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HESI V3 PN Exit Exam. 110 Questions & Answers and Rationale.

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HESI V3 PN Exit Exam. 110 Questions & Answers and Rationale. 1. An adult client experiences a gasoline tank fire when riding a motorcycle and is admitted to the emergency department (ED) with ful... l thickness burns to all surfaces of both lower extremities. What percentage of body surface area should the nurse document in the electronic medical record (EMR)? • 9 % • 18 % • 36 % • 45 % 2. A client with hyperthyroidism is receiving propranolol (Inderal). Which finding indicates that the medication is having the desired effect? • Decrease in serum T4 levels • Increase in blood pressure • Decrease in pulse rate • Goiter no longer palpable 3. An older male client with type 2 diabetes mellitus reports that has experiences legs pain when walking short distances, and that the pain is relieved by rest. Which client behavior indicates an understanding of healthcare teaching to promote more effective arterial circulation? • Consistently applies TED hose before getting dressed in the morning. • Frequently elevated legs thorough the day. • Inspect the leg frequently for any irritation or skin breakdown • Completely stop cigarette/ cigar smoking. 4. A community health nurse is concerned about the spread of communicable diseases among migrant farm workers in a rural community. What action should the nurse take to promote the success of a healthcare program designed to address this problem? • Establish trust with community leaders and respect cultural and family values 5. The nurse performs a prescribed neurological check at the beginning of the shift on a client who was admitted to the hospital with a subarachnoid brain attack (stroke). The client’s Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score is 9. What information is most important for the nurse to determine? • The client’s previous GCS score • When the client’s stroke symptoms started • If the client is oriented to time • The client’s blood pressure and respiration rate 6. The charge nurse in a critical care unit is reviewing clients’ conditions to determine who is stable enough to be transferred. Which client status report indicates readiness for transfer from the critical care unit to a medical unit? • Chronic liver failure with a hemoglobin of 10.1 and slight bilirubin elevation 7. Based on principles of asepsis, the nurse should consider which circumstance to be sterile? • One inch- border around the edge of the sterile field set up in the operating room • A wrapped unopened, sterile 4x4 gauze placed on a damp table top. • An open sterile Foley catheter kit set up on a table at the nurse waist level • Sterile syringe is placed on sterile area as the nurse riches over the sterile field. 8. An unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) reports that a client’s right hand and fingers spasms when taking the blood pressure using the same arm. After confirming the presence of spams what action should the nurse take? • Ask the UAP to take the blood pressure in the other arm • Tell the UAP to use a different sphygmomanometer. • Review the client’s serum calcium level • Administer PRN antianxiety medication. 9. A 56-years-old man shares with the nurse that he is having difficulty making decision about terminating life support for his wife. What is the best initial action by the nurse? • Provide an opportunity for him to clarify his values related to the decision • Encourage him to share memories about his life with his wife and family • Advise him to seek several opinions before making decision • Offer to contact the hospital chaplain or social worker to offer support. 10. A client is being discharged home after being treated for heart failure (HF). What instruction should the nurse include in this client’s discharge teaching plan? • Weigh every morning • Eat a high protein diet • Perform range of motion exercises • Limit fluid intake to 1,500 ml daily 11. A woman just learned that she was infected with Heliobacter pylori. Based on this finding, which health promotion practice should the nurse suggest? • Encourage screening for a peptic ulcer 12. A client who recently underwear a tracheostomy is being prepared for discharge to home. Which instructions is most important for the nurse to include in the discharge plan? • Teach tracheal suctioning techniques 13. A child with heart failure is receiving the diuretic furosemide (Lasix) and has serum potassium level 3.0 mEq/L. Which assessment is most important for the nurse to obtain? • Cardiac rhythm and heart rate. • Daily intake of foods rich in potassium. • Hourly urinary output • Thirst ad skin turgor. 