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Unit 1 Milestone Statistics Fundamentals,100% CORRECT

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Researchers want to test the effects of a new weight loss program. They believe that gender is a significant factor. The participants are divided by gender. Then, within each group, participants ar... e randomly assigned to either the treatment or control group. Which of the following would be the most effective to test the effects of the new weight loss program? • A matched-pair design experiment • A completely randomized design experiment • A randomized block design experiment • A longitudinal observational study 2 It’s Saturday afternoon, and Denise is going shopping. She stops by a department store because she needs a new pair of shoes. She has picked out three styles that she likes. The store associate asks, “What is your shoe size?” Which type of question has the store associate asked? • Closed and binomial question • Closed question • Open question • Open and binomial question 3 In a study to assess the risk of obesity with the amount of time exercised per week, researchers matched each patient, in a sample of 500 people who are obese, with a person of the same ethnicity, gender, and age (along with other similar characteristics) who is not obese. The researchers asked the patients and their matches a series of questions, and then tracked eating and exercise habits regularly for several years. Which type of statistical study are the researchers conducting? • Retrospective study • Designed experiment • Case-control study • Prospective study 4 A factory manufactures motorcycles. One of its employees, working in the quality control department, checks the first 10 and the last 10 motorcycles manufactured in a day. This is what type of sampling? • Stratified sampling • Convenience sampling • Voluntary response sampling • Systematic sampling 5 A researcher would like to determine which age groups (18-29, 30-49, 50-64, 65 or older) in the United States currently identify playing golf as their favorite pastime. Which statistical study would be most appropriate to answer this question? • A census • A single-blind experiment • A prospective observational study • A survey 6 Which of these random samples represents a representative sample of the number of students in a middle school who walk to school? • 5 students in the hallway • 150 random students at lunch • 25 random 8th graders • All students in chess club 7 A local bakery conducts a phone survey to find the most popular types of cakes. They selected 100 random phone numbers from the local telephone directory and called them. This type of sampling method is called __________. • Simple random sampling • Multi-stage sampling • Systematic random sampling • Convenience sampling 8 Which of the following data types will be continuous? • The letter grades students received on a class quiz • The number of cars in 100 households • The number of children younger than ten that visited a planetarium last week • The total weight of apples harvested in the farm in a season 9 A student group on a college campus wanted to create a survey about parking availability on campus. The student group randomly selected 300 students to take the survey. One of the questions read, “Many students believe the lack of available parking is a major problem. Do you agree or disagree?” Of the 300 students that took the survey, 285 surveys were returned. This survey will most likely suffer from which of the following types of bias? • Non-response bias • Selection bias • Response bias • There is no bias in the way this survey is carried out. 10 In a bolt-manufacturing factory, it is estimated that 6% of the bolts being manufactured will be defective, with a 3% margin of error. Choose the statement that correctly describes the confidence interval. • The percentage of defective bolts is 6% or more. • The percentage of defective bolts is 6% or less. • The percentage of defective bolts is between 3% and 6%. • The percentage of defective bolts is between 3% and 9%. 11 Of 400 randomly selected people in the city of Lyon, France, 60 people had the first name Hugo. Which of these does NOT represent inferential statistics? • 15% of the people who live in Lyon have the first name Hugo. • 15% of the people who live in Europe have the first name Hugo. • 15% of the people surveyed have the first name Hugo. • 15% of the people who live in France have the first name Hugo. 12 The following shows the Consumer Price Index (CPI) for the years 2000-2005. All of the values use a reference year of 1983. Which of the following is true about the CPI, based on the information? • $100 in 1983 would be equivalent to $172.40 in 2000. • $100 in 2000 would be equivalent to $183.70 in 2003. • $100 in 2005 would be equivalent to $194.50 in 1983. • $100 in 2001 would have been worth 189.70 in 1983. 13 Jenae noticed that many of her co-workers would opt for the coffee that appeared to be most recently brewed, regardless of the flavor of the coffee offered. This leads her to believe that what she was witnessing was not really representative of everyone's true flavor preferences. She adapted her experimental study accordingly. Select one control in Jenae's experimental study. • Jenae monitors the habits of the co-workers who do not drink coffee. • Jenae makes sure that the coffee in different pots is brewed at the same time. • Jenae places condiments at random places throughout the kitchen. • Jenae uses different locations in the kitchen for the coffee pots. 14 Which of these statements best defines a stratified random sample? • It is a sample where every nth element of the population is selected in a sequence. • It is a sample where the population is first broken into groups and then elements are randomly selected, in proportion, from each group. • It is a sample in which every element has the same chance of being selected from the total population. • It is a sample where the population is divided into roughly equal groups, and then elements are randomly selected from each group. 15 James participated in an archery competition. He was allowed four attempts and was supposed to hit the bullseye in the center of the board. If the figure shows the positions of James' arrows, which of the following would best classify the arrangement of arrows? • Low accuracy and low precision • High accuracy and high precision • Low accuracy and high precision • High accuracy and low precision 16 A local gym conducts a survey among the people in a mall. Which survey question would have a qualitative response? • Do you exercise daily? • How much do you weigh, in pounds? • How many servings of fruits do you eat every day? • What is the amount of weight you can bench press, in pounds? 