Charles Darwin. D) Rene Descartes. 52. William James viewed consciousness as similar to: A) a flowing stream. B) the parts of an atom. C) an explanatory fiction. D) the parts of a clock. 53. The functionalist approach was MOST influenced by the theory of: A) phrenology. B) nativism. C) natural selection. D) psychodynamics. 54. Research participants are asked to rotate a three-dimensional object in their minds. William James would be MOST interested in which research question? A) What are the subjective experiences of the participants as they do this task? B) In what ways does the ability to manipulate objects in the mind aid problem solving in the real world? C) At what age does this ability develop? D) What are the unconscious processes underlying this task? 55. Studies have demonstrated that we attend to only a fraction of the sensory information that the brain receives. Based on this information, William James would be MOST interested in which research question? A) What are the basic elements of sensory information? B) Do unattended sensory experiences exist in the unconscious? C) Will more information be perceived if participants are reinforced by cash incentives for better attention? D) Why might it be advantageous for the mind to filter out most sensory information? 56. Wundt argued that James's approach to psychology was flawed because James: A) relied too much on introspection as a research method. B) did not conduct much laboratory research. C) unnecessarily constrained his research to observable behaviour. D) advocated a theory inconsistent with the tenets of natural selection. [Show More]

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