14. The nurse note a depressed female client has been more withdrawn and non-communicative during the past two weeks. Which intervention is most important to include in the updated plan of care for this client? • Encourage the client’s family to visit more often • Schedule a daily conference with the social worker • Encourage the client to participate in group activities • Engage the client in a non-threatening conversation. 15. A client with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) starts a new prescription of etanercept (Enbrel) subcutaneously once weekly. The nurse should emphasize the importance of reporting problem to the healthcare provider? • Headache • Joint stiffness • Persistent fever • Increase hunger and thirst 16. The nurse is assessing an older adult with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Which assessment finding indicates that the client understands long- term control of diabetes? • The fating blood sugar was 120 mg/dl this morning. • Urine ketones have been negative for the past 6 months • The hemoglobin A1C was 6.5g/100 ml last week • No diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in 6 months. 17. An older male client is admitted with the medical diagnosis of possible cerebral vascular accident (CVA). He has facial paralysis and cannot move his left side. When entering the room, the nurse finds the client’s wife tearful and trying unsuccessfully to give him a drink of water. What action should the nurse take? • Ask the wife to stop and assess the client’s swallowing reflex 18. A 13 years-old client with non-union of a comminuted fracture of the tibia is admitted with osteomyelitis. The healthcare provider collects home aspirate specimens for culture and sensitivity and applies a cast to the adolescent’s lower leg. What action should the nurse implement next? • Administer antiemetic agents • Bivalve the cast for distal compromise • Provide high- calorie, high-protein diet • Begin parenteral antibiotic therapy 19. The nurse is preparing a community education program on osteoporosis. Which instruction is helpful in preventing bone loss and promoting bone formation? • Recommend weigh bearing physical activity 20. A client with a history of chronic pain requests a nonopioid analgesic. The client is alert but has difficulty describing the exact nature and location of the pain to the nurse. What action should the nurse implement next? • Administer the analgesic as requested 21. A male client receives a thrombolytic medication following a myocardial infarction. When the client has a bowel movement, what action should the nurse implement? • Send stool sample to the lab for a guaiac test • Observe stool for a day-colored appearance. • Obtain specimen for culture and sensitivity analysis • Asses for fatty yellow streaks in the client’s stool. 22. The mother of a child with cerebral palsy (CP) ask the nurse if her child’s impaired movements will worsen as the child grows. Which response provides the best explanation? • Brain damage with CP is not progressive but does have a variable course 23. During shift report, the central electrocardiogram (EKG) monitoring system alarms. Which client alarm should the nurse investigate first? • Respiratory apnea of 30 seconds 24. In early septic shock states, what is the primary cause of hypotension? • Peripheral vasoconstriction • Peripheral vasodilation • Cardiac failure • A vagal response 25. A client diagnosed with calcium kidney stones has a history of gout. A new prescription for aluminum hydroxide (Amphogel) is scheduled to begin at 0730. Which client medication should the nurse bring to the healthcare provider’s attention? • Allopurinol (Zyloprim) • Aspirin, low dose • Furosemide (lasix) • Enalapril (vasote) 26. A male client’s laboratory results include a platelet count of 105,000/ mm3 Based on this finding the nurse should include which action in the client’s plan of care? • Cluster care to conserve energy • Initiate contact isolation • Encourage him to use an electric razor • Asses him for adventitious lung sounds 27. A client is admitted to the hospital after experiencing a brain attack, commonly referred to as a stroke or cerebral vascular accident (CVA). The nurse should request a referral for speech therapy if the client exhibits which finding? • Abnormal responses for cranial nerves I and II • Persistent coughing while drinking • Unilateral facial drooping • Inappropriate or exaggerated mood swings 28. At 1615, prior to ambulating a postoperative client for the first time, the nurse reviews the client’s medical record. Based on date contained in the record, what action should the nurse take before assisting the client with ambulation: • Remove sequential compression devices. • Apply PRN oxygen per nasal cannula. • Administer a PRN dose of an antipyretic. • Reinforce the surgical wound dressing. 