17 A retail brand plans to open its stores across all cities with a population of more than one million. To prepare for this, it refers to the past year's census done by the government. Which statement accurately describes the type of data the retail brand is using? • The retail brand is relying on raw data because it has to ask for permission to use the census. • The retail brand is relying on available data because customers provide information to the census. • The census is an example of raw data because the government provides it. • The census is an example of available data because the government provides it. 18 To determine what percentage of 376 teachers at a university were female, Ryan randomly selected 14 teachers. He then collected and analyzed his data. Select the statement that is TRUE. • None of the answer choices are true. • There are 376 teachers in Ryan's sample, and 14 teachers are in the population. • There are 14 teachers in Ryan's sample, and 376 teachers are in the population. • There are 14 teachers in Ryan's sample, and 362 teachers in the population. 19 James conducts a survey to study the relationship between cell phone use and grades earned during the fall semester. James suspects that there might be a lot of other factors that affect grades besides cell phones. Which of the following could be a confounding variable in James's study? • Time spent using a cell phone • Grade earned during the fall semester • Time spent studying • Grade earned during the spring semester 20 Jenae is able to purchase a different brand of coffee for half the price from a new supplier. She anticipated that her co-workers would object to switching to the new brand, as they were really partial to the coffee they have been drinking so far. Indeed, when offered a taste test of the old brand versus the new brand, her co-workers unanimously rejected the new brand. Jenae's boss, Steven, pointed out that this result was most likely due to the fact that the taste test was not ________. • randomized • controlled • replicated • blinded 21 The administrator of a hospital conducted a survey among patients in the cardiology wing to determine service levels of the nursing staff in the hospital. Which of the following explains how the results of the survey could be biased? • The sample does not include the staff members of the hospital. • The sample does not include the doctors of the hospital. • The sample does not include the board members of the hospital. • The sample does not include all the patients in the hospital. 22 Scientists want to test a new pair of running shoes. A speed test is performed with two separate groups of participants. The treatment group will wear the new pair of running shoes, while the control group will not. It is believed that age and height may affect speed. Which of the following would be most effective in controlling the confounding variables, such as age and height, in this study? • A completely randomized design experiment • A longitudinal observational study • A retrospective observational study • A matched-pair design experiment 23 A survey result shows that cell phone usage among teenagers rose from 63% in 2006 to 71% in 2008. Of the following choices, which statement about cell phone use among teenagers is true? • Cell phone usage rose by 11.2 percentage points. • Cell phone usage rose by 8%. • Cell phone usage rose by 12.7%. • Cell phone usage rose by 12.7 percentage points. 24 The blood bank at a hospital has 1,200 units of blood, out of which 37% units are of blood group B+. A clinical researcher randomly selects 300 units of blood and finds that 33% of those are of blood group B+. To test his result, he randomly selects 200 units of blood and finds that 40% of those are of blood group B+. Which of the following is the reason there is a difference between the two percentages selected by the researcher? • The sample sizes were both too small. • The samples were not random samples. • Both samples suffered from non-response bias. • Random error; the numbers were different due to variability inherent in sampling. 25 Nick designs a clinical trial to test a new anxiety medication by creating a control group and a treatment group. If he gives the medication to patients in the treatment group and not to the control group, some patients might find out that they're not being treated. To improve his study, Nick decides to give a sugar pill to the control group. The sugar pill is an example of a __________. • placebo • case control • confounding variable • variable of interest 26 The traffic volumes at a major intersection in New York were surveyed every day between one and four in the afternoon for a month to study the traffic patterns in the city. Which of the following types of bias affects the conclusions of the survey? • Selection bias • Non-response bias • Response bias • Deliberate bias 27 To test the effectiveness of a new, cholesterol-lowering drug, a group of researchers recruits 200 volunteers with high cholesterol to take part in a study. The researchers place the numbers 1 through 200 in a hat and have each participant select a number. Those who picked an odd number receive the new drug, while those who picked an even number receive a placebo. Which experimental design are the researchers using? • Representative Sample Design • Matched-Pair Design • Randomized Block Design • Completely Randomized Design 28 Select the correct statement regarding experiments. • A researcher can neither control the environment nor observe the response. • A researcher cannot control the environment but can observe the response. • A researcher can control the environment and observe the response. • A researcher can control the environment but cannot observe the response. 29 Cindy measured and recorded the temperature of a liquid for an experiment. She used a poorly calibrated thermometer and noted the temperature as 100.5 degrees Fahrenheit. The actual temperature of the liquid was 95 degrees Fahrenheit. The percent error in her calculation is __________. • 5.79% • -5.79% • 4.08% • -4.08% [Show More]

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