29. Which assessment finding for a client who is experiencing pontine myelinolysis should the nurse report to the healthcare provider? • Sudden dysphagia • Blurred visual field • Gradual weakness • Profuse diarrhea 30. A client is scheduled to receive an IW dose of ondansetron (Zofran) eight hours after receiving chemotherapy. The client has saline lock and is sleeping quietly without any restlessness. The nurse caring for the client is not certified in chemotherapy administration. What action should the nurse take? • Ask a chemotherapy-certified nurse to administer the Zofran • Administer the Zofran after flushing the saline lock with saline • Hold the scheduled dose of Zofran until the client awakens • Awaken the client to assess the need for administration of the Zofran. 31. When providing diet teaching for a client with cholecystitis, which types of food choices the nurse recommend to the client? • High protein • Low fat • Low sodium • High carbohydrate. 32. A client with a history of cirrhosis and alcoholism is admitted with severe dyspnea and ascites. Which assessment finding warrants immediate intervention by the nurse? • Jaundice skin tone • Muffled heart sounds • Pitting peripheral edema • Bilateral scleral edema 33. When entering a client’s room, the nurse discovers that the client is unresponsive and pulseless. The nurse initiate CPR and Calls for assistance. Which action should the nurse take next? • Prepare to administer atropine 0.4 mg IVP • Gather emergency tracheostomy equipment • Prepare to administer lidocaine at 100 mg IVP • Place cardiac monitor leads on the client’s chest. 34. A client with a history of dementia has become increasingly confused at night and is picking at an abdominal surgical dressing and the tape securing the intravenous (IV) line. The abdominal dressing is no longer occlusive, and the IV insertion site is pink. What intervention should the nurse implement? • Replace the IV site with a smaller gauge. • Redress the abdominal incision • Leave the lights on in the room at night. • Apply soft bilateral wrist restraints. 35. An adult male client is admitted to the emergency room following an automobile collision in which he sustained a head injury. What assessment data would provide the earliest that the client is experiencing increased intracranial pressure (ICP)? • Lethargy • Decorticate posturing • Fixed dilated pupil • Clear drainage from the ear. 36. In preparing a diabetes education program, which goal should the nurse identify as the primary emphasis for a class on diabetes self-management? • Prepare the client to independently treat their disease process • Reduce healthcare costs related to diabetic complications • Enable clients to become active participating in controlling the disease process • Increase client’s knowledge of the diabetic disease process and treatment options. 37. To reduce staff nurse role ambiguity, which strategy should the nurse manager implemented? • Confirm that all the staff nurses are being assigned to equal number of clients. • Review the staff nurse job description to ensure that it is clear, accurate, and recurrent. • Assign each staff nurse a turn unit charge nurse on a regular, rotating basis. • Analyze the amount of overtime needed by the nursing staff to complete assignments. 38. The nurse is assisting a new mother with infant feeding. Which information should the nurse provide that is most likely to result in a decrease milk supply for the mother who is breastfeeding? • Supplemental feedings with formula • Maternal diet high in protein • Maternal intake of increased oral fluid • Breastfeeding every 2 or 3 hours. 39. Which assessment is more important for the nurse to include in the daily plan of care for a client with a burned extremity? • Range of Motion • Distal pulse intensity • Extremity sensation • Presence of exudate 40. An elderly client with degenerative joint disease asks if she should use the rubber jar openers that are available. The nurse’s response should be based on which information about assistive devices? • They decrease the risk for joint trauma 41. When assessing a 6-month old infant, the nurse determines that the anterior fontanel is bulging. In which situation would this finding be most significant? • Crying • Straining on stool • Vomiting • Sitting upright. 42. A client with angina pectoris is being discharge from the hospital. What instruction should the nurse plan to include in this discharge teaching? • Engage in physical exercise immediately after eating to help decrease cholesterol levels. • Walk briskly in cold weather to increase cardiac output • Keep nitroglycerin in a light-colored plastic bottle and readily available. • Avoid all isometric exercises, but walk regularly. 43. What is the priority nursing action when initiating morphine therapy via an intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pump? • Initiate the dosage lockout mechanism on the PCA pump • Instruct the client to use the medication before the pain becomes severe • Assess the abdomen for bowel sounds. • Assess the client ability to use a numeric pain scale 44. While undergoing hemodialysis, a male client suddenly complains of dizziness. He is alert and oriented, but his skin is cool and clammy. His vital signs are: heart rate 128 beats/minute, respirations 18 breaths/minute, and blood pressure 90/60. Which intervention should the nurse implement first? • Raise the client’s legs and feet 45. The nurse receives a newborn within the first minutes after a vaginal delivery and intervenes to establish adequate respirations. What priority issue should the nurse address to ensure the newborn’s survival? • Heat loss • Hypoglycemia • Fluid balance • Bleeding tendencies 46. The fire alarm goes off while the charge nurse is receiving the shift report. What action should the charge nurse implement first? • Tell the staff to keep all clients and visitors in the client rooms with the doors closed 47. A 60-year-old female client asks the nurse about hormones replacement therapy (HRT) as a means preventing osteoporosis. Which factor in the client’s history is a possible contraindication for the use of HRT? • Her mother and sister have a history of breast cancer 48. A male client, who is 24 hours postoperative for an exploratory laparotomy, complains that he is “starving” because he has had no “real food” since before the surgery. Prior to advancing his diet, which intervention should the nurse implement? • Auscultate bowel sounds in all four quadrants 49. The nurse working in the psychiatric clinic has phone messages from several clients. Which call should the nurse return first? • A family member of a client with dementia who has been missing for five hours 50. During change of shift, the nurse reports that a male client who had abdominal surgery yesterday increasingly confused and disoriented during the night. He wandered into other clients rooms, saying that there are men in his room trying to hurt him. Because of continuing disorientation and the client’s multiple attempts to get of bed, soft restrains were applied at 0400. In what order should the nurse who is receiving report implement these interventions? (Arrange from first action on top to last on the bottom). 1. Assess the client’s skin and circulation for impairment related to the restrains 2. Evaluate the client’s mentation to determine need to continue the restrains 3. Assign unlicensed assistive personnel to remove restrains and remain with client 4. Contact the client’s surgeon and primary healthcare provider 51. A mother brings her 3-year-old son to the emergency room and tells the nurse the he has had an upper respiratory infection for the past two days. Assessment of the child reveals a rectal temperature of 102 F. he is drooling and becoming increasingly more restless. What action should the nurse take first? • Notify the healthcare provider and obtain a tracheostomy tray 52. After receiving the first dose of penicillin, the client begins wheezing and has trouble breathing. The nurse notifies the healthcare provider immediately and received several prescriptions. Which medication prescription should the nurse administer first? • Epinephrine Injection, USP IV 53. Two clients ring their call bells simultaneously requesting pain medication. What action should the nurse implement first? • Evaluate both client’s pain using a standardized pain scale 54. A client receives a new prescription for simvastatin (Zocor) 5 mg PO daily at bedtime. What action should the nurse take? • Administer the medication as prescribed with a glass of water 55. Which client should the nurse assess frequently because of the risk for overflow incontinence? A client • Who is confused and frequently forgets to go to the bathroom 56. While monitoring a client during a seizure, which interventions should the nurse implement? (Select all that apply) • Move obstacle away from client • Monitor physical movements • Observe for a patent airway • Record the duration of the seizure 57. A male client with a long history of alcoholism is admitted because of mild confusion and fine motor tremors. He reports that he quit drinking alcohol and stopped smoking cigarettes one month ago after his brother died of lung cancer. Which intervention is most important for the nurses to include in the client’s plan of care? • Determine client’s level current blood alcohol level. • Observe for changes in level of consciousness. • Involve the client’s family in healthcare decisions. • Provide grief counseling for client and his family. 58. An older adult female admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with a possible stroke is intubated with ventilator setting of tidal volume 600, PlO2 40%, and respiratory rate of 12 breaths/minute. The arterial blood gas (ABG) results after intubation are PH 7.31. PaCO2 60, PaO2 104, SPO2 98%, HCO3 23. To normalize the client’s ABG finding, which action is required? • Report the results to the healthcare provider. • Increase ventilator rate. • Administer a dose of sodium carbonate. • Decrease the flow rate of oxygen. 59. The mother of the 12- month-old with cystic fibrosis reports that her child is experiencing increasing congestion despite the use of chest physical therapy (CPT) twice a day, and has also experiences a loss of appetite. What instruction should the nurse provide? • Perform CPT after meals to increase appetite and improve food intake. • CPT should be performed more frequently, but at least an hour before meals. • Stop using CPT during the daytime until the child has regained an appetite. • Perform CPT only in the morning, but increase frequency when appetite improves. 60. The nurse is evaluating the diet teaching of a client with hypertension. What dinner selection indicates that the client understands the dietary recommendation for hypertension? • Baked pork chop, applesauce, corn on the cob, 2% milk, and key-lime pie 61. A client with type 2 diabetes mellitus is admitted for frequent hyperglycemic episodes and a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) of 10%. Insulin glargine 10 units subcutaneously once a day at bedtime and a sliding scale with insulin aspart q6h are prescribed. What action should the nurse include in this client’s plan of care? • Fingerstick glucose assessment q6h with meals • Mix bedtime dose of insulin glargine with insulin aspart sliding scale dose • Review with the client proper foot care and prevention of injury • Do not contaminate the insulin aspart so that it is available for iv use • Coordinate carbohydrate controlled meals at consistent times and intervals • Teach subcutaneous injection technique, site rotation and insulin management 62. Which problem reported by a client taking lovastatin requires the most immediate fallow up by the nurse? • Diarrhea and flatulence • Abdominal cramps • Muscle pain • Altered taste 63. While assessing a client’s chest tube (CT), the nurse discovers bubbling in the water seal chamber of the chest tube collection device. The client’s vital signs are: blood pressure of 80/40 mmHg, heart rate 120 beats/minutes, respiratory rate 32 breaths/minutes, oxygen saturation 88%. Which interventions should the nurse implement? • Provide supplemental oxygen • Auscultate bilateral lung fields • Administer a nebulizer treatment • Reinforce occlusive CT dressing • Give PRN dose of pain medication 64. Before leaving the room of a confused client, the nurse notes that a half bow knot was used to attach the client's wrist restraints to the movable portion of the client's bed frame. What action should the nurse take before leaving the room? • Ensure that the knot can be quickly released. • Tie the knot with a double turn or square knot. • Move the ties so the restraints are secured to the side rails. • Ensure that the restraints are snug against the client's wrist. 65. Oral antibiotics are prescribed for an 18-month-old toddler with severe otitis media. An antipyrine and benzocaine-otic also prescribed for pain and inflammation. What instruction should the nurse emphasize concerning the installation of the antipyrine/benzocaine otic solution? • Place the dropper on the upper outer ear canal and instill the medication slowly. • Warm the medication in the microwave for 10 seconds before instilling. • Keep the medication refrigerated between administrations. • Have the child lie with the ear up for one to two minute after installation. 66. An older adult male is admitted with complications related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). He reports progressive dyspnea that worsens on exertion and his weakness has increased over the past month. The nurse notes that he has dependent edema in both lower legs. Based on these assessment findings, which dietary instruction should the nurse provide? • Limit the intake of high calorie foods. • Eat meals at the same time daily. • Maintain a low protein diet. • Restrict daily fluid intake. 67. The nurse inserts an indwelling urinary catheter as seen in the video what action should the nurse take next? • Remove the catheter and insert into urethral opening • Observe for urine flow and then inflate the balloon. • Insert the catheter further and observe for discomfort. • Leave the catheter in place and obtain a sterile catheter. 68. A client with coronary artery disease who is experiencing syncopal episodes is admitted for an electrophysiology study (EPS) and possible cardiac ablation therapy. Which intervention should the nurse delegate to the unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP)? • Prepare the skin for procedure. • Identify client's pulse points • Witness consent for procedure • Check telemetry monitoring 69. Fallowing an outbreak of measles involving 5 students in an elementary school, which action is most important for the school nurse to take? • Review the immunization records of all children in the elementary school • Report the measles outbreak to all community health organizations • Schedule a mobile public health vehicle to offer measles inoculations to unvaccinated children. • Restrict unvaccinated children from attending school until measles outbreak is resolved. 70. A preeclamptic client who delivered 24h ago remains in the labor and delivery recovery room. She continues to receive magnesium sulfate at 2 grams per hour. Her total input is limited to 125 ml per hour, and her urinary output for the last hour was 850 ml. What intervention should the nurse implement? • discontinue the magnesium sulfate immediately • Decrease the client's iv rate to 50 ml per hour • Continue with the plan of care for this client • Change the client's to NPO status 71. The nurse is planning care for a client who admits having suicidal thoughts. Which client behavior indicates the highest risk for the client acting on these suicidal thoughts? • Express feelings of sadness and loneliness • Neglects personal hygiene and has no appetite • Lacks interest in the activity of the family and friends • Begin to show signs of improvement in affect 72. When assessing a multigravida the first postpartum day, the nurse finds a moderate amount of lochia rubra, with the uterus firm, and three fingerbreadths above the umbilicus. What action should the nurse implement first? • Massage the uterus to decrease atony • Check for a destined bladder • Increase intravenous infusion • Review the hemoglobin to determined hemorrhage 73. A 12 year old client who had an appendectomy two days ago is receiving 0.9% normal saline at 50 ml/hour. The client's urine specific gravity is 1.035. What action should the nurse implement? • Evaluate postural blood pressure measurements • Obtain specimen for uranalysis • Encourage popsicles and fluids of choice • Assess bowel sounds in all quadrants 74. An older male client arrives at the clinic complaining that his bladder always feels full. He complains of weak urine flow, frequent dribbling after voiding, and increasing nocturia with difficulty initiating his urine stream. Which action should the nurse implement? • Obtain a urine specimen for culture and sensitivity • Palpate the client's suprapubic area for distention • Advise the client to maintain a voiding diary for one week • Instruct in effective technique to cleanse the glans penis 75. The nurse is preparing to administer 1.6 ml of medication IM to a 4 month old infant. Which action should the nurse include? • Select a 22 gauge 1 ½ inch (3.8 cm) needle for the intramuscular injection • Administer into the deltoid muscle while the parent holds the infant securely • Divide the medication into two injection with volumes under 1ml • Use a quick dart-like motion to inject into the dorsogluteal site. 76. A client who had a below the knee amputation is experiencing severe phantom limb pain (PLP) and ask the nurse if mirror therapy will make the pain stop. Which response by the nurse is likely to be most helpful? • Research indicates that mirror therapy is effective in reducing phantom limb pain • You can try mirror therapy, but do not expect to complete elimination of the pain • Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators (TENS) have been found to be more effective • Where did you learn about the use of mirror therapy in treating in treating phantom limb pain? 77. An older adult client with heart failure (HF) develops cardiac tamponade. The client has muffled, distant, heart sounds, and is anxious and restless. After initiating oxygen therapy and IV hydration, which intervention is most important for the nurse to implement? • Observe neck for jugular vein distention • Notify healthcare provider to prepare for pericardiocentesis • Asses for paradoxical blood pressure • Monitor oxygen saturation (Sp02) via continuous pulse oximetry 78. A new member joins the nursing team spreads books on the table, puts items on two chairs, and sits on a third chair. The members of the group are forced to move closer and remove their possessions from the table what action should the nurse leader take? • Move to welcome and accommodate a new person • Ask the new person to move belonging to accommodate others • Tell the new person to move belongings because of limited space • Bring in additional chairs so that all staff members can be seated 79. The nurse is caring for a one week old infant who has a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt that was placed 2 days after birth. Which findings are an indication of a postoperative complication? • Poor feeding and vomiting • Leakage of CSF from the incisional site • Hyperactive bowel sound • Abdominal distention • WBC count of 10000/mm3 80. The nurse is preparing a heparin bolus dose of 80 units/kg for a client who weighs 220 pounds. Heparin sodium injection, USP is available in a 3o ml multidose vial with the concentration of 1,000 USP units/ml. how many ml of heparin should the nurse administer? (Enter numeric value only) • 8 81. In monitoring tissue perfusion in a client following an above the knee amputation (aka), which action should the nurse include in the plan of care? • Evaluate closet proximal pulse. • Asses skin elasticity of the stump. • Observe for swelling around the stump. • Note amount color of wound drainage. 82. The leg of a client who is receiving hospice care have become mottled in appearance. When the nurse observes the unlicensed assistive personal (UAP) place a heating pad on the mottled areas, what action should the nurse take? • Remove the heating pads and place a soft blanket over the client’s leg and feet. • Advise the UAP to observe the client’s skin while the heating pads are in place. • Elevate the client’s feet on a pillow and monitor the client’s pedal pulses frequently. • Instruct the UAP to reposition the heating pads to the sides of the legs and feet. 83. A client who underwent an uncomplicated gastric bypass surgery is having difficult with diet management. What dietary instruction is most important for the nurse to explain to the client? • Chew food slowly and thoroughly before attempting to swallow • Plan volume-controlled evenly-space meal thorough the day • Sip fluid slowly with each meal and between meals • Eliminate or reduce intake fatty and gas forming food 84. If the nurse is initiating IV fluid replacement for a child who has dry, sticky mucous membranes, flushed skin, and fever of 103.6 F. Laboratory finding indicate that the child has a sodium concentration of 156 mEq/L. What physiologic mechanism contributes to this finding? • The intravenous fluid replacement contains a hypertonic solution of sodium chloride • Urinary and Gastrointestinal fluid loss reduce blood viscosity and stimulate thirst • Insensible loss of body fluids contributes to the hemoconcentration of serum solutes • Hypothalamic resetting of core body temperature causes vasodilation to reduce body heat 85. During a Woman’s Health fair, which assignment is the best for the Practical Nurse (PN) who is working with a register nurse (RN) • Encourage the woman at risk for cancer to obtain colonoscopy. • Present a class of breast-self examination • Prepare a woman for a bone density screening • Explain the follow-up need it for a client with prehypertension. 86. An adult client present to the clinic with large draining ulcers on both lower legs that are characteristics of Kaposi’s sarcoma lesions. The client is accompanied by two family member. Which action should the nurse take? • Ask family member to wear gloves when touching the patient • Send family to the waiting area while the client’s history is taking • Obtain a blood sample to determine is the client is HIV positive • Complete the head to toes assessment to identify other sign of HIV 87. An adult client is exhibit the maniac stage of bipolar disorder is admitted to the psychiatric unit. The client has lost 10 pounds in the last two weeks and has no bathed in a week “I’m trying to start a new business and “I’m too busy to eat”. The client is oriented to time, place, person but not situation. Which nursing problem has the greatest priority? • Hygiene-self-care deficit • Imbalance nutrition • Disturbed sleep pattern • Self-neglect 88. The nurse is preparing a discharge teaching plan for a client who had a liver transplant. Which instruction is most important to include in this plan? • Limit intake fatty foods for one month after surgery. • Notify the healthcare provider if edema occurs. • Increase activity and exercise gradually, as tolerated. • Avoid crowds for first two months after surgery. 89. The nurse is assessing a client’s nailbeds. Witch appearance indicates further follow-up is needed for problems associated with chronic hypoxia? • 90. A client who had a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) two weeks ago returns to the clinic for a follow up visit. The client has a postoperative ejection fraction ejection fraction of 30%. Today the client has lungs which are clear, +1 pedal edema, and a 5pound weight gain. Which intervention the nurse implement? • Arrange transport for admission to the hospital. • Insert saline lock for IV diuretic therapy. • Assess compliance with routine prescriptions. • Instruct the client to monitor daily caloric intake. 91. The RN is assigned to care for four surgical clients. After receiving report, which client should the nurse see first? The client who is • Two days postoperative bladder surgery with continuous bladder irrigation infusing. • One day postoperative laparoscopic cholecystectomy requesting pain medication. • Three days postoperative colon resection receiving transfusion of packed RBCs. • Preoperative, in buck’s traction, and scheduled for hip arthroplasty within the next 12 hours. 92. The nurse is preparing an older client for discharge following cataract extraction. Which instruction should be include in the discharge teaching? • Do not read without direct lighting for 6 weeks. • Avoid straining at stool, bending, or lifting heavy objects. • Irrigate conjunctiva with ophthalmic saline prior to installing antibiotic ointment. • Limit exposure to sunlight during the first 2 weeks when the cornea is healing. 93. The healthcare provider prescribes potassium chloride 25 mEq in 500 ml D_5W to infuse over 6 hours. The available 20 ml vial of potassium chloride is labeled, “10 mEq/5ml.” how many ml of potassium chloride should the nurse add the IV fluid? (Enter numeric value only. If is rounding is required, round to the nearest tenth.) • 12.5 94. At 40 week gestation, a laboring client who is lying is a supine position tells the nurse that she has finally found a comfortable position. What action should the nurse take? • Encourage the client to turn on her left side. • Place a pillow under the client’s head and knees. • Explain to the client that her position is not safe. • Place a wedge under the client’s right hip. 95. A client with a history of diabetes and coronary artery disease is admitted with shortness of breath, anxiety, and confusion. The client’s blood pressure is 80/60 mmHg, heart rate 120 beats/minute with audible third and fourth heart sounds, and bibasilar crackles. The client’s average urinary output is 5 ml/hour. Normal saline is infusing at 124 ml/hour with a secondary infusion of dopamine at mcg/kg/minute per infusion pump. With intervention should the nurse implement? • Irrigate the indwelling urinary catheter. • Prepare the client for external pacing. • Obtain capillary blood glucose measurement. • Titrate the dopamine infusion to raise the BP. 96. The nurse ends the assessment of a client by performing a mental status exam. Which statement correctly describes the purpose of the mental status exam? • Determine the client’s level of emotional functioning’ • Assess functional ability of the primary support system. • Evaluate the client’s mood, cognition and orientation. • Review the client’s pattern of adaptive coping skill 97. An older adult resident of a long-term care facility has a 5-year history of hypertension. The client has a headache and rate the pain 5 on a pain scale 0 to 10. The client’s blood pressure is currently 142/89. Which interventions should the nurse implement? (Select all that apply) • Administer a daily dose of lisinopril as scheduled. • Assess the client for postural hypotension. • Notify the healthcare provider immediately • Provide a PRN dose of acetaminophen for headache • Withhold the next scheduled daily dose of warfarin. 98. When conducting diet teaching for a client who is on a postoperative soft diet, which foods should eat? (Select all that apply) • Pasta, noodles, rice. • Egg, tofu, ground meat. • Mashed, potatoes, pudding, milk. • Brussel sprouts, blackberries, seeds. • Corn bran, whole wheat bread, whole grains. 99. The nurse is preparing a 4-day-old I infant with a serum bilirubin level of 19 mg/dl (325 micromol/L) for discharge from the hospital. When teaching the parents about home phototherapy, which instruction should the nurse include in the discharge teaching plan? • Reposition the infant every 2 hours. • Perform diaper changes under the light. • Feed the infant every 4 hours. • Cover with a receiving blanket. 100. When planning care for a client with acute pancreatitis, which nursing intervention has the highest priority? • Withhold food and fluid intake. • Initiate IV fluid replacement. • Administer antiemetic as needed. • Evaluate intake and output ratio. [Show More]

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